The document is structured in three
parts covering the key thematic areas of water supply
service delivery, sanitation service delivery, and overall
policy. Each part describes a series of different actions
that can be taken to improve service delivery to low-income
communities, outlines key lessons and challenges and
identifies the principles of good practice. This project is
aimed at developing a better understanding of the conditions
necessary for water and sanitation services to reach
low-income communities. It sought to build on the knowledge
and experience of the various actors currently involved in
delivering or supporting these services. One of the main
observations of the authors is that there is never just one
solution to any particular problem. Within each country
context, the key to a successful strategy lies in the
capacity of practitioners working in the water and
sanitation sector to innovate and to adapt solutions to
address local constraints and opportunities. This document
aims to: (i) describe the challenges facing service delivery
to low-income urban communities; (ii) outline key principles
that guide water and sanitation sector practitioners in the
delivery of services to the urban poor; and (iii) provide
tangible examples from a range of sub-saharan African
countries to illustrate these principles and challenges.
(Bibliography) References.; Includes text, location map, 3 ancillary maps, and 3 charts.; "October 1984"(on envelope).; Photocopy of envelope affixed on verso of map.; Title on envelope: Ground water withdrawals from the Floridan Aquifer in Clay County and portions of Bradford County 1983-1984.; (Funding) Technical publication (St. Johns River Water Management District, Fla.) ;; (Statement of Responsibility) by Richard L. Marella ; prepared by the St. Johns River Water Management District.
The first round of Country Status
Overviews (CSO1) published in 2006 benchmarked the
preparedness of sectors of 16 countries in Africa to meet
the Millenial Development Goals (MDGs) based on their
medium-term spending plans and a set of success factors
selected from regional experience. Combined with a process
of national stakeholder consultation, this prompted
countries to ask whether they had those success factors in
place and, if not, whether they should put them in place.
The African Ministers' Council on Water (AMCOW)
commissioned the production of a second round of Country
Status Overviews (CSO2s) to better understand what underpins
progress in water supply and sanitation and what its member
governments can do to accelerate that progress across
countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The analysis aims to
help countries assess their own service delivery pathways
for turning finance into water supply and sanitation
services in each of four subsectors: rural and urban water
supply, and rural and urban sanitation and hygiene. The CSO2
analysis has three main components: a review of past
coverage; a costing model to assess the adequacy of future
investments; and a scorecard which allows diagnosis of
particular bottlenecks along the service delivery pathway.
The CSO2 s contribution is to answer not only whether past
trends and future finance are sufficient to meet sector
This paper presents a case study of large- and small-scale irrigators negotiating for access to water from Nduruma River in the Pangani River Basin, Tanzania. The paper shows that despite the existence of a formal statutory water permit system, all users need to conform to the existing local rules in order to secure access to water. The spatial geography of Nduruma is such that smallholder farmers are located upstream and downstream, while large-scale irrigators are in the midstream part of the sub-catchment. There is not enough water in the river to satisfy all demands. The majority of the smallholder farmers currently access water under local arrangements, but large-scale irrigators have obtained state-issued water use permits. To access water the estates adopt a variety of strategies: they try to claim water access by adhering to state water law; they engage with the downstream smallholder farmers and negotiate rotational allocation; and/or they band with downstream farmers to secure more water from upstream farmers. Estates that were successful in securing their water access were those that engaged with the local system and negotiated a fair rotational water-sharing arrangement. By adopting this strategy, the estates not only avoid conflict with the poor downstream farmers but also gain social reputation...
Drinking water quality was investigated at source and corresponding point-of-use in 2 peri-urban areas receiving drinking water either by communal water tanker or by delivery directly from the distribution system to household-based groundtanks with taps. Water quality variables measured were heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, E. coli, conductivity, turbidity, pH, and total and residual chlorine. Water quality data were analysed together with an existing epidemiological database to investigate links between microbial quality of drinking water, household demographics, health outcomes, socio-economic status, hygiene and sanitation practices. Groundtank households had better quality drinking water than households using storage containers filled from communal tankers. Uncovered storage containers had the poorest microbial water quality among all storage containers. All stored water did not meet drinking water standards, although mains water did. Households with children under 5 years and using open-topped containers had the poorest water quality overall. Households with groundtanks had the best water quality at point-of-use, but did not have the lowest occurrence of health effects. Although groundtanks were supplied together with urine diversion (UD) toilets and hygiene education...
Increased infrastructural development and potable water consumption have highlighted the importance of accurate water-demand estimates for effective municipal water services infrastructure planning and design. In the light of evolving water consumption trends, the current guideline for municipal water demand estimation, published in 1983, needs to be revised. This study investigated, using regression analyses, the combined effect of various socio-economic and climatic parameters on municipal water consumption with the objective of determining the dominant influencing parameters and suggesting a new guideline for water-demand estimation. To this end, an initial database comprising more than 2.5 x10(6) metered water consumption records extracted from 48 municipal treasury databases, which are located within 5 out of the 7 South African water regions was analysed. Each of the 48 municipal treasury databases spanned a period of at least 12 months. The final amalgamated database, after rigorous cleaning and filtering, comprised 1 091 685 consumption records. Single variable and stepwise multiple variable regression analyses were utilised. Results show that stand area, stand value and geographical location are the dominant parameters influencing municipal water consumption...
In the search for alternative and reliable water sources to irrigate vegetables for backyard gardens, an experimental field was set up in the vicinity of the Umtata Dam, north-west of the town of Umtata, to test grey-water quality and its effects on soil nutrient content following 4 successive growing seasons. Samples of grey-water that were generated from informal housing adjacent to the Umtata Dam were collected from kitchen and bath tubs/washing basins. These samples were analysed before being used for irrigating vegetable crops. The results showed that grey-water quality was 'fit for purpose' for irrigating edible vegetable plants. Although the average Na+ (16 mg/ℓ) and Cl- (15 mg/ℓ) ions were significantly higher (p = 0.05) for grey-water than other treatments, both were below the limit of 100 mg/ℓ set in the South African Water Quality Guidelines. The concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals found in the grey-water samples were significantly lower compared to the World Health Organization guidelines for the safe use of grey-water and within the target water quality range (TWQR) prescribed by South African guidelines for irrigation water. However, the study strongly recommends that grey-water be diluted in order to lower the salt content and to improve the irrigation water quality. Results from an analysis of soil samples showed no significant differences in pH as a result of applying grey-water throughout the soil profile of up to 90 cm depth. Na content of the soil irrigated with grey-water was not significantly different than that of plots where diluted grey-water and potable water were used. Therefore...
The standard water institutions, governance and infrastructure reform and policy prescription package of the 1990s and early 2000s, i.e., restructuring, private-public partnerships (PPP), establishment of an independent regulator, have not yielded positive results for South Africa. These water institutions and governance challenges are resulting in inadequate investments, and millions in South Africa not having access to basic water and sanitation services. The framework for water sector infrastructure funding models was designed to meet the challenges presented by the current and growing imbalances that exist between the supply of and demand for water in South Africa. The research results identified 7 overarching governance models for the funding, financing and development of water infrastructure projects in South Africa, i.e. Model 1: direct fiscal (NRF) funding, Model 2: ring-fenced special purpose vehicle (SPV), Model 3: SPV housing dedicated water infrastructure cash-flows, Model 4: stand-alone water institution with strong balance sheet, Model 5: public-private partnership (PPP) with equity, Model 6: private concession, and Model 7: private development. Various institutional options for consideration for the future management and development of water infrastructure were investigated and considered. The emerging model is considered to be a hybrid model consolidating the national water resources and regional bulk infrastructure functions and capabilities...
Microbial water quality is an essential aspect in the provision of potable water for domestic use. The provision of adequate amounts of safe water for domestic purposes has become difficult for most municipalities mandated to do so in Zimbabwe. Morton-Jaffray Treatment Plant supplies potable water to Harare City and areas surrounding Harare. This study investigated microbial water quality and the impact of microbial water quality related disasters in the area supplied by the Morton Jaffray Treatment Plant. Questionnaires were distributed to household owners in Harare who receive their water from the Municipality and those who use alternate water supplies. Candidates were randomly selected from their workplace. The raw water quality of Manyame River and its tributaries was assessed. Treated water in households was assessed for microbial quality using hydrogen sulphide test and heterotrophic bacteria plate count. Raw water sources were found to be contaminated by faecal matter. Household water sources tested negative for faecal contamination but positive for heterotrophic bacteria. CFU quantities ranged from 1 to 452 CFU/ml for all samples. The WHO guidelines for domestic water sources state that water used for domestic purposes should not be contain than 100 CFU/ml. Public perceptions of water quality ranged from 'unsafe' to 'highly contaminated'. A decrease in the level of aesthetic appeal resulted in residents resorting to alternative sources such as wells and rivers for their domestic water. The current state of treated water was suitable for domestic use. Pathogen monitoring of domestic water is recommended using the hydrogen sulphide test and R2A agar test.
This paper gives an overview of human water requirements (Part 1) and water quality for nutritional health (Part 2). A balance between water input and water output is needed to maintain a normal hydration status. Water requirements of individuals differ in different stages and circumstances in the healthy life cycle, e.g. childhood, pregnancy and lactation as well for the elderly. Various sources of dietary water as well as water consumption of the South African population are discussed. Water is needed to maintain a normal hydration status, yet the non-water ingredients of beverages may also have hydration and non-hydration-related (ill-) effects, mostly in the longer term. Furthermore, water quality can affect nutrition-related health. Water is a source of nutrients, with fluoride being the most important from a nutritional perspective. Water is needed for hygiene and there are various transmission routes for diseases related to water i.e. water-borne, water-washed, water-based and water-related. In South Africa, 2.6% of all deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) are attributable to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene. The figures are much higher for children under 5 years of age. Of the diseases associated with water...
South Africa is a water-scarce country where the sustainable provision of water to its citizens is one of the most significant challenges faced. A recent study in Cape Town, South Africa, investigated the impact of residential swimming pools on household water demand and found that, on average, the presence of a swimming pool increased water demand by 8.85 kℓ/ month or 37.36%. Should cities in South Africa wish to develop in a water sensitive manner - where water is treated as a scarce resource with economic value in all its competing uses - it will be vital to understand the impact of swimming pools on residential water demand. Should there be a significant increase in water demand attributable to the presence of a swimming pool on a property, it would highlight the need to consider whether it is acceptable for properties to use municipal water to fill them or top them up - especially in water-scarce/stressed areas. This paper describes a study undertaken in the Liesbeek River catchment, Cape Town, to investigate the impact that swimming pools have on domestic water demand. The results support the contention that properties with swimming pools use significantly more water than those without. This study estimated the additional demand resulting from swimming pools at between 2.2-2.4 kℓ/month or 7-8% of total water demand. The data also indicate that the presence of a swimming pool correlates with a higher indoor demand. The study shows the need to reduce the impact of swimming pools. This could include: pool covers to reduce evaporation...
The mining industry utilises 3% of the total water withdrawn in South Africa and is one of the industries responsible for the deterioration of water quality in South Africa. Mine water requirements can be reduced with correct implementation and/ or improvement of current mine water management strategies. Any reduction in mine water requirements will reduce the demand on current water resources and hence the impact on water quality. The direct water footprint for 2 concentrators, a smelter and a tailings dam of a platinum processing plant were calculated using the Water Footprint Network assessment method. This includes the sum of the blue-, green- and grey-water footprints. Water footprints of chemicals used during flotation were excluded from the scope of the investigation. Water used in change houses and offices was included. The water footprint calculated from June 2012 until May 2013 was 201 m³/kg PGM (platinum group metals). The first concentrator had a water footprint of 76 m³/kg PGM, while the second had a water footprint of 110 m³/kg PGM. Overall, the total grey-water footprint made the largest contribution, accounting for 73%, the blue-water footprint was the second largest (27%), and there was no green-water footprint.
One method to inform decisions with respect to sustainable, efficient and equitable water allocation and use is water footprint assessment (WFA). This paper presents a preliminary WFA of South Africa (SA) based on data for the period 1996-2005. Crop production was found to contribute about 75% of the total water footprint of national production. The total water footprint of crop production is mainly composed of five crops: maize, fodder crops, sugarcane, wheat and sunflower seed, which account for 83% of the crop water footprint. The average water footprint of a South African consumer is 1 255 m³/yr, below the world average of 1 385 m³/yr, and is dominated by the consumption of meat (32%) and cereals (29%). About one fifth of this water footprint of consumption is external to SA. While SA is a net virtual water importer, the virtual water trade analysis revealed that a large share of blue water consumption is related to export. Sustainability concerns are that the major river basins face severe blue-water scarcity for extended periods of the year, and that water pollution levels related to nitrogen and phosphorus were found to be unsustainable in all river basins in SA. Efficient allocation and use of water is investigated by means of comparing the consumptive water footprint to global benchmark values...
Lack of clean water for use by rural communities in developing countries is of great concern globally. Contaminated water causes water-borne diseases such as diarrhoea, which often lead to deaths, children being the most vulnerable. Therefore, the need to intensify research on point-of-use (POU) water purification techniques cannot be overemphasized. In this work, clay pot water filters (CPWFs) were fabricated using terracotta clay and sawdust. The sawdust was ground and sieved using 300, 600 and 900 μιη sieves. The clay and sawdust were mixed in the ratios 1:1 and 1:2, by volume. Pots were then made, dried and fired in a furnace at 850ºC. Raw water collected from nearby rivers was filtered using the pots. The raw and filtered water samples were then tested for E. coli, total coliforms, total hardness, turbidity, electrical conductivity, cations and anions. The 600 μιη pot had the capacity to destroy E. coli completely from the raw water, whereas the 900 μm pot reduced it by 99.4%. The 600 μm and 900 μm pots could reduce the total coliform concentration by 99.3% and 98.3%, respectively. An attempt was also made to investigate the germicidal action of copper on the coliforms in raw water...
Notwithstanding direct detection of microbial/viral pathogens or their associated toxins, the quality of drinking water may also be evaluated according to its pro-inflammatory potential. In this latter setting, contamination with pathogens or their products is determined according to the magnitude of activation of blood-derived immune/inflammatory cells following exposure to test water samples in vitro, usually by monitoring the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The primary objective of the current study was to apply this procedure to evaluate the pro-inflammatory potential of water sampled at entry, as well as at various stages of treatment, from 3 major water treatment facilities in the greater Pretoria region, viz., the Daspoort, Hartbeespoort, and Rietvlei Water Treatment Facilities. Control water samples included domestic tap water, bottled water from a commercial source, and distilled water. Peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) were isolated from the blood of healthy, adult, human volunteers (n=3), enumerated, suspended in tissue culture medium RPMI 1640 containing antibiotics at a concentration of 1x10(6)/mℓ, and exposed to the various water samples (10%) for 18 h at 37°C. Following incubation, the cell-free supernatants were assayed for the cytokine...
A survey involving 181 water treatment plants across 7 provinces of South Africa: Mpumalanga, Limpopo, North West, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape and Western Cape was undertaken to identify the challenges facing small water treatment plants (SWTPs) in South Africa . Information gathered included ownership and design capacity of the plants, water sources, and various methods of disinfection, equipment currently employed and performance of the treatment plants. In general, the majority (over 80%) of the SWTPs surveyed in the designated provinces were owned by the district municipalities. The designed capacities of these plants varied between 1 and 60 Mℓ/d; the smallest capacity was 100 m³/d and the largest 120 Mℓ/d. The small water treatment plants abstracted their raw water from either surface or groundwater or a combination of both water sources with greater preponderance for surface water sources (over 86%). Water treatment practices were noted to be the conventional types mainly coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. Two types of coagulants namely polyelectrolyte (66%) and alum (18%) were commonly used by the water treatment plants across the provinces studied. Rapid gravity filtration...
In this article several economic studies undertaken to assist with the implementation of the National Water Act (NWA) No. 36 of 1998 are reviewed. In these studies the following procedures were applied to model water use: operational research, econometric analysis, input/output analysis, willingness to pay and the conceptual framework of water markets. Main use sectors are agriculture, forestry, municipalities (domestic consumption) and the environment. Water values estimated in the studies differ significantly between sectors, as well as between and within catchment areas. Most of the studies focused on irrigated agriculture as an important use sector in terms of water volumes, food production and capital investment. Input/ output analysis indicates that South African agriculture is a less productive user of water in terms of gross income generated per unit of water. Evidence suggests that industrial and domestic use place a high value on assurance of supply of current water consumption levels. In contrast, agriculture requires large volumes of water for food production in response to market demand. The average value product of water is much higher for industry than agriculture, but the marginal value products appear similar in both sectors. From this it is concluded that water-use rights will in future be transferred from agriculture to industry but there is no urgency at present. As water is transferred in future from agriculture to domestic use and industrial use...
The purpose of an irrigation system is to apply the desired amount of water, at the correct application rate and uniformly to the whole field, at the right time, with the least amount of non-beneficial water consumption (losses), and as economically as possible. We know that irrigated agriculture plays a major role in the livelihoods of nations all over the world and South Africa is no exception. With the agricultural water-use sector being the largest of all water-use sectors in South Africa, there have been increased expectations that the sector should increase efficiency and reduce consumption in order to increase the amount of water available for other uses. Studies and research over 40 years, on the techniques of flood-, mobile- and micro-irrigation have contributed to the knowledge base of applying irrigation methods correctly. In a recent study on irrigation efficiency, the approach is that irrigation efficiency should be assessed by applying a water balance to a specific situation rather than by calculating various performance indicators. The fraction of the water abstracted from the source that is utilised by the plant is called the beneficial water-use component, and optimised irrigation water supply is therefore aimed at maximising this component. It implies that water must be delivered from the source to the field both efficiently and effectively. Optimising water use at farm level requires careful consideration of the implications of decisions made during both development (planning and design)...
It is predicted that vast volumes of impacted mine water will be produced by mining activities in the Mpumalanga coalfields of South Africa. Irrigation provides for a novel approach to the utilisation and disposal of mine water, under the correct conditions. The significance of these findings lies in the versatility of this irrigation. Communities which often have very few other resources can utilise mine water to generate livelihoods. Research over a period of more than 10 years has shown that this water can be used successfully for the irrigation of a range of crops. The potential environmental impact of this excess water is of great concern in a water-scarce country like South Africa. There is, however, continuing concern from the local regulators regarding the long-term impact that large-scale mine-water irrigation may have on groundwater quality and quantity. Detailed research has been undertaken over the past number of years on both undisturbed soils and in coal-mining spoils. These sites range from sandy soils to very clayey soils. The results indicate that many of the soils have considerable attenuation capacities and that over the period of irrigation, a large proportion of the salts are contained in the upper portions of the unsaturated zones below each irrigation pivot. The volumes and quality of water leaching through to the aquifers have been quantified at each site. From these data mixing ratios were calculated in order to determine the effect of the irrigation water on the underlying aquifers. One of the outcomes from this study was to define the conditions under which mine-water irrigation can be implemented and the associated operational and monitoring guidelines that should be followed. These have been based on the findings from this study...
South Africa's unallocated water resources have dwindled to precariously low levels. Furthermore, it is generally recognised by the authorities and specialists alike that it is likely that water demand will outstrip water supply within the next decade. Macro-economically and strategically speaking, the question therefore is how to make best use of the country's available water resources? We ask this question since South Africa is a country classified as having chronic water shortages, a condition exacerbated by climate change and the presence of invasive alien plant species. In this paper we address the question of sectoral water allocation by applying a macro-economic comparative static Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model using an integrated database comprising South Africa's Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) and sectoral water use balances. We refer to AsgiSA, the South African Government's Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa, and conclude that introducing the proposed programmes in a business-as-usual and water-intensive manner will strengthen the current growth in the demand for water. This will bring forward, or accelerate, the need for introducing water rationing among sectors. The importance of this conclusion cannot be emphasised enough. Water is essential...