Página 32 dos resultados de 9459 itens digitais encontrados em 0.002 segundos

Ultra baixo coeficiente de atrito no deslizamento de  Al2O3 - Si3N4: efeito das variáveis químicas (pH e concentração de sílica coloidal).; Ultra low friction coefficient in sliding of Al2O3-Si3O3: effects of chemical variables (pH and concentration of colloidal silica).

Oliveira, Roberto Pereira de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/02/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
260.35879%
O objetivo deste trabalho, foi investigar o comportamento tribológico do par cerâmico alumina - nitreto de silício no deslizamento em água com pH controlado e em uma suspensão com diferentes concentrações de sílica coloidal em água, e verificar a possibilidade de atingir um coeficiente de atrito da ordem de milésimos (μ < 0,01), aqui chamado de ultra baixo coeficiente de atrito (UBCA) e verificar se a mudança do pH do meio, ou a alteração da concentração de sílica na água, diminui o runningin, tempo necessário para o sistema entrar em regime estacionário, do coeficiente de atrito. Os ensaios foram realizados na configuração de ensaio tribológico esfera contra disco, no qual a esfera foi de nitreto de silício e o disco de alumina, sob carga normal de 54 N e velocidade de deslizamento de 1 m/s. A água utilizada nos ensaios foi destilada e deionizada, e a sílica coloidal amorfa, sem porosidade e de tamanho médio de partícula de 12 nanômetros foi a Aerosil® 200. A esfera de nitreto de silício, adquirida comercialmente, e o disco de alumina, foi proveniente de trabalhos anteriores. Todos os materiais foram caracterizados quanto a densidade. Algumas propriedades mecânicas como dureza, módulo de elasticidade e tenacidade à fratura foram determinadas. Nos ensaios lubrificados com água onde o pH foi controlado...

Líquidos iônicos como compatibilizantes para a preparação de nanocompósitos poliméricos de poliolefinas apolares e sílicas

Donato, Ricardo Keitel
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
260.35879%
Esta pesquisa apresenta um estudo exploratório sobre a aplicação de líquidos iônicos imidazolicos (LIs) como agentes de compatibilização entre sílicas do tipo xerogel (carga polar), obtidas pelo método sol-gel, e poliolefinas apolares como o polipropileno isotático (PPi), polietileno de alta densidade (PEAD) e polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD). Foi aplicado um método de modificação “in situ” onde o LI fica retido no volume e superfície da sílica a ser aplicada na formação dos compósitos. Isto foi feito com o objetivo de aumentar a distribuição de carga na matriz polimérica e obter compósitos poliméricos com propriedades diferenciadas. Esta pesquisa pode ser dividida em três partes: A primeira parte envolveu a determinação das janelas eletroquímicas e condutividades elétricas de uma serie de LIs por voltametria cíclica com um eletrodo policristalino de platina e por condutometria, respectivamente. Isto, com o objetivo de avaliar seus potenciais para aplicações eletroquímicas. Ambos o cátion e o contra-íon afetaram as propriedades eletroquímicas estudadas. Vários eventos eletroquímicos com baixos valores de corrente foram observados, o que diminuiu as janelas eletroquímicas. Janelas eletroquímicas grandes foram obtidas com LIs que continham cadeias maiores (grupos funcionais). A maior janela eletroquímica foi obtida com LI [C10MIm][BF4]. A segunda parte envolveu a preparação de sílicas do tipo xerogel na presença de LIs. As sílicas sintetizadas foram caracterizadas por análise termogravimétrica (TGA)...

Caracteristicas da poeira do processo de fabricação de materiais ceramicos para revestimento : estudo no polo de Santa Gertrudes; Characteristics of dust from the manufacturing process of ceramic materials for tiles : study in the Santa Gertrudes complex

Maria Margarida Teixeira Moreira-Lima
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/11/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
260.35879%
A poeira gerada no processo de fabricação de materiais cerâmicos pode ser um agente de risco à saúde dos trabalhadores, em especial quando em sua composição houver a presença de polimorfos da sílica nas formas cristalinas do ?-quartzo e da cristobalita. A exposição ocupacional à poeira respirável desses polimorfos pode ocasionar o aparecimento da silicose e de outras doenças associadas. Na indústria de revestimentos cerâmicos as informações sobre as características da poeira gerada nos seus processos e sobre a prevalência da silicose no setor são insuficientes para definir a magnitude do risco da exposição ocupacional à sílica. Este estudo de campo busca identificar parâmetros físicos e a concentração em sílica cristalina do material particulado suspenso no ar em indústrias de revestimentos cerâmicos para pisos e paredes. Foram selecionadas nove indústrias no município de Santa Gertrudes, no estado de São Paulo, com processo de fabricação por via seca, onde a matéria-prima principal é a argila vermelha proveniente da Formação Corumbataí. O estudo realizou-se por meio da observação sistemática das etapas do processo industrial, da coleta e análise de amostras da poeira presente nos ambientes de trabalho e da análise mineralógica da massa cerâmica manufaturada. As amostras de poeira foram analisadas por ravimetria e por difratometria de raios-X (DRX). Foi determinada a presença na poeira de partículas com tamanho na fração respirável (< 10 µm)...

Novas fases estacionarias para CLAE preparadas por imobilização termica de PMODS sobre diferentes suportes de silica; New stationary phases for HPLC prepared by thermal immobilization of PMODS on different on different types of silica supports

Zahra Fazal Chaudhry
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/02/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
260.35879%
As fases estacionárias (FE) são consideradas uma das peças chave na técnica de Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE). Neste trabalho foram avaliadas FE preparadas a partir de seis diferentes sílicas utilizadas como suporte para a imobilização do polímero poli(metiloctadecilsiloxano) (PMODS). Três destes suportes são sílicas com poros grandes, que atualmente apresentam grande aplicação em separações de macromoléculas. O primeiro passo para os testes cromatográficos das FE desenvolvidas foi o preparo de uma nova mistura padrão. A partir dela foi possível avaliar comparativamente as principais características das novas FE como a eficiência, a hidrofobicidade, a capacidade de separação de compostos de estruturas espaciais similares além de compostos de diferentes polaridades. Durante o estudo da metodologia de preparo das FE, definiu-se o tratamento térmico como a técnica utilizada para a imobilização do polímero sobre o suporte. Análises de ressonância magnética nuclear mostraram que, através desta metodologia, o polímero é adsorvido sobre a superficie de sílica formando uma monocamada estável distribuída de forma altamente favorável ao processo de transferência de massa entre a FE e a fase móvel (FM). Os suportes de sílica foram divididos em dois grupos...

Desenvolvimento do processo de obtenção de filme polimérico a partir da cinza da casca de arroz

Ferreira, Carlos Sergio
Fonte: Florianópolis, SC Publicador: Florianópolis, SC
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 1 v.| il., tabs., grafs.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
260.35879%
Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química.; As reservas mundiais de petróleo irão se acabar nos próximos 100 anos. Para um país como o Brasil, a biomassa será um substituto natural do petróleo, seja na geração de energia ou na obtenção de novos materiais. No beneficiamento do arroz, a casca resultante se apresenta como alternativa de biomassa empregada na geração de calor para secagem de grãos de arroz. Como resultado deste processo, surge a cinza da casca de arroz (CCA) que por ser rica em sílica (SiO2) é uma potencial fonte alternativa de matéria-prima para aplicações diretas ou indiretas em alguns setores industriais. Neste trabalho utilizou-se a CCA obtida a partir do processo de combustão da casca, na obtenção de um material baseado em sílica, na forma de um filme polimérico flexível que pode ser explorado como substituto plástico. A sílica foi extraída utilizando-se hidróxido de sódio (NaOH). A reação de extração produziu silicato de sódio e CCA residual que foi avaliada como um potencial adsorvente pela sua área superficial. A CCA foi extraída utilizando NaOH nas concentrações de 1, 2 e 2,7N e avaliada nos tempos reacionais de 1...

Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica Dust in the United States, 1988–2003

Yassin, Abdiaziz; Yebesi, Francis; Tingle, Rex
Fonte: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
260.35879%
The purposes of this study were a) to summarize measurements of airborne (respirable) crystalline silica dust exposure levels among U.S. workers, b) to provide an update of the 1990 Stewart and Rice report on airborne silica exposure levels in high-risk industries and occupations with data for the time period 1988–2003, c) to estimate the number of workers potentially exposed to silica in industries that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspected for high exposure levels, and d) to conduct time trend analyses on airborne silica dust exposure levels for time-weighted average (TWA) measurements. Compliance inspection data that were taken from the OSHA Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) for 1988–2003 (n = 7,209) were used to measure the airborne crystalline silica dust exposure levels among U.S. workers. A second-order autoregressive model was applied to assess the change in the mean silica exposure measurements over time. The overall geometric mean of silica exposure levels for 8-hr personal TWA samples collected during programmed inspections was 0.077 mg/m3, well above the applicable American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value of 0.05 mg/m3. Surgical appliances supplies industry [Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 3842] had the lowest geometric mean silica exposure level of 0.017 mg/m3...

Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and autoimmune disease.

Parks, C G; Conrad, K; Cooper, G S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
260.35879%
Occupational exposure to silica dust has been examined as a possible risk factor with respect to several systemic autoimmune diseases, including scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and some of the small vessel vasculitidies with renal involvement (e.g., Wegener granulomatosis). Crystalline silica, or quartz, is an abundant mineral found in sand, rock, and soil. High-level exposure to respirable silica dust can cause chronic inflammation and fibrosis in the lung and other organs. Studies of specific occupational groups with high-level silica exposure (e.g., miners) have shown increased rates of autoimmune diseases compared to the expected rates in the general population. However, some clinic- and population-based studies have not demonstrated an association between silica exposure and risk of autoimmune diseases. This lack of effect may be due to the limited statistical power of these studies to examine this association or because the lower- or moderate-level exposures that may be more common in the general population were not considered. Experimental studies demonstrate that silica can act as an adjuvant to nonspecifically enhance the immune response. This is one mechanism by which silica might be involved in the development of autoimmune diseases. Given that several different autoimmune diseases may be associated with silica dust exposure...

Evidence of an oxidative mechanism for the hemolytic activity of silica particles.

Razzaboni, B L; Bolsaitis, P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1990 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
260.35879%
The formation of reactive oxygen species resulting from the interaction of silica dust particles with red blood cell membranes was investigated; particularly, the effect of surface hydroxyl (silanol) group concentration on the rate of formation of such reactive oxygen species was investigated. The rate of formation was measured indirectly through the effect of catalase, a hemoprotein peroxidase, on silica-induced hemolysis. It was found that the addition of exogenous catalase to erythrocytes markedly reduces the hemolysis caused by silica particles. Furthermore, the amount of catalase required for deactivation of silica per unit area of particle surface is lower for fumed silica particles and calcined crystalline particles than for uncalcined, crystalline silica, suggesting a correlation between the concentration of OH groups at the silica particle surface and its potential for generation of H2O2. The addition of albumin, a copper chelator, also decreases hemolysis. These results suggest that the hemolysis caused by silica particles is at least partly related to the formation of H2O2 at the particle surface and its subsequent reaction with Cu+ ions. The relationship between the concentration of surface silanol groups on the silica surface and the amount of catalase required to decrease hemolysis may also provide a method for testing potential fibrogenicity of respirable dusts.

Dissociation of intracellular lysosomal rupture from the cell death caused by silica

Kane, AB; Stanton, RP; Raymond, EG; Dobson, ME; Knafelc, ME; Farber, JL
Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/1980 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
260.35879%
The relationship between intracellular lysosomal rupture and cell death caused by silica was studied in P388d(1) macrophages. After 3 h of exposure to 150 μg silica in medium containing 1.8 mM Ca(2+), 60 percent of the cells were unable to exclude trypan blue. In the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), however, all of the cells remained viable. Phagocytosis of silica particles occurred to the same extent in the presence or absence of Ca(2+). The percentage of P388D(1) cells killed by silica depended on the dose and the concentration of Ca(2+) in the medium. Intracellular lyosomal rupture after exposure to silica was measured by acridine orange fluorescence or histochemical assay of horseradish peroxidase. With either assay, 60 percent of the cells exposed to 150 μg silica for 3 h in the presence of Ca(2+) showed intracellular lysosomal rupture, was not associated with measureable degradation of total DNA, RNA, protein, or phospholipids or accelerated turnover of exogenous horseradish peroxidase. Pretreatment with promethazine (20 μg/ml) protected 80 percent of P388D(1) macrophages against silica toxicity although lysosomal rupture occurred in 60-70 percent of the cells. Intracellular lysosomal rupture was prevented in 80 percent of the cells by pretreatment with indomethacin (5 x 10(-5)M)...

The Phagocytosis of Crystalline Silica Particles by Macrophages

Gilberti, Renée M.; Joshi, Gaurav N.; Knecht, David A.
Fonte: American Thoracic Society Publicador: American Thoracic Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
260.35879%
Silicosis is a chronic lung disease induced by the inhalation of crystalline silica. Exposure of cultured macrophages to crystalline silica leads to cell death; however, the mechanism of cell–particle interaction, the fate of particles, and the cause of death are unknown. Time-lapse imaging shows that mouse macrophages avidly bind particles that settle onto the cell surface and that cells also extend protrusions to capture distant particles. Using confocal optical sectioning, silica particles were shown to be present within the cytoplasmic volume of live cells. In addition, electron microscopy and elemental analysis showed silica in internal cellular sections. To further examine the phagocytosis process, the kinetics of particle uptake was quantified using an assay in which cells were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA)-coated particles, and an anti-OVA antibody was used to distinguish surface-bound from internalized particles. Fc receptor–mediated uptake of antibody-coated silica particles was nearly complete within 5 minutes. In contrast, no OVA-coated particles were internalized at this time. After 30 minutes, 30% of bound silica was internalized and uptake continued slowly thereafter. OVA-coated latex beads, regardless of surface charge...

Airway Delivery of Silica Increases Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Infection in Mice: Potential Role of Repopulating Macrophages1

Pasula, Rajamouli; Britigan, Bradley E.; Turner, Joanne; Martin, William J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/06/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
260.35879%
Silica exposure results in an increased lifelong risk of developing mycobacterial pulmonary infections. To date, there are no animal models that replicate this finding to permit assessment of the mechanisms underlying susceptibility to mycobacterial infection. To test the hypothesis that prior silica exposure increases risk of mycobacterial infection, we intratracheally (I.T.) administered silica, a control dust (Al2O3) or saline into mechanically ventilated C57BL/6 mice. Later, the mice received Mycobacterium avium or Mycobacterium tuberculosis I.T. Mice were sacrificed at defined time points and mycobacteria in lung homogenates were quantified. M. avium or M. tuberculosis infection was markedly increased in silica-exposed mice compared with mice exposed to either Al2O3 or saline beginning 3 wk after silica exposure. Similarly, lung sections from silica-exposed mice had many more acid fast bacilli+ (AFB+) organisms than from control mice. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) from bronchoalveolar lavage of silica-exposed mice also revealed a higher number of mycobacteria compared with mice treated with Al2O3 or saline. In addition, passive transfer of AMs from silica-exposed mice to control mice increased M. tuberculosis susceptibility. These results indicate that silica exposure converts mycobacteria-resistant mice into mycobacteria-susceptible mice via a process that likely involves a new population of AMs that are more susceptible to mycobacterial infection.

Osteoinductive silk-silica composite biomaterials for bone regeneration

Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Fourligas, Nikolaos; Georgakoudi, Irene; Ouhib, Nadia; Belton, David J.; Perry, Carole C.; Kaplan, David L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
260.35879%
Osteoinductive and biodegradable composite biomaterials for bone regeneration were prepared by combining silk fibroin with silica particles. The influence of these composite systems on osteogenesis was evaluated with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) subjected to osteogenic differentiation. hMSCs adhered, proliferated, and differentiated towards osteogenic lineages on silk/silica films. The addition of the silica to the silk films influenced gene expression leading to upregulation of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and collagen type 1 (Col 1) osteogenic markers. Evidence for early bone formation in the form of collagen fibers and apatite nodules was obtained on the silk/silica films. Collagen fibers were closely associated with apatite deposits and overall collagen content was higher for the silica containing samples. Also, smaller sized silica particles (24 nm – 2 μm) with large surface area facilitated silica biodegradation in vitro through particle dissolution, leading to ~5 fold decrease in silica content over 10 weeks. These results indicate suitability of silk/silica composite system towards bone regeneration, where degradation/remodeling rates of the organic and inorganic components can be controlled.

Silica-dispersed glucose oxidase for glucose sensing: in vitro testing in serum and blood and the effect of condensation pH

Harris, James M.; Lopez, Gabriel P.; Reichert, William M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
260.95248%
The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility of using glucose oxidase (GOx) dispersed in a silica matrix for glucose monitoring in whole blood, and then to assess whether the flexibility of silica sol-gel chemistry could be exploited to enhance glucose sensor performance and stability. Silica-dispersed GOx was deployed on platinized platinum (Pt) wire to form a Clark-type amperometric glucose sensor. Sensors were calibrated using buffered glucose standard solutions, and then tested against glucose spiked human serum and whole blood. All serum and whole blood measurements met the minimum FDA requirement of falling within the “A+B region” of a Clark Error Grid. To our knowledge this is the first report of using silica-dispersed GOx to measure glucose in whole blood. The effect of condensation pH on sensor performance was assessed by dispersing GOx in silica condensed at pH 3, 7 and 12, and then testing the sensor response against glucose calibration standards. The pH 12 silica sensors had statistically faster response time, and higher sensor sensitivity compared to pH 7, pH 3 silica and glutaraldehyde crosslinked sensors. Membranes of the pH 12 silica had statistically higher glucose diffusion coefficient than did the pH 7 and 3 sensors. GOx dispersed in pH 12 silica also had the longest half life. We hypothesize that the gel-like pH 12 silica gels provided reduced barriers to glucose diffusion...

Castor oil polyurethane containing silica nanoparticles as filling material of bone defect in rats

Nacer, Renato Silva; Poppi, Rodrigo Ré; Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camilo de; Silva, Baldomero Antonio Kato da; Odashiro, Alexandre Nakao; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Delben, José Renato Jurkevicz; Delben, Angela Antonia Sanches Tardivo
Fonte: Acta Cirurgica Brasileira Publicador: Acta Cirurgica Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
260.95248%
OBJETIVO: Avaliar o comportamento biológico do polímero de mamona contendo nanopartículas de sílica como substituto ósseo. MÉTODOS: Vinte e sete rattus norvergicus albinus, Wistar foram submetidos a defeito ósseo preenchido com polímero de mamona. Foram formados três grupos experimentais, com nove ratos cada: (1) Polímero com carbonato de cálcio; (2) Polímero com carbonato de cálcio dopado com 5% de nanopartículas de sílica; (3) Polímero com carbonato de cálcio dopado com 10% de nanopartículas de sílica; três animais de cada grupo foram submetidos à eutanásia 15, 30 e 60 dias após o procedimento experimental e os fêmures removidos e submetidos à avaliação histológica. RESULTADOS: Houve crescimento ósseo em todos os grupos estudados, com maior tendência de crescimento no grupo contendo polímero de mamona acrescido apenas por carbonato de cálcio. Aos 30 dias, todos os grupos apresentaram resultados semelhantes. Aos 60 dias, notou-se maior presença de fibroblastos, osteoblastos, osteócitos e osteoclastos no grupo 3, com persistência da atividade integrada dos três tipos de células envolvidas no processo de ativação-reabsorção-formação óssea. CONCLUSÕES: O polímero de mamona associado com nanopartículas de sílica é biocompatível e permite a osteocondução. A presença de células osteoprogenitoras nos implantes contendo 10% de sílica indica sua capacidade osteoindutora.; ABSTACT - PURPOSE: To evaluate the biologic behavior of the castor polymer containing silica nanoparticles as a bone substitute in diafisary defect. METHODS: Twenty seven male rattus norvegicus albinus wistar lineage were submitted to bone defect filled with castor oil polymer. Three experimental groups had been formed with nine animals each: (1) castor oil polymer containing only calcium carbonate; (2) castor oil polymer with calcium carbonate and doped with 5% of silica nanoparticles; (3) castor polymer with calcium carbonate doped with 10% of silica nanoparticles; 3 animals of each group were submitted to euthanasia 15...

Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor - Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester, on silica-inducated inflammatory reaction and apoptosis

Wang, He; Leigh, James
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
260.95248%
BACKGROUND: Although nitric oxide is overproduced by macrophages and neutrophils after exposure to silica, its role in silica-induced inflammatory reaction and apoptosis needs further clarification. In this study, rats were intratracheally instilled with either silica suspension or saline to examine inflammatory reactions and intraperitoneally injected with ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases, or saline to examine the possible role of nitric oxide production in the reaction. RESULTS: Results showed that silica instillation induced a strong inflammatory reaction indicated by increased total cell number, number of neutrophils, protein concentration and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). There were no significant differences in these indices between silica-instilled groups with and without L-NAME injection (p > 0.05) except LDH level. The results also showed that apoptotic leucocytes were identified in BALF cells of silica-instilled groups whereas no significant difference was found between silica-instilled groups with and without L-NAME injection in the apoptotic reaction (p > 0.05). Silica instillation significantly increased the level of BALF nitrite/nitrate and L-NAME injection reduced this increase. CONCLUSION: Intratracheal instillation of silica caused an obvious inflammatory reaction and leucocyte apoptosis...

The structure of silica gel

Vernon, Lonnie W.
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
260.95248%
A number of different methods for studying the fine structure of silica gel have been reported in the literature. Extensive sorption-desorption studies have been made and from these studies pore size and distribution, surface area, and average particle size have been determined. Sorption-desorption studies and porosity studies have been employed also to determine the effect of heat treatment on the structure of silica gel. Small-angle x-ray scattering data have been used to determine particle sizes in silica gel. However, the assumptions which were made in the method of analysis of the small-angle x-ray scattering data are not completely justified in the case of silica gel. No investigation of the effect of heat treatment on the small-angle x-ray scattering by silica gel has been reported in the literature. The electron microscopic studies of silica gel reported in the literature are at relatively low magnifications and show the morphology of the aggregates only. No systematic electron microscopic study of the fine structure of silica gel has been reported. If the optimum magnification and resolution of modern electron microscopes is utilized, it should be possible, in a well dispersed sample of silica gel, to resolve the very small particles and pores...

Silica Nanoparticles as the Adjuvant for the Immunisation of Mice Using Hepatitis B Core Virus-Like Particles

Skrastina, Dace; Petrovskis, Ivars; Lieknina, Ilva; Bogans, Janis; Renhofa, Regina; Ose, Velta; Dishlers, Andris; Dekhtyar, Yuri; Pumpens, Paul
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
260.95248%
Advances in nanotechnology and nanomaterials have facilitated the development of silicon dioxide, or Silica, particles as a promising immunological adjuvant for the generation of novel prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. In the present study, we have compared the adjuvanting potential of commercially available Silica nanoparticles (initial particles size of 10–20 nm) with that of aluminium hydroxide, or Alum, as well as that of complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvants for the immunisation of BALB/c mice with virus-like particles (VLPs) formed by recombinant full-length Hepatitis B virus core (HBc) protein. The induction of B-cell and T-cell responses was studied after immunisation. Silica nanoparticles were able to adsorb maximally 40% of the added HBc, whereas the adsorption capacity of Alum exceeded 90% at the same VLPs/adjuvant ratio. Both Silica and Alum formed large complexes with HBc VLPs that sedimented rapidly after formulation, as detected by dynamic light scattering, spectrophotometry, and electron microscopy. Both Silica and Alum augmented the humoral response against HBc VLPs to the high anti-HBc level in the case of intraperitoneal immunisation, whereas in subcutaneous immunisation, the Silica-adjuvanted anti-HBc level even exceeded the level adjuvanted by Alum. The adjuvanting of HBc VLPs by Silica resulted in the same typical IgG2a/IgG1 ratios as in the case of the adjuvanting by Alum. The combination of Silica with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) led to the same enhancement of the HBc-specific T-cell induction as in the case of the Alum and MPL combination. These findings demonstrate that Silica is not a weaker putative adjuvant than Alum for induction of B-cell and T-cell responses against recombinant HBc VLPs. This finding may have an essential impact on the development of the set of Silica-adjuvanted vaccines based on a long list of HBc-derived virus-like particles as the biological component.

Silica in Protoplanetary Disks

Sargent, B. A.; Forrest, W. J.; Tayrien, C.; McClure, M. K.; Li, A.; Basu, A. R.; Manoj, P.; Watson, D. M.; Bohac, C. J.; Furlan, E.; Kim, K. H.; Green, J. D.; Sloan, G. C.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/11/2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
260.95248%
Mid-infrared spectra of a few T Tauri stars (TTS) taken with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope show prominent narrow emission features indicating silica (crystalline silicon dioxide). Silica is not a major constituent of the interstellar medium; therefore, any silica present in the circumstellar protoplanetary disks of TTS must be largely the result of processing of primitive dust material in the disks surrouding these stars. We model the silica emission features in our spectra using the opacities of various polymorphs of silica and their amorphous versions computed from earth-based laboratory measurements. This modeling indicates that the two polymorphs of silica, tridymite and cristobalite, which form at successively higher temperatures and low pressures, are the dominant forms of silica in the TTS of our sample. These high temperature, low pressure polymorphs of silica present in protoplanetary disks are consistent with a grain composed mostly of tridymite named Ada found in the cometary dust samples collected from the STARDUST mission to Comet 81P/Wild 2. The silica in these protoplanetary disks may arise from incongruent melting of enstatite or from incongruent melting of amorphous pyroxene, the latter being analogous to the former. The high temperatures of 1200K-1300K and rapid cooling required to crystallize tridymite or cristobalite set constraints on the mechanisms that could have formed the silica in these protoplanetary disks...

Reflectance spectra diversity of silica-rich materials: Sensitivity to environment and implications for detections on Mars

Rice, M. S.; Cloutis, E. A.; Bell, J. F., III; Bish, D. L.; Horgan, B. H.; Mertzman, S. A.; Craig, M. A.; Renaut, R. W.; Gautason, B.; Mountain, B.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/vnd.ms-excel
Publicado em /03/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
260.95248%
Hydrated silica-rich materials have recently been discovered on the surface of Mars by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), and the Mars Express Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l’Eau, les Glaces, et l’Activité (OMEGA) in several locations. Having been interpreted as hydrothermal deposits and aqueous alteration products, these materials have important implications for the history of water on the martian surface. Spectral detections of these materials in visible to near infrared (Vis–NIR) wavelengths have been based on a H_2O absorption feature in the 934–1009 nm region seen with Spirit’s Pancam instrument, and on SiOH absorption features in the 2.21–2.26 μm range seen with CRISM. Our work aims to determine how the spectral reflectance properties of silica-rich materials in Vis–NIR wavelengths vary as a function of environmental conditions and formation. Here we present laboratory reflectance spectra of a diverse suite of silica-rich materials (chert, opal, quartz, natural sinters and synthetic silica) under a range of grain sizes and temperature, pressure, and humidity conditions. We find that the H_2O content and form of H_2O/OH present in silica-rich materials can have significant effects on their Vis–NIR spectra. Our main findings are that the position of the ∼1.4 μm OH feature and the symmetry of the ∼1.9 μm feature can be used to discern between various forms of silica-rich materials...

Molecular insights into the progression of crystalline silica-induced pulmonary toxicity in rats

Sellamuthu, Rajendran; Umbright, Christina; Roberts, Jenny R.; Cumpston, Amy; McKinney, Walter; Chen, Bean T.; Frazer, David; Li, Shengqiao; Kashon, Michael; Joseph, Pius
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
260.95248%
Identification of molecular target(s) and mechanism(s) of silica-induced pulmonary toxicity is important for the intervention and/or prevention of diseases associated with exposure to silica. Rats were exposed to crystalline silica by inhalation (15 mg m−3, 6 h per day, 5 days) and global gene expression profile was determined in the lungs by microarray analysis at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks following termination of silica exposure. The number of significantly differentially expressed genes (>1.5-fold change and <0.01 false discovery rate P-value) detected in the lungs during the post-exposure time intervals analyzed exhibited a steady increase in parallel with the progression of silica-induced pulmonary toxicity noticed in the rats. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of a representative set of 10 genes confirmed the microarray findings. The number of biological functions, canonical pathways and molecular networks significantly affected by silica exposure, as identified by the bioinformatics analysis of the significantly differentially expressed genes detected during the post-exposure time intervals, also exhibited a steady increase similar to the silica-induced pulmonary toxicity. Genes involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, respiratory diseases...