This work reports on the study of the nanophosphor. Y2O2S:Er(2%),Yb(1%) obtained from polymeric resin to be evaluated as fluorescent label with Suitable features to conjugate with bio-molecules for bioassay up-converting phosphor technology (UPT) application A conjugation protocol between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the aminofunctionalized nanophosphor containing or not spherical silica was established UV-vis results indicated an effective conjugation between nanophosphor particles and the protein up-conversion measurements under 980 nm excitation performed for samples before and after aminofunctionalization showed that nanophosphor particles luminescence features keep unchanged in all cases All results suggest that the adapted protocol is feasible to provide a nanoparticle-protein effective conjugation preserving nanophosphor optical features The presence of spherical silica can be considered advantageous to increase conjugation efficiency Therefore. the developed procedure is applicable for future conjugations between the chosen nanophosphor and the streptavidin protein chat takes part in the well known self-recognition system avidin-biotin. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved.
The isotherms of adsorption of MeX2 (Me = Cu2+, Co2+; X = Cl-, Br-, ClO4-) by silica gel chemically modified with 2-mercaptoimidazole (SiMI) were studied in acetone and ethanol solutions, at 25 degrees C. Covalently attached 2-mercaptoimidazole molecule to silica gel surface adsorbs MeX2 from solvent by forming a surface complex. The metal is bonded to the surface through the nitrogen atom of attached 2-mercaptoimidazole. At low loading, the electronic and ESR spectral parameters indicated that the Cu2+ complexes are in a distorted-tetragonal symmetry field. The d-d electronic transition spectra showed that for Cu(ClO4)(2) complex, the peak of absorption did not change for any degree of metal loading and for Cl- and Br- complexes, the peak maxima shifted to higher energy with lower metal loading. The CoX2(X = Cl-, Br-, ClO4-) analogues possess a distorted-tetrahedral field.
The isotherms of adsorption of CuX2 (X=Cl-, Br-, ClO4-) by silica gel chemically modified with 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole were studied in acetone and ethanol solutions: at 298 K. The following equilibria constants (in 1 mol(-1)) were determined: (a) CuCl2: 3.5 x 10(3) (ac), 2.0 x 10(3) (eth); (b) CuBr2: 2.8 x 10(3) (ac), 2.0 x 10(3) (eth); (c) Cu(ClO4)(2): 1.8 x 10(3) (ac), 1.0 x 10(3) (eth); ac = acetone, eth = ethanol. The electron spin resonance spectra of the surface complexes indicated a tetragonal distorted structure in the case of lower degrees of metal loading on the chemically modified surface. The d-d electronic transition spectra showed that for the ClO4-, complex, the peak of absorption did not change for any degree of metal loading, and for Cl- and Br- complexes, the peak maxima shifted to a higher energy region with a lower metal loading. (C) 1998 Elsevier B.V. B.V. All rights reserved.
The isotherms of adsorption of CuX2 (XCl-, Br-, ClO4-) by silica gel chemically modified with 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol were studied in acetone and ethanol solutions, at 25 degrees C. The following equilibria constants (in L mol(-1)) were determined: (a) CuCl2, 3.2 x 10(3) (ac), 2.5 x 10(3) (eth); (b) CuBr2, 2.9 x 10(3) (ac), 2.3 x 10(3) (eth); (c) Cu(ClO4)(2), 1.8 x 10(3) (ac), 1.2 x 10(3) (eth); ac, acetone; eth, ethanol. The electron spin resonance spectra of the surface complexes indicated a tetragonal-distorted structure in the case of lower degrees of metal loading on the chemically modified surface. The d-d electronic transition spectra showed that for the ClO4- complex, the peak of absorption did not change for any degree of metal loading and for Cl- and Br- complexes, the peak maxima shifted to higher energy with lower metal loadings. (C) 1998 Academic Press.
The isotherms of adsorption of MX2 (M = Cu2+, Co2+; X = Cl-, Br-, ClO4) by silica gel chemically modified with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (SiATR) were studied in acetone and ethanol solutions, at 25 degrees C. The 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole molecule, covalently bound to the silica gel surface, adsorbs MX2 from solvent by forming a surface complex. At low loading, the electronic and electron spin resonance spectral parameters indicated that the Cu2+ complexes have distorted tetragonal symmetry. The CoX2 (X = Cl-, Br-) analogues exhibit a distorted-tetrahedral geometry, whilstthe (SiATR)mCo)ClO4)(2) complex has a tetragonally distorted octahedral geometry, with four equatorial nitrogen atoms around the cobalt. (C) 1998 Elsevier B.V. B.V. All rights reserved.
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Processo FAPESP: 06/54946-9; This paper discusses silica surface modification by a process involving a two-step reaction: anchoring of a silylating agent, followed by an attachment of a 4-amino-2-mercaptopyrimidine molecule. The modified material (Si-BP) was successfully characterized by the FTIR spectra, which revealed amine absorption bands, and through (13)C and (29)Si NMR spectra, which confirm the proposed structure of the modified silica (Si-BP). Si-BP was used to extract cadmium and lead from an aqueous medium at 298 K. The Si-BP kinetics towards metal ions was very fast, i.e., about 10 minutes, although extraction was significantly impaired at pH 3. The series of adsorption isotherms were adjusted to a modified Langmuir equation and the maximum extraction capacity was 0.193 and 0.387 mmol g(-1) for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively. An analysis of the empty set values lead to the inference that the resulting metal ligand complex was type 1:1.
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Processo FAPESP: 06/54946-9; A method was developed to attach 4-amino-2-mercaptopyrimidine (AMP) onto silica gel surface and to determine trace metals. The Surface functionalization reaction was performed with a silylant agent, chloropropyltrimethoxysilane (Si-CPTS), and the product, Si-AMP, was characterized by FT-IR and elemental analysis to evaluate the Surface modification. The functionalized silica was applied in the sorption of Cu(II) ions from an aqueous medium. The series of adsorption isotherms were adjusted to a modified Langmuir equation and the maximum number of moles of adsorbed copper was 0.447 mmol g(-1). The modified material was placed in a preconcentration system, where it reached ail approximately 20-fold enrichment factor using 5 mg of Si-AMP. The proposed method was applied in the preconcentration and determination of Cu(II) in a fresh water sample from the Parana river and was validated through a comparative analysis of a standard reference material (1643 e). (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 06/54946-9; A method was developed to attach 2,2-bipyridine (BP) onto a silica gel surface by a two-step reaction. The first step consisted of a reaction between the matrix and a silylating agent, 3-chloropropyltrimeth-oxysilane. In the second step of the reaction, a ligand molecule was attached onto Si-CPTS, yielding the product Si-BP. The modified material contained 0.431 +/- 0.01 mmol of 2,2-bipyridine per gram of modified silica, as confirmed by FT-IR spectra of the proposed structure. The surface modification was characterized by the BET technique, which revealed a decrease in the surface area from 614 to 450 m(2) g(-1). The series of adsorption isotherms for the metal ions were adjusted to fit a modified Langmuir equation. The maximum number of moles of copper, cadmium and lead ions adsorbed was 0.64, 0.53, and 0.54 mmol g-1, respectively. The surface saturation was calculated as phi fraction and the values obtained, Cu(II) = 1.160, Cd(II) = 1.044 and Pb(II) = 0.997, suggest a type 1:1 metal-ligand complex.
A solid paraffin-based carbon paste electrode modified with 2-aminothiazole organofunctionalized silica (SiAt-SPCPE) was applied to Ni2+ determination in commercial ethanol fuel samples. The proposed method comprised four steps: (1) Ni2+ preconcentration at open circuit potential directly in the ethanol fuel sample, (2) transference of the electrode to an electrochemical cell containing DMG, (3) differential pulse voltammogram registering and (4) surface regeneration by polishing the electrode. The proposed method combines the high Ni2+ adsorption capacity presented by 2-aminothiazole organofunctionalized silica with the electrochemical properties of the Ni(DMG)2 complex, whose electrochemical reduction provides the analytical signal.All experimental parameters involved in the proposed method were optimized. Using a preconcentration time of 20 min, it was obtained a linear range from 7.5 x 10(-9) to 1.0 x 10(-6) mol L-1 with detection limit of 2.0 x 10(-9) mol L-1. Recovery values between 96.5 and 102.4% were obtained for commercial samples spiked with 1.0 mu mol L-1 Ni2+ and the developed electrode was totally stable in ethanolic solutions. The contents of Ni2+ found in the commercial samples using the proposed method were compared to those obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy by using the F- and t-test. Neither the F- nor t-values exceeded the critical values at 95% confidence level...
5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol groups attached on a silica gel surface have been used for adsorption of Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption capacities for each metal ion were (in mmol.g(-1)): Cd(II)= 0.35, Co(II)= 0.10, Cu(II)= 0.15, Fe(III)= 0.20, Hg(Il)= 0.46, Ni(II)= 0.16, Pb(II)= 0.13 and Zn(II)= 0.15. The modified silica gel was applied in the preconcentration and quantification of trace level metal ions present in water samples (river, and bog water).
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Processo FAPESP: 10/13735-0; Processo FAPESP: 08/09697-6; The synthesis of colloidal SiO2 nanoparticles was achieved via the base-catalyzed hydrolysis and polycondensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in an alcoholic medium with the careful variation of the concentrations of water, ammonia and TEOS. In this study, we investigated the influence of experimental parameters on the average size of nanoparticles by means of a multivariate statistical analysis using a factorial design to create one model to predict particle size in function of experimental conditions. This model predicted that it is possible to synthesize silica nanoparticles with size in the range from 17 to 333 nm, according to the chosen condition for the amount of water, ammonia and TEOS. It was observed that only the molar amount of NH3, the molar amount of H2O and the effect from interaction between molar amount of TEOS and H2O were significant. Subsequently, surface modification of the colloidal silica was performed in situ using the coupling agent 3(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPM). (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Reliable spectral analysis is only achieved if the spectrum is thoroughly investigated in regard to all hidden and overlapped peaks. This paper describes the steps undertaken to find and separate such peaks in the range of 3000 to 4000 cm(-1) in the case of three different infrared absorption spectra of the glass surface of hydrolyzed silica optical fibers. Peak finding was done by the analysis of the second and fourth derivatives of the digital data, coupled with the available knowledge of infrared spectroscopy of silica-water interaction in the investigated range. Peak separation was accomplished by curve fitting with four different models. The model with the best fit was described by a sum of pure Gaussian peaks. Shoulder limit and detection limit maps were used to validate the revealed spectral features.
A mercury-sensitive chemically modified electrode (CME) based on modified silica gel-containing carbon paste was developed. The functional group attached to the silica gel surface was 3-(2-thiobenzimidazolyl)propyl, which is able to complex mercury ions. This electrode was applied to the determination of mercury(II) ions in aqueous solution. The mercury was chemically preconcentrated on the CME prior to voltammetric determination by anodic stripping in the differential-pulse mode. A calibration graph covering the concentration range from 0.08 to 2 mg l-1 was constructed. The precision for six determinations of 0.122 and 0.312 mg l-1 Hg(II) was 3.2 and 2.9% (relative standard deviation), respectively. The detection limit for a 5-min preconcentration period was 0.013 mg l-1. A study for foreign ions was also made.
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigated the effects of volatile solvents (such as water, propanone, ethanol, methanol or ethyl ether), treatment and drying processes, microwave ovens, drying ovens, and vacuum desiccators or freeze driers, on silica morphology. Silica gel was obtained from diluted sodium silicate (1:5 w/w SiO2:H2O). The results showed that the drying process based on freeze drying is more efficient for structural conservation of the precipitate. Treatment with volatile solvents does not change the shape of the aggregates, but has an important role in the determination of aggregate surface roughness.
The adsorption isotherms of MCl(2) (M = Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd) and FeCl3 by silica gel chemically modified with benzimidazole molecules (= SI(CH2)(3)-NC7H5N) were studied in ethanol solution at 298 K. A column made of modified silica was used to adsorb and preconcentrate the above metal ions from ethanol solution. Elution was done with 0.1 M hydrochloric acid in an ethanol/water mixture having a mole fraction of water of 0.8. The material was applied in the preconcentration of metal ions from commercial ethanol normally used as engine fuel.
Silica gel, chemically modified with 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole [=Si(CH2)(3)-NC2HNS3], abbreviated as SiB, was used to adsorb metal ions from ethanol by both batch and column techniques. Elution of Cu(II) was done with a solvent mixture of acetone and hydrochloric acid (9:1 v/v). Zn(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Co(II) and Fe(III) were eluted with 0.5 mol l(-1) HC1 in ethanol solution. The modified silica was applied in the preconcentration of metal ions from commercial ethanol, normally used as engine fuel. The method is suitable for quantifying these metals at low mu g l(-1) levels.
Hydrothermal and solvothermal (isopropanol) treatments of gadolinium oxide and silica were investigated under different pressure and temperature conditions. Products were examined by infrared vibrational spectroscopy (IR), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (DTA, TG). Hexagonal gadolinium hydroxide was obtained in hydrothermal conditions, even in presence of silica, while no change was observed from isopropanolic medium treatment. Hydrothermally treated samples are more reactive as precursors for solid state reactions in inorganic synthesis.
Covalently attached benzimidazole molecules on silica gel surface, ≡SiL (where L = N-propyl-benzimidazole), adsorbs Co(ClO4)2 from non-aqueous solvent by forming a surface complex according to the reaction: m ≡SiL + Co(ClO4)2 → (≡SiL)mCo(ClO4)2. The equilibrium constant and the adsorption capacity, determined by applying the Langmuir equation were b = 3.0 × 103 L mol-1 and Ns= 0.098 × 10-3 mol g-1, respectively. The metal is bonded through the nitrogen atom and the perchlorate ion is not coordinated. The ESR study indicated that the complex has essentially an octahedral geometry with tetragonal distortion, with the electrons of the four nitrogen atoms interacting with the cobalt central metal ion in the equatorial plane. Only one complex species was detected on the surface.