With many free simulations available to developers, it is desirable to marry the existing library and work of these simulations in an attempt to create a completely open source virtual reality environment to facilitate computer aided training and simulation. Key problems associated with developing a large scale Multiple User Virtual Environment (MUVE) are analyzed including appropriate server - client architecture, terrain and object model formats, and overall project scalability. Solutions to these problems are proposed and analyzed, including using existing commercial and open source projects in development, using projects already deployed, or the feasibility of developing a new solution to meet the requirements of this thesis. Advantages, disadvantages, and possible military and educational uses for each of these free simulations and the associated persistent mirror worlds are also analyzed to recommend a direction of action for military and education simulation and training.
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; The research presented in this thesis attempts to show how using a competitive approach to artificial intelligence (AI) design can lead to improvement of the AI solutions used in military simulations. To demonstrate the potential of the competitive approach, ORTS, a real-time strategy game engine, and its competition setup are used. To justify the thesis statement, a set of exploratory experiments are conducted. The experiments represent a tournament of virtual battles between base case AIs and test case AIs. The existing OTRS clients are used as base cases, and the test cases are evolved using the competitive approach to AI design described in this work. The analysis of the results from the tournament proves the advantages of the competitive approach. At the end of the thesis, some conclusions and recommendations for future work are made.
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; There are few tools available for military and civilian simulation developers to quickly and efficiently develop high-fidelity digital environments capable of supporting high-resolution, agent-based simulation. In this work, the author has tried to lay a solid foundation for further understanding the digital terrain support available to simulation developers. This thesis explores numerous digital terrain data representations and tools available to create digital environments. The work explores the specific problem of terrain database generation for agent-based ground combat simulation. To accomplish this, the author explores the more general problem of where to find the data, what tools are available, and how to put the pieces together to create a registered digital environment on a state-of-the-art computer. The author envisions this methodology to be the first step in the design of an automated planning tool capable of importing real world digital terrain data and quickly generating agent-based military combat scenarios for any location on earth. This work provides a logical construct and design methodology for an analyst to create high fidelity terrain data sets. It functions as a "how to" manual to help analysts understand which information and tools are available to use for different types of simulation projects.
As the discipline of Modeling and Simulation (MandS) becomes more complex, modelers are faced with mounting challenges to design and analyze simulations that effectively address difficult problems across military, industrial, and societal fields. Understanding the effects of time-advance mechanisms (TAMs) is essential to making advances in the design and use of MandS across a wide variety of domains. We perform a series of empirical studies to characterize and compare the influence of discrete event simulation (DES) and discrete time simulation (DTS) approaches, and describe the effects of changes in time "step" sizes across a number of vital simulation areas including queuing systems, combat systems, and human behavior representations of military significance. Our results illustrate that the choice of TAM can have a significant impact on the behavior of models, the output obtained from simulation tools, and the recommendations that are likely to result. We describe inconsistencies and the emergence of unintended behaviors resulting from the use of different TAM approaches and DTS time "steps." We conclude that the DES approach is more likely to produce trustworthy simulation results for decision-making applications, and that the time step approach carries additional inherent risks that are often invisible to modelers of complex systems.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; Documents include Paper and Powerpoint Presentation.; The Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) is a common language for expressing and
exchanging plans, orders, requests, and reports across command and control systems, modeling and simulation
systems, and robotic systems. A Phase 1 C-BML Specification is being drafted in preparation for balloting later this
year. The C-BML information exchange structure and content portion of the specification provides a means to express
plans, orders, reports, and requests using the Extensible Markup Language (XML).
The Military Scenario Definition Language (MSDL) is an approved SISO standard (SISO-STD-007-2008, October
2008) that specifies an XML-based language designed to support military scenario development. The standard
provides the modeling and simulation community a common mechanism for verifying and loading military scenarios,
the ability to create a military scenario that can be shared between simulations and C4I devices, a way to improve
scenario consistency between federated simulations, and the ability to reuse military scenarios as scenario
descriptions are standardized throughout the Army, Joint, and international communities and across simulation
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; The Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) is a common language for expressing and exchanging plans, orders, requests, and reports across command and control systems, modeling and simulation systems, and robotic systems. C-BML is an emerging standard from the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO). The Military Scenario Definition Language (MSDL) is a SISO-approved standard for describing forces, force structures, environment, and other aspects of military scenarios.MSDL is generally employed for initializing databases of simulation systems prior to execution of the simulation, but it is recognized that certain objects specified by MSDL data structures can be defined during execution. C-BML is generally considered a language for expressing plans, orders, requests, and reports during an operation (during execution), but is clearly applicable to expression of plans, orders, and requests given to simulation objects prior to execution (during initialization) so that the objects can begin performing those orders when execution begins. While these intertwined purposes have been discussed in the respective development groups, no clear specification of the approach has been put forward for consideration by the respective specification groups.
This paper provides a brief description of the two languages and discusses the issues relating to their use in pre-execution and during execution of simulation and C2 systems supporting an operational or synthetic event. The paper provides examples of possible use of data constructs from the two languages in pre-execution and during execution to illustrate synergistic employment of the two languages.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação NavalPublicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Paper and Presentation
Relevância na Pesquisa
The Military Scenario Definition Language (MSDL) version 1.0 was recently approved as a new
international standard by the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO). MSDL is intended to be
used as a common data representation for storing scenario information for use in initializing a variety of simulation
systems. In today’s Joint Operational Environment, the Military component is only one of six complex dimensions
that need to be simulated, the others being Political, Economic, Social, Infrastructure, and Information (making up
the common PMESII acronym). Stability Operations have been elevated to have equal weight with combat
operations, creating new emphasis on the other five dimensions in training and analysis simulations. Under the
mandate for the military to support Stability, Security, Transition, and Reconstruction (SSTR) Operations, military
decision makers are focusing on new areas of concern, including the fundamental mission of restoration of essential
services. In order for MSDL to maintain its relevance, an enabling framework must be incorporated. The first step is
to provide schema designs for essential services and how entities relate to each other from the social aspect. This
paper provides a design that can be easily adapted to military supplies...
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação NavalPublicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Relevância na Pesquisa
The Military Scenario Definition Language (MSDL) is a common language for describing components
of military scenarios that can be shared across a variety of modeling and simulation systems. Version 1.0 of the
MSDL specification was approved as a Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) balloted standard
in October 2008. Numerous initiatives are in progress to employ the new standard and to realize the benefits of
exchanging scenarios files across diverse systems. The US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC)
Research and Analysis Center, Monterey (TRAC-Monterey) is developing a Rapid Scenario Generation tool to assist
a user in constructing courses of action that can be exercised in various simulation systems, such as Pythagoras and
the Infantry Warrior Simulation (IWARS). This paper describes the Rapid Scenario Generation tool and its use of
MSDL as an archival format for storing and exchanging scenario information.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação NavalPublicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Conference Paper
Relevância na Pesquisa
Proceedings of the 2006 Winter Simulation Conference, 1349-1356.; SEED Center Paper; Many military planning problems are difficult to solve using
pure mathematical programming techniques. One such
problem is scheduling unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in
military operations subject to dynamic movement and control
constraints. This problem is instead formulated as a
dynamic programming problem whose approximate solution
is obtained via the Assignment Scheduling Capability
for UAVs (ASC-U) model using concepts from both simulation
and optimization. Optimization is very effective at
identifying the best decision for static problems, but is
weaker in identifying the best decision in dynamic systems.
Simulation is very effective in modeling and capturing
dynamic effects, but is weak in optimizing from alternatives.
ASC-U exploits the relative strengths of both
methodologies by periodically re-optimizing UAV assignments
and then having the simulation transition the states
according to state dynamics. ASC-U thus exploits the
strengths of simulation and optimization to construct good,
timely solutions that neither optimization nor simulation
could achieve alone.
In the Spring Quarter of the 2005 Academic Year, the Naval Posgraduate School introduced a new course to focus on Modeling and Simulation for Military Operations Other Than War. The course was designed to present and discover issues, challenges and opportunities for application of modeling and simulation (M&S) to Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW). Students were given hands-on experience with a number of current and emerging M&S simulations and computational tools relevant to MOOTW. This paper describes the nature and general content of the course, with identification of the specific models/tools introduced in the instruction and a summary of MOOTW M&S requirements, issues and lessons learned from class discussions and student activites.
Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; The usual frameworks applied to the analysis of military decision making describe the decision process according to the rational model. The assumptions inherent in this model. however, are not consistent with the reality of warfare's inherent uncertainty and complexity. A better model is needed to address the ambiguilty actually confronting the combat commander. The garbage can model of organizational choice, a nonrational approach to decision making, provides insight into how the elements of an organization interact under problematic conditions. A system simulation associated with the garbage can framework was adapted to model certain aspects of complex decision situations, providing a foundation for studying attention mechanisms like triggering, deadlines, and structural adaptations. The results and implications of this research apply not only to the military, but also to business and political organizations, as they too must often confront these conditions of uncertainty and complexity; http://archive.org/details/simulationstudyo00athe; Captain, United States Marine Corps
Dela3D, the open source game and simulation engine built for military training, in continuing to be improved to meet the requirements of the military users. The most recent upgrades, available in versions 1.4 and later, include adding capability for After Action Rerview, integration with SCORM-compliant learning management systems (LMS's), and distributed interactive simulation (DIS) networking. Additionally, more applications, created by both government users and civilian companies, continue to be built using Delta3D and its expanding capabilities. With these added features, Delta3D has become the engine of choice for several military simulations, including programs of record. The developers and program managers of these programs were attracted by its advanced technical features, its lack of proprietary vendor lock-in and licensing fees, and the ability to quickly produce sophisticated applications using Delta3D. This paper discusses the current state of Delta3D version 1.4 and how developers and program managers can use Delta3D to quickly and cheaply build complex training systems. It will also briefly touch uopn the systems currently being built using Delta3D and how some of these have been proven to work in a training environment. It will also discuss what improvements to the engine will be added in the near future.
Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited; In the near future advances in mechanical and electrical engineering will enable the production of a wide variety of relatively low cost robotic vehicles. This thesis investigates the behavior of swarms of military robots acting autonomously. The Multi-Agent Robot Swarm Simulation (MARSS) was developed for modeling the behavior of swarms of military robots. MARSS contains state, sensing, and behavioral model building tools that allow a range of complex entities and interactions to be represented. It is a model-building tool that draws theory and ideas from agent-based simulation, discrete event simulation, traditional operations research, search theory, swarm theory, and experimental design. MARSS enables analysts to explore the effect of individual behavioral factors on swarm performance. The performance response surface can be explored using designed experiments. A model was developed in MARSS to investigate the effects of increasing behavioral complexity for a search scenario involving a swarm of Micro Air Vehicles (MAV's) searching for mobile tanks in a region. Agreement between theoretical and simulated search scenarios for simple searchers was found. The effect of increased MAV sensory and behavioral capability was demonstrated to be important. Little improvement was observed in swarm performance with these capabilities...
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Today's military is changing. We are changing the size and structure of our forces, reevaluating our missions, and looking at military applications of new and emerging technologies. Simulation will play a key role in aiding decision-makers during these changes. This thesis demonstrates the development and use of simple, single-purpose simulation models. These models answer specific questions and can be created quickly with readily available tools. The simulation developed in this thesis is designed to serve as a basis for further studies involving the Longbow Apache. This simulation is a stochastic, process- oriented, event-step model. To demonstrate the use of this model, a comparative analysis was performed to evaluate two field artillery "call-for-fire" procedures. Is a proposed call-for-fire procedure based on new digital technologies superior to the current process? The experiment incorporated a pre/ post-process design resulting in paired observations of the artillery's effectiveness before and after incorporation of the new technology. Results indicate the proposed procedure is superior to the current procedure. Sensitivity analysis was also performed on two input parameters as a three-by- three factorial experiment. This analysis concluded the previous results were sensitive to the specific parameter values chosen. Recommendations are made for model improvement and topics for future study; http://www.archive.org/details/analyzingsensors00olso; Captain...
The purpose of this thesis is to assess the probability of a diesel submarine's successful attack when using bearings-only Target Motion Analysis (TMA) while approaching a surface target. Four different approach tactics are examined: POINT LEAD - POINT, POINT - LEAD - LAG, POINT - LAG - LEAD and POINT - LAG - POINT. The submarine approach problem addressed in this thesis was solved using Monte Carlo simulation. Each simulation run includes 1,000 replications for each combination of submarine speed, target speed and tactic. Each replication starts by specifying initial conditions for the target and submarine. Then the submarine's approach phase is simulated, consisting of three legs (TMA maneuvers) during which the submarine computes the target speed, course and range. The simulation continues with the attack phase, where the submarine decides if a torpedo can reach the target. Finally the success or failure of the attack is determined. The number of successful attacks in each simulation is a measure of effectiveness of the particular tactic. The simulation shows that the tactic which maximizes the probability of successful attack is Point-Lead-Point, but possibly other considerations not captured in the simulation model would recommend a different tactic choice. Due to the variety' of arbitrar' tactical assumptions...
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The purpose of this thesis is to determine which of three competing theories of what occurred at the Battle of Little Bighorn is the most plausible by utilizing the Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation (JCATS) program developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. There are many practical gains that JCATS can provide today's military with regard to training and educating soldiers for future conflicts. JCATS can be used to train soldiers in planning and executing missions in ways not feasible with conventional field training exercises utilizing live bodies and real vehicles. It is also increasingly being used for actual mission planning. However, very little has been done using JCATS to war-game past operations. There are two points to be gained by using JCATS to model a historical battle such as the Battle of Little Bighorn. First, it validates the ability of JCATS to accurately model actual historical scenarios while identifying many of the specific limitations of the program. If the military is going to use computer simulations such as JCATS in lieu of field training exercises to train soldiers, it must first be determined if the program produces realistic results. Modeling an actual battle and comparing the results of the program with what actually occurred is one means of doing so. Second...
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Virtual environments have achieved widespread use in the military in applications such as theater planning, training, and architectural walkthroughs. These applications are generally expensive and inflexible in design and implementation. Re-purposing these applications to meet the dynamic modeling and simulation needs of the military can be awkward or impossible. Video games are designed to be both technologically advanced and flexible in design. We evaluated current games and modified Quake 3 Arena(Q3A) to serve as both an architectural walkthrough and a primitive team trainer. To accomplish this, we incorporated a real Naval Postgraduate School building into Q3A. We also modified the game's source code, characters and their behaviors, weapons models and characteristics, and overall game play. By re-purposing commercial entertainment software, we have produced a viable military virtual environment application that is less expensive yet arguably as engaging as current computer- based options. This application was created in approximately 300 man-hours with a cost of $6780 (including hardware); far less than the development time and cost of similar military virtual environment applications. Game evaluations included in this thesis facilitate and inform similar modification efforts by highlighting entertainment technology available in the year 2000 game market; http://www.archive.org/details/repurposingcomme00debr; Lieutenant...
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Military plan validation is typically a long-drawn process requiring planners to validate their plans using anticipated scenarios or through military exercises. While military exercises provide realistic simulation of the plan, it is often the most expensive way of validating a plan. On the other hand, although using anticipated scenarios is relatively cheaper, the robustness of the validated plans is dependent on the extensiveness of the scenarios that they are validated against. This thesis explores the possibility of using a multi-agent system (MAS) to generate the aggressor's air strike plans, which could be coupled with a low resolution Discrete Event Simulation (DES) based air defense simulator to augment human planners in their plan validation. A MAS-based strike plan generator was built based on the tactics described in air strike doctrines. A DES-based air defense simulator was also built to provide an agent environment by modeling the behavior of air defense assets and their interactions with the aggressor's fighters. The resulting system demonstrates the ability to validate air defense plans using MAS generated strike plans and a low resolution DES-based simulator. It also provides a platform to assist air defense planners in foreseeing the action...
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Throughout history, military warriors have used games to accomplish training objectives. Recently, personal computer-based games have emerged as viable training platforms. In this research project, we evaluated the training effectiveness of simulation games using a particular proprietary first-person view tactical trainer called Virtual Battlespace 2TM. Specifically, we examined squad level tactical maneuver of a combat convoy in a semi-permissive environment. We found that personal computer-based gaming was at least as effective as traditional training methods such as the sand table for preparatory tactical training. We found that trainees felt better trained after operating in the virtual environment. We also conducted an experiment to determine the extent to which the training of the simulation controller influences the effectiveness of the simulation. We found that the facilitator role can detract from a trainer's focus and that the trainer's practice and experience greatly affect the simulation training. Our findings justify the use of personal computer-based games for small unit tactical training. We conclude that personal computer-based gaming at the unit level can be a training multiplier...
The recently completed integrated project by the Systems Engineering and Analysis Cohort 15 at NPS has devised a regional Maritime Theater Security Force to conduct Phase Zero operations based on a tasking from OPNAV N8F. The force's airlift capability was identified as a critical component in the accomplishment of the missions and the required force structure was determined using a mix of mathematical and linear optimization modeling. The goal for this thesis is to develop a stochastic model using Discrete Event Simulation (DES) that can be employed to analyze the devised force structure's airlift operation performance at the operational/tactical level to augment the analysis work performed under that project. The intent is to provide a more complete solution for any stakeholders who want to take the project further to the next level. The resulting model demonstrates the ability to measure the airlift operation performance and provide insights into the operation workflow efficiency. The experiments conducted support the earlier findings on the devised Phase Zero force's ability to meet the most stringent mission requirements but suggested a different maximum airlift capability.; Singapore Defence Science and Technology Agency author (civilian).