A necessidade de se promover uma expansão sólida da base exportadora brasileira passa pela compreensão dos fatores que caracterizam a maior permanência das empresas no mercado externo. Este trabalho teve como principal objetivo identificar de que forma as características iniciais (observadas anteriormente à estréia na atividade exportadora) das empresas estreantes no mercado externo, e em especial a realização de inovação tecnológica, geram impacto sobre a probabilidade de permanência delas na atividade exportadora. Para isso, foram estimados, para duas amostras de empresas, três modelos logit com variáveis dependentes discretas, quais foram: modelo de escolha binária, modelo multinomial de escolha não ordenada e modelo multinomial de escolha ordenada. Os resultados demonstraram que a maior probabilidade de que as empresas permaneçam continuamente no mercado exportador está associada às condições iniciais de maior eficiência, determinada pela maior produtividade do trabalho e pela obtenção de ganhos de escala, e maior competitividade de custos, determinados pelo salário médio menor e pela margem de lucro reduzida. Essas evidências podem estar relacionadas com a hipótese da auto-seleção. No entanto, o fato de a empresa realizar inovações tecnológicas faz com que a dependência dessas condições iniciais para determinar a maior probabilidade de permanência no mercado externo seja menor. Essa constatação sugere a existência de algum efeito aprendizado decorrente da participação na atividade exportadora.; The necessity of promoting a solid expansion of the Brazilian exporting base requires the understanding of the factors responsible for the larger permanence of the firms in the external market. This work had as main objective to identify how initial characteristics (observed previously to the debut in the exporting activity) of the firms embracing the external market...
A maior integração entre os mercados traz novos desafios às empresas que se arriscam no comércio internacional. Para competir no mercado global, as firmas nacionais precisam atingir patamares de produtividade compatíveis com as suas concorrentes estrangeiras. Além disso, existem sunk-costs que precisam ser pagos pelas firmas estreantes no mercado externo. Assim, uma empresa que deseja exportar precisa (1) atingir níveis de produtividade competitivos e (2) ter fluxo de caixa ou condições de tomar crédito para pagar os sunk-costs. A pesquisa se propõe justamente a analisar os efeitos do acesso ao comércio internacional sobre as firmas industriais brasileiras. Observaremos quais os impactos da exportação sobre a produtividade e da restrição de crédito das empresas sobre a exportação. Três artigos serão elaborados. No primeiro, estudaremos o número de destinos atendidos pelas firmas brasileiras nas suas vendas ao exterior. Queremos analisar as diferenças entre as empresas que exportam para muitos países das empresas que exportam para poucos. Também, queremos saber quais mercados as firmas priorizam e se há uma ordem de entrada nos países. No segundo artigo, avaliaremos os ganhos de produtividade ex-ante e ex-post que são obtidos pelas empresas que exportam para quatro blocos econômicos: o Mercosul...
Did the North American Free Trade
Agreement make Mexican firms more productive? If so, through
which channels? This paper addresses these questions by
deploying an innovative microeconometric approach that
disentangles the various channels through which integration
with the global markets (via international trade) can affect
firm-level productivity. The results show that the North
American Free Trade Agreement stimulated the productivity of
Mexican plants via: (1) an increase in import competition
and (2) a positive effect on access to imported intermediate
inputs. However, the impact of trade reforms was not
identical for all integrated firms, with fully integrated
firms (i.e. firms simultaneously exporting and importing)
benefiting more than other integrated firms. Contrary to
previous results, once self-selection problems are solved,
the analysis finds a rather weak relationship between
exports and productivity growth.
reviews the micro-level evidence on the
effects of trade and investment liberalization in the
developing world. He focuses, in particular, on the effects
of the 1991 trade reform in India since it provides an
excellent controlled experiment in which the effects of a
drastic trade regime change can be measured. His main
findings are: 1) There is evidence of trade-induced
productivity gains (in this respect, however, India is an
exception. 2) These gains mainly stem from intra-industry
reallocation of resources among firms with different
productivity levels. 3) The gains are larger in
import-competing sectors. 4) There is no evidence of
significant scale efficiency gains. Unilateral trade
liberalization is often associated with a reduced scale
efficiency. 5) There is evidence of a pro-competitive effect
of trade liberalization. 6) There is no evidence either of
learning-by-exporting effects or of beneficial spillover
effects from foreign-owned to local firms active in the same
sectors. 7) There is evidence...
In this article, the authors thoroughly examine the learning-by-exporting (LBE) hypothesis for Colombian manufacturing plants during 1981–91 and find significant evidence in its favor. The results are robust to the use of different samples of the data set, different econometric methods, and different modeling approaches. The authors find that export experience acquired by plants in years before the previous year has an important effect on plant productivity and that the effect of export experience on productivity is nonsignificant for exporters that stopped exporting in the previous year. There is also evidence of diminishing returns to export experience in that LBE effects are quantitatively lower for the experienced exporters in the sample.
This thesis uses Chinese firm-level data to investigate the relationships between the export premium, firm productivity and wage inequality. Using Chinese annual survey data for all state-owned firms and other non-state-owned firms with sales on mainland China over 5 million RMB, the author finds that there is a series of premiums for exporters compared with non-exporters. On average, exporters pay higher wages, produce more, sell more, add more value, employ more labour, have higher capital intensity, and have higher productivity (based on 1999-2003 data). Firms with relatively high export values will also be relatively more productive. Quantile results show that the premium decreases with the increase of the quantile. In addition, the export premium declines over time and across the industries, provinces and ownership types, and the higher the export intensity, the lower the export premium. The thesis further investigates the question: what determines the export
premium – the selection effect or learning-by-exporting effect? First, the author uses the Olley and Pakes (1996) method to control both selection and simultaneity bias to estimate the reliable firm productivity. Then the author tests the self-selection and learning-by-exporting effects both parametrically and non-parametrically. The author finds both strong self-selection and learning-by-exporting effects at the aggregate level. The higher the productivity the firm has today...
This thesis examines the link between trade liberalization and firm productivity in Vietnam. In the thesis, the relationship between exporting activity and firm productivity in Vietnam is also examined. Chapter 2 gives an overview of Vietnam’s economy from the pre-reform period to the reform process that was introduced in 1986. Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 introduce the related theoretical and empirical literature. Chapter 5 examines the relationship between trade liberalization and firm productivity in Vietnam, using micro-level data of the Vietnamese manufacturing firms from 2000 to 2003. The results given in the study show that a decrease in output tariffs and input tariffs increases firm productivity in Vietnam, implying that trade liberalization has a positive impact on firm productivity levels and economic growth in Vietnam. The results given in the study are confirmed in both fixed-effects and first-differences models. The study also employs the instrumental variable method to control for the possible endogeneity between productivity and trade liberalization. Chapter 6 examines the relationship between the firm’s decision to export and firm-specific characteristics in Vietnam by using the Vietnamese manufacturing and services firm data. The study also examines the country-of-origin effects of foreign investment on a firm’s export decision. The empirical results given in this study support the evidence of the positive effects of firm productivity on a firm’s export decision...
The empirical evidence on whether participation in export markets increases plant-level productivity has been inconclusive so far. The authors explain this inconclusiveness by drawing on Arrow's (1962) characterization of learning-by-doing, which suggests focusing on young plants and using measures of export experience rather than export participation. They find strong evidence of learning-by-exporting for young Colombian manufacturing plants between 1981 and 1991: total factor productivity increases 4-5 percent for each additional year a plant has exported, after controlling for the effect of current exports on total factor productivity. Learning-by-exporting is more important for young than for old plants and in industries that deliver a larger percentage of their exports to high-income countries.
Pistonesi, Héctor; Nadal, Gustavo; Bravo, Víctor; Bouille, Daniel
Fonte: ECLACPublicador: ECLAC
Relevância na Pesquisa
Includes bibliography; Given the increasing difficulty of ensuring the supply of crude oil and oil products, and the sharp increase in their prices, biofuels programmes in the developed countries-particularly the United States and the European Union-represent a series of opportunities, challenges and risks for the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. Thus, if biofuels production is to create economic growth without jeopardising our natural capital and social equity, it must be developed in the framework of well thought-out national policy.Biofuels public policy cannot ignore national objectives, which involve not only agro productive specialization, but also expanding the availability of energy to the population and protecting the natural patrimony. Accordingly, it is incumbent on each country to define its own agenda, taking advantage of the demand from the developed countries as a means of solving their own problems and creating new opportunities for sustainable rural development. Given the complex, multi-dimensional nature of biofuels policymaking-as will be outlined in this paper-it is only under certain conditions that biofuels production programmes can contribute to sustainable development.A significant number of the region's countries have set goals for the local market...
Benavente Hormazábal, José Miguel; González, Álvaro; Bravo Ortega, Claudio
Fonte: Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Economía y NegociosPublicador: Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Economía y Negocios
Tipo: Documento de trabajo
Relevância na Pesquisa
Both exports and innovation (in particular, research and development) are key factors for
the growth of firms and economies, but there has been little study of their combined
impact on them, especially in developing countries. This article uses plant-level data from
Chile to examine the relationship between productivity, R&D expenditure, and exports.
We find that firms that invest in R&D are considerably more likely to export, but the
reverse is not true. Even though exporting does not stimulate investment in R&D, both
exports and R&D have a joint effect on improving productivity. These results allow us to
recover the private return to “learning by exporting” across different sectors.