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Gerenciamento de resíduos sólidos gerados em laboratório de análises clínicas na cidade de Ribeirão Preto - SP, 2007: um estudo de caso; Management of solid waste generated in laboratory analyses in the city of Ribeirão Preto - SP, 2007: a case study

Silva, Claudia Mara da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/03/2008 PT
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O crescimento desordenado da população mundial, o aumento da industrialização, o consumismo exagerado, e, conseqüentemente, o aumento na geração de resíduos, vêm gerando impactos negativos na saúde humana e ambiental. No contexto dessa problemática ambiental, destaca-se a produção de resíduos perigosos e, entre esses, os resíduos de serviços de saúde - RSS. Por se caracterizarem como perigosos, várias recomendações, normas e legislações surgiram no âmbito mundial, no sentido de se encontrar um melhor sistema para seu manejo e destinação final. No Brasil, atualmente em vigor, as normas RDC No 306/04 da Anvisa e Resolução No 358/05 do Conama, dão diretrizes para a elaboração de um plano de gerenciamento de resíduos de serviços de saúde - PGRSS. Entretanto, tais legislações tratam os RSS de forma mais geral, não abordando especificamente a situação dos resíduos gerados em laboratórios de patologia e análises clínicas. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo diagnosticar a situação do gerenciamento de resíduos gerados em um laboratório de análises clínicas da rede privada, do município de Ribeirão Preto - SP, à luz da atual legislação brasileira sobre RSS. Trata-se de um estudo de caso com abordagem quali-quantitativa. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de duas entrevistas...

Impacto da implantação de um programa de acreditação laboratorial, avaliado por meio de indicadores de processo, num laboratório clínico de médio porte; Impact of the implementation of a laboratory accreditation program, evaluated by quality indicators, in a mid-level clinical laboratory

Vieira, Keila Furtado
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/12/2012 PT
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O trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a eficácia do processo de implantação de um programa de acreditação laboratorial através de indicadores. O uso dos indicadores vem sendo cada vez mais valorizado na gestão laboratorial por tratar-se de uma poderosa ferramenta para qualificar e quantificar falhas nos diferentes processos laboratoriais, bem como, auxiliar na implantação de medidas preventivas e corretivas, além de apontar a eficácia das ações tomadas. Nesse contexto, foi utilizado o modelo do Programa de Acreditação de Laboratórios Clínicos da Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica/Medicina Laboratorial (PALC SBPC/ML), o qual foi aplicado no Laboratório Unimed de Sorocaba. O ano de 2008 foi o ponto inicial para adequação do laboratório aos requisitos do PALC. Foram definidos 25 indicadores, sendo 14 focados aos aspectos gerenciais e 11 relacionados ao processo produtivo. Um grupo formado por 19 indicadores pôde ser comparado aos adotados pelo Programa de Indicadores Laboratoriais da SBPC/ML-ControlLab. A coleta de dados corresponde ao período entre 2006 e 2011. Para os indicadores avaliados pelo Programa de Indicadores Laboratoriais da SBPC/ML-ControlLab estabeleceu-se como meta a ser alcançada pelo Laboratório Unimed Sorocaba a mediana dos resultados obtidos pelos laboratórios participantes do programa. A análise estatística revelou que 10 indicadores apresentaram resultados satisfatórios e 4 Keila Furtado Vieira demonstraram piora. Outros 4 não apresentaram mudanças significativas e 7 não foram passíveis de análise estatística. Para os indicadores que se mostraram deficientes foram traçados planos de ação visando elevar a eficiência das respectivas atividades. A melhora dos indicadores refletiu as reestruturações de processo ocorridas para adequação à norma de acreditação escolhida; The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of implementation of a laboratory certification program by using laboratory quality indicators. The use of such indicators has been increasingly valued in laboratory management because it is a powerful tool to quantitatively and qualitatively measure mistakes in laboratory process...

O impacto da tecnologia da informação sobre os indicadores de desempenho, qualidade e economicos de um laboratorio clinico de medio porte; The impact of information technology on performance, quality and financial indicators in a medium-sized clinical laboratory

Andrea Kanashiro Cussiol
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/08/2009 PT
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O presente trabalho foi realizado no Laboratório do Hospital Unimed Sorocaba com o objetivo de avaliar a aplicabilidade e benefícios da Tecnologia da Informação (TI) no gerenciamento técnico e administrativo-financeiro, por meio de indicadores de desempenho (produção, produtividade e recoleta), qualidade (pesquisa de satisfação de pacientes e médicos) e econômicos (custos). Com a implantação do Sistema de Informação do Laboratorial (SIL), desenvolvido em 2000 pela instituição, em parceria com uma empresa segmento da TI, sucessivos processos laboratoriais foram aprimorados e/ou automatizados ao longo do tempo. Os dados utilizados compreenderam o período entre os anos de 1.996 e 2.008, sendo que os resultados de crescimento na produção foram de 589% e nas requisições de exames foram de 141%. Neste intervalo de tempo os recursos humanos progrediram em 112%, com maior necessidade de expansão no setor de coleta. O indicador de produtividade geral demonstrou um desenvolvimento significativo. A satisfação dos pacientes com o LUS teve um desempenho de 88% em 2007 e 82% no ano de 2008, onde esta tendência desfavorável justifica-se principalmente pela limitação de infra-estrutura nas áreas de atendimento ao paciente (recepção e coleta). O índice de satisfação do corpo clínico frente aos serviços laboratoriais foi de 98% e as sugestões dos clínicos foram revertidas em melhorias do serviço. Os custos foram analisados entre 2004 e 2008. Houve uma significativa variação nos custos totais do LUS...

Scientists and the 3Rs: attitudes to animal use in biomedical research and the effect of mandatory training in laboratory animal science

Franco, Nuno H.; Olsson, I. Anna S.
Fonte: Laboratory Animals Publicador: Laboratory Animals
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The 3Rs principle of replacement, reduction, and refinement has increasingly been endorsed by legislators and regulatory bodies as the best approach to tackle the ethical dilemma presented by animal experimentation in which the potential benefits for humans stand against the costs borne by the animals. Even when animal use is tightly regulated and supervised, the individual researcher’s responsibility is still decisive in the implementation of the 3Rs. Training in laboratory animal science (LAS) aims to raise researchers’ awareness and increase their knowledge, but its effect on scientists’ attitudes and practice has not so far been systematically assessed. Participants (n=206) in eight LAS courses (following the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations category C recommendations) in Portugal were surveyed in a self-administered questionnaire during the course. Questions were related mainly to the 3Rs and their application, attitudes to animal use and the ethical review of animal experiments. One year later, all the respondents were asked to answer a similar questionnaire (57% response rate) with added self-evaluation questions on the impact of training. Our results suggest that the course is effective in promoting awareness and increasing knowledge of the 3Rs...

The use of indicators in the pre-analytical phase as a laboratory management tool

Codagnone,Fabio Triachini; Alencar,Sibelle Mattos Flores; Shcolnik,Wilson; Chaves,Sergio Roberto da Silva; Silva,Luciano Andrade; Henriques,Victor Hugo Oliveira; Spitz,Luana Carrilho
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica; Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia; Sociedade Brasileira de Citopatologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica; Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia; Sociedade Brasileira de Citopatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2014 EN
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Introduction: Efficient laboratory services are the basis of modern health systems. Scientific innovations have contributed to substantial improvements in the laboratory environment, but errors still persist. These errors are classified as pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical, according to the time of occurrence. Objective: To evaluate the frequency of pre-analytical errors in the clinical laboratory service of a military hospital. Methods: A total of 329,582 tests were performed in the clinical laboratory of Hospital Naval Marcílio Dias (HNMD) from August to October 2012, and pre-analytical errors were documented. Results: The most frequent cause of the observed pre-analytical errors was hemolysis (27.54%), followed by samples not received (25.43%) and insufficient sample volume (18.49%). The samples from the Integrated Home Care Service (SIAD) showed the highest frequency of errors (3.38%), followed by those from the inpatient (0.76%) and the outpatient departments (0.21%). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the importance of managing laboratory pre-analytical quality in order to ensure service excellence.

Prevalence of unnecessary laboratory tests and related avoidable costs in intensive care unit

Oliveira,Anderson Magalhães; Oliveira,Marcio Vasconcelos; Souza,Claudio Lima
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica; Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia; Sociedade Brasileira de Citopatologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica; Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia; Sociedade Brasileira de Citopatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
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Introduction: Because of the increase in diagnostic resources, laboratory tests have become an essential tool in diagnostic elucidation. Therefore, we observe an increase in the number of tests request. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of laboratory tests requests by the intensive care unit (ICU) of the General Hospital at southwest Bahia, and to anticipate the expenses with unnecessary laboratory tests, indicating avoidable costs, and aiming at rationalization of laboratory tests use. Methods: This is a cross-sectional retrospective study, in which a survey on medical records and laboratory tests results of patients admitted to the ICU was conducted, in the period from August to September 2013. Results: The sample consisted of 105 patients, 58.1% males, 47.6% aged between 18-59 years. During the period, 12.217 laboratory tests were ordered, of which 49.4% was within the normal limits. The more requested exams were: complete blood count, sodium, and potassium. A number of 1.750 laboratory tests could be evaluated according to criteria established in the literature, among them, 719 (41%) were considered unnecessary. A greater number of requests (29%) were observed on Mondays, compared with the average of the rest of the week. Conclusion: Significant number of unnecessary testing was found...

The Help System in the Clinical Laboratory: Laboratory Data in Drug Monitoring and Interpretation of Drug Effects on Laboratory Tests

Clark, Stephen J.; Welling, Eric C.; McCloskey, Donald W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/10/1979 EN
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The automated utilization of laboratory test in a central data base decision-making system is described. A compilation of medical knowledge pertaining to adverse drug reactions and the effects of drugs on clinical laboratory tests has been developed and stored for routine monitoring of all in-patients. This knowledge base is used to report automatically when the data suggests possible adverse effects from drug therapy or drug-induced abnormalities of clinical laboratory tests. Laboratory results were responsible for 40% of the reported potential adverse drug effects; of these, 74% resulted in a modification of drug therapy. Preliminary experience with automated monitoring of drug-induced abnormalities of laboratory tests has shown that more sophisticated criteria are required to minimize false-positive decisions.

Open- and Closed-Formula Laboratory Animal Diets and Their Importance to Research

Barnard, Dennis E; Lewis, Sherry M; Teter, Beverly B; Thigpen, Julius E
Fonte: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science Publicador: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Almost 40 y ago the scientific community was taking actions to control environmental factors that contribute to variation in the responses of laboratory animals to scientific manipulation. Laboratory animal diet was recognized as an important variable. During the 1970s, the American Institute of Nutrition, National Academy of Science, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, and Laboratory Animals Centre Diets Advisory Committee supported the use of ‘standard reference diets’ in biomedical research as a means to improve the ability to replicate research. As a result the AIN76 purified diet was formulated. During this same time, the laboratory animal nutritionist at the NIH was formulating open-formula, natural-ingredient diets to meet the need for standardized laboratory animal diets. Since the development of open-formula diets, fixed-formula and constant-nutrient–concentration closed-formula laboratory animal natural ingredient diets have been introduced to help reduce the potential variation diet can cause in research.

Risk Management in the Clinical Laboratory

Njoroge, Sarah W; Nichols, James H
Fonte: The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine Publicador: The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Clinical laboratory tests play an integral role in medical decision-making and as such must be reliable and accurate. Unfortunately, no laboratory tests or devices are foolproof and errors can occur at pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical phases of testing. Evaluating possible conditions that could lead to errors and outlining the necessary steps to detect and prevent errors before they cause patient harm is therefore an important part of laboratory testing. This can be achieved through the practice of risk management. EP23-A is a new guideline from the CLSI that introduces risk management principles to the clinical laboratory. This guideline borrows concepts from the manufacturing industry and encourages laboratories to develop risk management plans that address the specific risks inherent to each lab. Once the risks have been identified, the laboratory must implement control processes and continuously monitor and modify them to make certain that risk is maintained at a clinically acceptable level. This review summarizes the principles of risk management in the clinical laboratory and describes various quality control activities employed by the laboratory to achieve the goal of reporting valid, accurate and reliable test results.

Heterogeneous multi-robot cooperation

Parker, Lynne E. (Lynne Edwards), 1961-
Fonte: MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory; Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory; Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xviii, 227 p.; 23678577 bytes; 23678332 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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Lynne E. Parker.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1994.; Cover title.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 219-227).; Supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Dept. of Defense under Office of Naval Research contracts. N00014-91-J-4038 N00014-85-K-0124 Supported by the California Institute of Technology Jet Propulsion Laboratory. 959333 Supported in part by Matsushita Research.

Information theoretic analysis of multiple-antenna transmission diversity

Narula, Aradhana
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems; Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems; Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 137 p.; 8792445 bytes; 8792201 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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Aradhana Narula.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1997.; Cover title.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 135-137).; Supported by MIT Lincoln Laboratory.

Entre orquídeas e girassóis :o laboratório de Enfermagem na visão de estudantes; Among orchids and sunflowers: the Nursing Laboratory from the point of view of students

Gomes, Cleide Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem; Assistência à Saúde Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem; Assistência à Saúde
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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To study the teaching/learning process about the Nursing procedures carried out in the laboratory, and learn both the sapiens and the demens dimensions of such process, is the main purpose of this study. The objectives are to: identify the major laboratory contributions to the teaching/learning process from the point of view of undergraduate students and the feelings they express; describe the difficulties they have identified; and analyze the relevance of the laboratory to this process. As part of the inquiry procedure, four core group meetings were held with 26 undergraduate students who had completed the course on Semiology and Semiotics in Nursing, which is the course where the Nursing laboratory is most needed as a learning space. The analysis, based on a qualitative approach, had as fundamental theoretical support studies made by Friedlander and Hayashida, who deal with learning/teaching in the Nursing laboratory, and by authors who favor humanization in teaching such as, among others, Freire, Maturana, Morin, Assmann. Results point toward the relevance of the Nursing laboratory as a facilitator for the learning/teaching process. In their speech the students repeatedly state that the development of procedures in simulated situations enable them to become more self-assured and technically prepared for caring. In addition...

Limites e possibilidades da inserção de discussões epistemológicas no laboratório didático na perspectiva de licenciandos de Física da Universidade Federal de Goiás; Limits and possibilities of inserting epistemological discussions in the didactic laboratory in the perspective of the undergraduate degree course in Physics of the Federal University of Goiás

Macedo, Sabrinna Aparecida Rezende
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Educação em Ciências e Matemática (PRPG); Pró-Reitoria de Pós-graduação (PRPG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Educação em Ciências e Matemática (PRPG); Pró-Reitoria de Pós-graduação (PRPG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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This paper aims to identifying possibilities and limits of entering epistemological discussions in class Laboratory Didactic a Graduate from the concepts presented by the undergraduate in Degree in Physics offered by the Federal University of Goiás (IF-UFG) - Goiânia campus. And defends the idea that future physics teachers have two training needs essential for the consolidation of a personality epistemological: experimentation and discussion about the History and Philosophy of Science (HFC). We also support the Historical Epistemology of Gaston Bachelard provides important elements for addressing these needs. The research presents three distinct moments in the construction of data: before performing the modified classes (using a structured questionnaire); while conducting classes (registering them in field notes and collecting experimental reports of undergraduates), and after performing them (through semi-structured interviews). Small modifications in the structures of 04 (four) classes within the discipline "Physics Laboratory I" sought proximity to the proposed methodology Didactic Laboratory study that presented by the Laboratory of type Epistemological by introducing elements of History and Philosophy of Science (HFCs) from a perspective Bachelard. As a guideline classes use the concept of force. We noticed that the concepts presented by undergraduates before and after the implementation of lessons reinforced the definition of Didactic Laboratory as a Laboratory Traditional and longing for new methodologies demonstrated in experimental classes. We conclude by the end of the survey...

Pandemic Influenza Virus Surveillance in Portugal: The Laboratory Network for the Diagnosis of Influenza A(H1N1)2009 Infection

Guiomar, Raquel; Pechirra, Pedro; Gonçalves, Paulo; Cordeiro, Rita; Conde, Patrícia; Arraiolos, Ana; Batista, Inês; Paixão, Eleonora; Nunes, Baltazar; Furtado (on behalf of the Laboratory Network for the Diagnosis of Influenza A(H1N1)2009 Infection),
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, IP Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, IP
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /11/2010 ENG
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In April 2009 a new influenza A(H1N1) virus of swine origin disseminated throughout the world, resulting in the first pandemic of the XXI century. To face the increasing number of diagnosis being requested, a National Laboratory Network for Influenza Surveillance of the new influenza A(H1N1)pandemic virus was activated in Portugal. This is a descriptive study of the Influenza-like Ilness (ILI) cases reported by this network. Association between the variables was evaluated by chi-squared test. Over 62089 ILI cases were notified, 25594 (41.2%) cases were laboratory confirmed A(H1N1)pdm virus, from week 17/2009 to week 15/2010. In the week 33 (summer) were detected 1039 (4.1%) positive cases for A(H1N1)pdm virus although the winter peak occurred in week 46 with 3131 (12.5%) A(H1N1)pdm positive cases. In the age group of 5-14 years old were detected the majority of positive cases 9983 / 15785 (63.0%) opposite in the elderly group (>65 years old) was detected the lower number of A(H1N1)pdm positive cases, 280/2361 (11.0%). The distribution by gender accounts 40.4% of female and 42.3% of male positive cases. The signs and/or symptoms present were analysed revealing that headache (49.7%), cough and myalgies (46.5%) and odinophagia (46.1%) were statistically associated with A(H1N1)pdm positive cases. The chronic pulmonary disease seemed to be more associated with laboratory confirmed A(H1N1)pdm cases. Ninety five strains were isolated and antigenically characterised...

Contribution of the Portuguese Laboratory Network for the Diagnosis of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Infection during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 influenza seasons

Portuguese Laboratory Network for the Diagnosis of Influenza Infection
Fonte: European Centre For Disease Prevention and Control Publicador: European Centre For Disease Prevention and Control
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2012 ENG
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Members of the Portuguese Laboratory Network for the Diagnosis of Influenza Infection: Raquel Guiomar; Pedro Pechirra; Paulo Gonçalves; Ana Arraiolos; Patrícia Conde; Baltazar Nunes; Eleonora Paixão; Inês Batista; Cristina Furtado; Jorge Machado; Maria José Silvestre; Madalena Almeida Santos, Joana Sobrinho Simões; Maria do Rosário Costa; João Tiago Guimarães; Graça Ribeiro; João Vaz; Álvaro Beleza; Roger Oliveira; Aida Fernandes; Luís Milho; João Rego; Paula Luísa Fernandes; Graça Andrade; Luísa Mota Vieira; Rita Cabral Veloso; Jácome Bruges Armas; Ana Rita Pimentel Couto; Rute Marcelino; Teresa Porta Nova; José Melo Cristino; Dinah Carvalho; Carlos Ribeiro; Rosário Barreto; Virgínia Penim; Rita Corte Real; Paula Branquinho; Lurdes Gonçalves; Maria Helena Ramos; Ana Paula Castro; Filomena Caldeira; Manuel Maurílio.; This article describes the data obtained by the Portuguese Laboratory Network, reactivated following the World Health Organization declaration of the 2009 influenza pandemic, on the diagnoses of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection during the pandemic (2009/10) and post-pandemic (2010/11) influenza seasons. The laboratories analysed and reported cases of influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) to the National Influenza Reference Laboratory...

Quantification of the genetic change in the transition of Rhodnius pallescens Barber, 1932 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from field to laboratory

Gómez-Sucerquia,Leysa Jackeline; Triana-Chávez,Omar; Jaramillo-Ocampo,Nicolás
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2009 EN
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Previous studies have reported genetic differences between wild-caught sylvatic, domestic and laboratory pop-ulations of several Triatominae species. The differences between sylvatic and laboratory colonies parallel are similar to the differences observed between sylvatic and domestic populations. Laboratory colonies are frequently used as references for field populations, but the consequences of founder events on the genetic makeup of laboratory or domestic populations are rarely quantified. Our goal was to quantify the genetic change in Rhodnius pallescens populations artificially submitted to founder effects via laboratory colonization. We compared the genetic makeup of two sylvatic populations and their laboratory descendants using a panel of 10 microsatellite markers. Both sylvatic populations were initially collected from palm trees, but the colonies differed in the number of founder insects and amount of time kept in the laboratory. We evaluated allelic polymorphism, differences between expected and observed heterozygosity, estimates of population differentiation (Fst) and inbreeding (Fis, Fit) and cluster analyses based on Nei's distances. We found a unique genetic structure for each sample population, with significant differentiation between the field insects and each of the laboratory generations. These analyses showed strong founder effects and showed that genetic drift had led to a genetic equilibrium over several generations of isolation. Our results suggest that laboratory colonies of R. pallescens have a different genetic structure than their wild relatives and similar processes likely affect other Triatominae laboratory stocks.

The laboratory diagnosis of HIV infections

Fearon, Margaret
Fonte: Pulsus Group Inc Publicador: Pulsus Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
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HIV diagnostic testing has come a long way since its inception in the early 1980s. Current enzyme immunoassays are sensitive enough to detect antibody as early as one to two weeks after infection. A variety of other assays are essential to confirm positive antibody screens (Western blot, polymerase chain reaction [PCR]), provide an adjunct to antibody testing (p24 antigen, PCR), or provide additional information for the clinician treating HIV-positive patients (qualitative and quantitative PCR, and genotyping). Most diagnostic laboratories have complex testing algorithms to ensure accuracy of results and optimal use of laboratory resources. The choice of assays is guided by the initial screening results and the clinical information provided by the physician; both are integral to the laboratory's ability to provide an accurate laboratory diagnosis. Laboratories should also provide specific information on specimen collection, storage and transport so that specimen integrity is not compromised, thereby preserving the accuracy of laboratory results. Point of Care tests have become increasingly popular in the United States and some places in Canada over the past several years. These tests provide rapid, on-site HIV results in a format that is relatively easy for clinic staff to perform. However...

Fungal microbiota of the hair coat of laboratory animals

Couto, Manuela Soares; Laboratory of Microbiology – LAMIC, Department of Biology, State University of Ceará, Av. Paranjana, 1700. CEP: 60.740-903, Fortaleza-CE, Brazil.; Pantoja, Lydia Dayanne Maia; Laboratory of Microbiology – LAMIC, Department of B
Fonte: Universidade Federal Fluminense Publicador: Universidade Federal Fluminense
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; CMC; Artigo Original; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/08/2013 POR
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With the refining of handling techniques for laboratory animals kept in animal rooms in which different work rules are followed,it is fundamental to evaluate the microbiota of the raising environment, as well as of the animals in this environment. It isknown that several saprobe fungi are isolated from hair and skin of experimental animals, being potentially pathogenic inspecific situations. The aim of this research was to determine the fungal microbiota on the coats of laboratory animals fromthe Central Animal Room of the University of Ceará. Samples of hair and skin of 355 healthy animals (150 rats, 150 mice, 40guinea pigs and 15 hamsters) were analyzed. Samples were collected by vigorously brushing the back of the animals andthen cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose and Mycosel agar. Species identification was based on the analysis of the macroscopicappearance of colonies and microscopy features of the fungi. Development of fungi was observed in 63.95% of the animals.The most frequent fungi were: Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (34.7%), Aspergillus sp. (30%) and Penicillium sp. (16.7%). Inconclusion, fungal microbiota on coat of these animals is diversified, and saprobe fungi occurs in a great number of experimentalanimals.

Building laboratory capacity to support HIV care in Nigeria: Harvard/APIN PEPFAR, 2004-2012

Hamel,Donald J.; Sankalé,Jean-Louis; Samuels,Jay Osi; Sarr,Abdoulaye D.; Chaplin,Beth; Ofuche,Eke; Meloni,Seema T.; Okonkwo,Prosper; Kanki,Phyllis J.
Fonte: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine Publicador: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
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INTRODUCTION: From 2004-2012, the Harvard/AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria, funded through the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief programme, scaled up HIV care and treatment services in Nigeria. We describe the methodologies and collaborative processes developed to improve laboratory capacity significantly in a resource-limited setting. These methods were implemented at 35 clinic and laboratory locations. METHODS: Systems were established and modified to optimise numerous laboratory processes. These included strategies for clinic selection and management, equipment and reagent procurement, supply chains, laboratory renovations, equipment maintenance, electronic data management, quality development programmes and trainings. RESULTS: Over the eight-year programme, laboratories supported 160 000 patients receiving HIV care in Nigeria, delivering over 2.5 million test results, including regular viral load quantitation. External quality assurance systems were established for CD4+ cell count enumeration, blood chemistries and viral load monitoring. Laboratory equipment platforms were improved and standardised and use of point-of-care analysers was expanded. Laboratory training workshops supported laboratories toward increasing staff skills and improving overall quality. Participation in a World Health Organisation-led African laboratory quality improvement system resulted in significant gains in quality measures at five laboratories. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted implementation of laboratory development processes...

Informatics solutions for bridging the gap between clinical and laboratory services in a low-resource setting

Driessen,Julia; Limula,Henry; Gadabu,Oliver J.; Gamadzi,Gervase; Chitandale,Edwin; Ben-Smith,Anne; Alide,Noor; Douglas,Gerald P.
Fonte: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine Publicador: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
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BACKGROUND: There has been little formal analysis of laboratory systems in resource-limited settings, despite widespread consensus around the importance of a strong laboratory infrastructure. OBJECTIVES: This study details the informational challenges faced by the laboratory at Kamuzu Central Hospital, a tertiary health facility in Malawi; and proposes ways in which informatics can bolster the efficiency and role of low-resource laboratory systems. METHODS: We evaluated previously-collected data on three different aspects of laboratory use. A four-week quality audit of laboratory test orders quantified challenges associated with collecting viable specimens for testing. Data on tests run by the laboratory over a one-year period described the magnitude of the demand for laboratory services. Descriptive information about the laboratory workflow identified informational process breakdowns in the pre-analytical and post-analytical phases and was paired with a 24-hour sample of laboratory data on results reporting. RESULTS: The laboratory conducted 242 242 tests over a 12-month period. The four-week quality audit identified 54% of samples as untestable. Prohibitive paperwork errors were identified in 16% of samples. Laboratory service workflows indicated a potential process breakdown in sample transport and results reporting resulting from the lack of assignment of these tasks to any specific employee cadre. The study of result reporting time showed a mean of almost six hours...