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Development and analytical characterization of ofloxacin ion-selective electrodes

Souto, Renata; Pimenta, Adriana; Leal, Fernanda; Catarino, Rita; Santos, Gory; Tavares, Tânia
Fonte: Edições Universidade Fernando Pessoa Publicador: Edições Universidade Fernando Pessoa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 ENG
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An ofloxacin-selective electrode based on incorporation of a ofloxacin-tetrakis[3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate ion-pair complex in a poly(vinyl chloride) membrane was developed. The sensor displayed a Nernstian response over a wide concentration range (7×10-6–1×10-2 mol L-1) with a slope of 54.9 ± 1.3 mV per decade of concentration, a detection limit of 4×10-6 mol L-1 and adequate selectivity toward some inorganic and organic species. The sensor can be used for a period of more than 8 months without significant change in its characteristics. Desenvolveu-se um eléctrodo selectivo à ofloxacina, baseado no par iónico ofloxacina- -tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluorometil)fenil]borato incorporado numa membrana de cloreto de polivinilo. O sensor apresenta uma resposta Nernstiana num alargado intervalo de concentrações (7×10-6–1×10-2 mol L-1), com um declive de 54,9±1,3 mV por década de concentração, um limite de detecção de 4×10-6 mol L-1 e adequada selectividade relativamente a algumas espécies orgânicas e inorgânicas. O seu tempo de vida é superior a oito meses, não havendo alteração das suas características durante este período.

Construção e avaliação de eletrodos de membrana sólida cristalina seletivos a cobre e prata; Construction and evolution copperand silver ion selective electrode based on crystalline solid membranes

Serrano, Silvia Helena Pires
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/02/1988 PT
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O presente trabalho visou a construção e avaliação de eletrodos de membrana sólida cristalina seletivos a cobre e prata. Obteve-se o sulfeto de prata, material eletroativo usado na preparação de membranas seletivas a íons Ag+, por precipitação com gás sulfídrico em meio ácido. Eletrodos com membranas de 1,0 e 0,50 mm de espessura apresentaram respectivamente limites nernstianos de 10-4 e 10-5 Mol.L-1 e precisão de ± 0,1 e 1 mV nas leituras de potencial. Os sulfetos de cobre e prata, usados na preparação de membranas seletivas para determinação de cobre, foram obtidos por precipitação simultânea com gás sulfídrico, tioacetamida em meio ácido e tiouréia em meio amoniacal. Difratogramas de Raios X revelaram que o material obtido com tiouréia corresponde ao sulfeto ternário, Cu2S.3Ag2S ou Ag1,55Cu0,45S, responsável pela resposta seletiva do sensor em soluções de Cu2+. O eletrodo construído a partir deste sulfeto, onde o cobre aparece no estado monovalente, apresentou limite nernstiano da ordem de10-7Mol.L-1, fornecendo resultados satisfatórios na determinação deste metal em amostras de aguardente e álcool. Cálculos termodinâmicos mostraram que quando membrana é constituída de CuS, um contacto elétrico efetuado através de cobre ou prata é instável...

Desenvolvimento de eletrodos ion-seletivos : aplicação em sistema de detecção em FIA e estrategias para a melhoria do limite de detecção; Development of ion-selective electrodes: application in detection system of FIA and strategies for the improvement of detection limit

Karin Yanet Chumbimuni Torres
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/09/2005 PT
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O presente trabalho de doutorado descreve o desenvolvimento de eletrodos íon-seletivos para cálcio, potássio, sódio e cloreto em sistema de injeção em fluxo e sua aplicação para determinação simultânea em sucos de frutas, bem como o desenvolvimento de eletrodos íon-seletivos de contato sólido com baixo limite de detecção. A construção dos eletrodos íon-seletivos para os íons cálcio, potássio, sódio e cloreto foi primeiramente realizado em estado estacionário para logo ser incorporada em sistema de injeção em fluxo. A otimização de parâmetros comuns, tais como: pH, tampão, volume de injeção, vazão, entre outros, possibilitaram a realização da determinação simultânea, utilizando um arranjo de eletrodos em série. O sistema FIA potenciométrico proposto foi satisfatório para determinação simultânea destes íons em amostras de sucos, e os resultados quando comparados com os obtidos pelo método de referência foram estatisticamente iguais num nível de confiança de 95%. Em relação ao desenvolvimento de eletrodos íon-seletivos com baixo limite de detecção, quatro eletrodos diferentes foram desenvolvidos para os íons prata, chumbo, cálcio e iodeto com excelente resposta nernstiana e limite de detecção na faixa nanomolar...

Construction and use of a tubular picrate ion-selective electrode for reducing sugar determination in Port wine by flow-injection analysis

Lopes, Teresa I. M. S.; Rangel, António O. S. S.; Lima, José L. F. C.; Montenegro, M. Conceição B. S. M.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1995 ENG
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78.09453%
A picrate ion-selective electrode without inner reference solution and based on bis(triphenylphosphoranylidene)ammonium picrate dissolved in 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether was constructed and its characteristics assessed. With respect to reducing sugar determination in Port wine, a tubular electrode based on the same sensor system was developed and incorporated into a flow-injection manifold devised for this determination. The methodology involves a reaction between the reducing sugar and picric acid, the decrease in the picrate concentration being monitored with the tubular electrode. A linear dependence between peak width, at a fixed potential and the logarithm of sugar concentration in the range 25–200 g l−1 was obtained. The proposed system allows wine samples to be injected with no previous treatment and allows a sample throughput of 50 determinations per hour, a relative standard deviation less than 4%, and the results are comparable to the reference procedures.

Ion-selective electrodes: historical, mechanism of response, selectivity and concept review

Fernandes,Julio Cesar Bastos; Kubota,Lauro Tatsuo; Oliveira Neto,Graciliano de
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2001 EN
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This paper presents a review of the concepts involved in the working mechanism of the ion-selective electrodes, searching a historical overview, moreover to describe the new advances in the area.

Recentes avanços e novas perspectivas dos eletrodos íon-seletivos

Torres,Karin Yanet Chumbimuni; Marzal,Percy Calvo; Kubota,Lauro Tatsuo; Bakker,Eric
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2006 PT
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78.96904%
This paper describes the recent progress in the development of polymeric membranes for ion-selective electrodes. The importance of knowing the mechanism of potential development in membranes for ion-selective electrodes to reach lower detection limits and improve selectivity are discussed. Recent advances and future trends of research on ion-selective electrodes are also reported.

Uses of nitrate ion sensitive electrodes

DEL TÓRO DÉNIZ,Rubén; PEÓN ESPINOSA,Ana María; DANDIE MARSHALLECK,Hubert; BROCAR ESTEVEZ,Andres
Fonte: Fundação Editora da Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho - UNESP Publicador: Fundação Editora da Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho - UNESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1997 EN
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78.315137%
Some models of ion-selective electrodes (ISE) and other methods have been elaborated, to quantify nitrate levels in environmental samples (water, fruits, vegetables and others), using direct potentiometry

Simultaneous determination of chloride and potassium in carbohydrate electrolyte beverages using an array of ion-selective electrodes controlled by a microcomputer

Fernandes,Julio Cesar B.; Oliveira Neto,Graciliano de; Rohwedder,Jarbas José R.; Kubota,Lauro T.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2000 EN
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This work describes the building of a potentiometric system composed of an array of ion-selective electrodes and controlled by microcomputer. The system employed an acquisition card model ACL-8111 from ADLink Technology for the selection control of the ion-selective electrodes through an analogic switch (ADG201) with simultaneous data acquisition. Software implemented on the VISUAL BASIC 4.0 language was employed for electrode control and data acquisition. This system was evaluated in the simultaneous determination of chloride and potassium in samples of carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages. The results obtained for these determinations were in agreement with those obtained by the reference method taking into account the estimated error in the determinations.

Modern directions for potentiometric sensors

Bakker,Eric; Chumbimuni-Torres,Karin
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
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68.79828%
This paper gives an overview of the newest developments of polymeric membrane ion-selective electrodes. A short essence of the underlying theory is given, emphasizing how the electromotive force may be used to assess binding constants of the ionophore, and how the selectivity and detection limit are related to the basic membrane processes. The recent developments in lowering the detection limits of ISEs are described, including recent approaches of developing all solid state ISEs, and breakthroughs in detecting ultra-small quantities of ions at low concentrations. These developments have paved the way to use potentiometric sensors as in ultra-sensitive affinity bioanalysis in conjunction with nanoparticle labels. Recent results establish that potentiometry compares favorably to electrochemical stripping analysis. Other new developments with ion-selective electrodes are also described, including the concept of backside calibration potentiometry, controlled current coulometry, pulsed chronopotentiometry, and localized flash titration with ion-selective membranes to design sensors for the direct detection of total acidity without net sample perturbation. These developments have further opened the field for exciting new possibilities and applications.

The new wave of ion-selective electrodes

Pretsch, Ernö
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/2002 EN
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68.53172%
During the last decade, the capabilities of potentiometric analysis have changed fundamentally in that the lower limit of detection (LOD) of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) has improved by a factor of up to one million and the discrimination factor of interferences from ions by up to one billion. These spectacular improvements are related to the control of ion fluxes through the ion-selective membrane. Nowadays, ISEs can be used for trace measurements in environmental samples. However, by reducing the volume of the samples, the LOD in terms of the amount of analytes has been reduced to the attomole range. This is promising for bioanalysis using metal nanoparticle labels. Other recent progress includes the excellent fundamental understanding of the working mechanism, the introduction of a novel kind of calibration procedure that reduces the demands on signal stability and reproducibility, and the advent of pulsed amperometric methods.

Evaluation of the Jokoo-ION 150 AC: Guidelines for the evaluation of analysers by ion-selective electrodes

Farré, Joan; Biosca, Carmen; Galimany, Román
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1990 EN
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The Jokoo-ION 150 AC is an automatic sodium, potassium and chloride analyser which uses ion-selective electrodes.

Direct Sensing of Total Acidity by Chronopotentiometric Flash Titrations at Polymer Membrane Ion-Selective Electrodes

Gemene, Kebede L.; Bakker, Eric
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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68.91212%
Polymer membrane ion-selective electrodes containing lipophilic ionophores are traditionally interrogated by zero current potentiometry, which, ideally, gives information on the sample activity of ionic species. It is shown here that a discrete cathodic current pulse across an H+-selective polymeric membrane doped with the ionophore ETH 5294 may be used for the chronopotentiometric detection of pH in well buffered samples. However, a reduction in the buffer capacity leads to large deviations from the expected Nernstian response slope. This is explained by the local depletion of hydrogen ions at the sample-membrane interface as a result of the galvanostatically imposed ion flux in direction of the membrane. This depletion is found to be a function of the total acidity of the sample and can be directly monitored chronopotentiometrically in a flash titration experiment. The subsequent application of a baseline potential pulse reverses the extraction process of the current pulse, allowing one to interrogate the sample with minimal perturbation. In one protocol, total acidity is found to be proportional to the magnitude of applied current at the flash titration endpoint. More conveniently, the square root of the flash titration endpoint time observed at a fixed applied current is a linear function of the total acid concentration. This suggests that it is possible to perform rapid localized pH titrations at ion-selective electrodes without the need for volumetric titrimetry. The technique is explored here for acetic acid...

Generalized Selectivity Description for Polymeric Ion-Selective Electrodes Based on the Phase Boundary Potential Model

Bakker, Eric
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/02/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A generalized description of the response behavior of potentiometric polymer membrane ion-selective electrodes is presented on the basis of ion-exchange equilibrium considerations at the sample—membrane interface. This paper includes and extends on previously reported theoretical advances in a more compact yet more comprehensive form. Specifically, the phase boundary potential model is used to derive the origin of the Nernstian response behavior in a single expression, which is valid for a membrane containing any charge type and complex stoichiometry of ionophore and ion-exchanger. This forms the basis for a generalized expression of the selectivity coefficient, which may be used for the selectivity optimization of ion-selective membranes containing electrically charged and neutral ionophores of any desired stoichiometry. It is shown to reduce to expressions published previously for specialized cases, and may be effectively applied to problems relevant in modern potentiometry. The treatment is extended to mixed ion solutions, offering a comprehensive yet formally compact derivation of the response behavior of ion-selective electrodes to a mixture of ions of any desired charge. It is compared to predictions by the less accurate Nicolsky-Eisenman equation. The influence of ion fluxes or any form of electrochemical excitation is not considered here...

Highly Selective Detection of Silver in the Low ppt Range with Ion-Selective Electrodes Based on Ionophore-Doped Fluorous Membranes

Lai, Chun-Ze; Fierke, Melissa A.; Costa, Rosenildo Corrêa da; Gladysz, John A.; Stein, Andreas; Bühlmann, Philippe
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/09/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Ionophore-doped sensing membranes exhibit greater selectivities and wider measuring ranges if their membrane matrixes are noncoordinating and solvate interfering ions poorly. This is particularly true for fluorous phases, which are the least polar and polarizable condensed phases known. In this work, fluorous membrane matrixes were used to prepare silver ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). Sensing membranes composed of perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene, sodium tetrakis[3,5-bis(perfluorohexyl)phenyl]borate, and one of four fluorophilic Ag+-selective ionophores with one or two thioether groups were investigated. All electrodes exhibited Nernstian responses to Ag+ in a wide range of concentrations. Their selectivities for Ag+ over interfering ions were found to depend on host preorganization and the length of the –(CH2)n– spacers separating the coordinating thioether group from the strongly electron withdrawing perfluoroalkyl groups. ISEs based on the most selective of the four ionophores, i.e., 1,3-bis(perfluorodecylethylthiomethyl)benzene, provided much higher selectivities for Ag+ over many alkaline and heavy metal ions than most Ag+ ISEs reported in the literature (e.g., logKAg,Jpot for K+, −11.6; Pb2+, −10.2; Cu2+, −13.0; Cd2+...

Theoretical Treatment and Numerical Simulation of Potential and Concentration Profiles in Extremely Thin Non-Electroneutral Membranes Used for Ion-Selective Electrodes

Morf, W. E.; Pretsch, E.; De Rooij, N. F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/03/2010 EN
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The applicability of extremely thin non-electroneutral membranes for ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) is investigated. A theoretical treatment of potential and concentration profiles in space-charge membranes of << 1 μm thickness is presented. The theory is based on the Nernst-Planck equation for ion fluxes, which reduces to Boltzmann’s formula at equilibrium, and on the Poisson relationship between space-charge density and electric field gradient. A general solution in integral form is obtained for the potential function and the corresponding ion profiles at equilibrium. A series of explicit sub-solutions is derived for particular cases. Membrane systems with up to three different ion species are discussed, including trapped ionic sites and co-extracted ions. Solid-contacted thin membranes (without formation of aqueous films at the inner interface) are shown to exhibit a sub-Nernstian response. The theoretical results are confirmed by numerical simulations using a simplified finite-difference procedure based on the Nernst-Planck-Poisson model, which are shown to be in excellent agreement.

Using Ion-Selective Electrodes to Study the Drug Release from Porous Cellulose Matrices

Vakili, Hossein; Genina, Natalja; Ehlers, Henrik; Bobacka, Johan; Sandler, Niklas
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/08/2012 EN
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Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-based solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (SC-ISEs), responding to propranolol hydrochloride (Pr+) and lidocaine hydrochloride (Ld+) cations as the model drugs with potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl) borate (KTpClPB) as the ion exchanger, were studied. Different drug-polymer solutions were prepared with the model drugs, using different blend ratios of ethylcellulose (EC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC). Two different solid dosage forms were used. Polymer films were produced by solvent casting method and drug containing porous cellulose samples were prepared by depositing the drug-polymer solutions onto filter paper substrates. The quality of the electrodes and the release profile of Pr+ and Ld+ were investigated with the potentiometric method. The results were compared to UV spectrophotometry. The electrodes were found to be sensitive, precise and functional with a Nernstian behavior over the range of 1.0 × 10−3–3.1 × 10−6 M (9.2 × 10−4–3.0 × 10−1 mg/mL) and 1 × 10−3–2 × 10−6 M (5.4 × 10−4–2.7 × 10−1 mg/mL) at 25 °C for Pr+ and Ld+ sensitive electrodes, respectively. The dynamic response time for the electrodes was less than 10 s. The Pr+ release from porous filter paper was always higher than its equivalent film formulation. Also...

Miniaturized, Planar Ion-selective Electrodes Fabricated by Means of Thick-film Technology

Tymecki, Lukasz; Glab, Stanisław; Koncki, Robert
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/04/2006 EN
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68.74652%
Various planar technologies are employed for developing solid-state sensors having low cost, small size and high reproducibility; thin- and thick-film technologies are most suitable for such productions. Screen-printing is especially suitable due to its simplicity, low-cost, high reproducibility and efficiency in large-scale production. This technology enables the deposition of a thick layer and allows precise pattern control. Moreover, this is a highly economic technology, saving large amounts of the used inks. In the course of repetitions of the film-deposition procedure there is no waste of material due to additivity of this thick-film technology. Finally, the thick films can be easily and quickly deposited on inexpensive substrates. In this contribution, thick-film ion-selective electrodes based on ionophores as well as crystalline ion-selective materials dedicated for potentiometric measurements are demonstrated. Analytical parameters of these sensors are comparable with those reported for conventional potentiometric electrodes. All mentioned thick-film strip electrodes have been totally fabricated in only one, fully automated thick-film technology, without any additional manual, chemical or electrochemical steps. In all cases simple...

Simultaneous flux and current measurement from single plant protoplasts reveals a strong link between K⁺ fluxes and current, but no link between Ca²⁺ fluxes and current; Simultaneous flux and current measurement from single plant protoplasts reveals a strong link between K(+) fluxes and current, but no link between Ca(2+) fluxes and current

Gilliham, M.; Sullivan, W.; Tester, M.; Tyerman, S.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.57216%
We present a thorough calibration and verification of a combined non-invasive self-referencing microelectrode-based ion-flux measurement and whole-cell patch clamp system as a novel and powerful tool for the study of ion transport. The system is shown to be capable of revealing the movement of multiple ions across the plasma membrane of a single protoplast at multiple voltages and in complex physiologically relevant solutions. Wheat root protoplasts are patch clamped in the whole-cell configuration and current–voltage relations obtained whilst monitoring net K⁺ and Ca²⁺ flux adjacent to the membrane with ion-selective electrodes. At each voltage; net ion flux (nmol m⁻² sec⁻¹) is converted to an equivalent current density (mA m⁻²) taking into account geometry and electrode efficiency; and compared with the net current density measured with the patch clamp system. Using this technique; it is demonstrated that the K⁺-permeable outwardly rectifying conductance (KORC) is responsible for net outward K⁺ movement across the plasma membrane [1:1 flux-to-current ratio (1.21 ± 0.14 SEM; n = 15)]. Variation in the K⁺ flux-to-current ratio among single protoplasts suggests a heterogeneous distribution of KORC channels on the membrane surface. As a demonstration of the power of the technique we show that despite a significant Ca²⁺ permeability being associated with KORC (analysis of tail current reversal potentials); there is no correlation between Ca²⁺ flux and KORC activity. A very significant observation is that large Ca²⁺ fluxes are electrically silent and probably tightly coupled to compensatory charge movements. This analysis demonstrates that it is mandatory to measure flux and currents simultaneously to investigate properly Ca²⁺ transport mechanisms and selectivity of ion channels in general.; Matthew Gilliham...

Potentiometric behavior of ion-selective electrodes to large cationic species modulated by decyl alcohol

Kaempfe, Marianne A.; Ríos, Hernán E.; Urzúa, Marcela; Cabrera, Walton J.
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
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The effect of 1-decanol on the potentiometric response of three ion-selective electrodes to large cationic species is analyzed. The electrodes were constructed with plasticized PVC membranes. The results suggest that 1-decanol alters the ionic transport through the membrane/water interface to an extent that depends on the strength of the active ion pair. The water solubility of the cation, its molecular weight, and the size of the ion pair seem to be relevant factors in this type of behavior. The potentiometric selectivity coefficients are also dependent on the presence of 1-decanol in the membrane. These results are similar to those already described in ion-selective electrodes with membranes capable of sensing anionic benzene sulfonate-type systems. Thus, the effect of the alcohol appears to be general by affecting mainly the membrane surface polarity.

Application of Membrane-Selective Electrodes for the Determination of Naftidrofuryl Oxalate in the Presence of Its Alkaline Degradant in Tablets and Plasma

Abbas,Samah S.; Zaazaa,Hala E.; El-Ghobashy,Mohamed R.; Fayez,Yasmin M.; Fattah,Soheir A.
Fonte: Sociedade Portuguesa de Electroquímica Publicador: Sociedade Portuguesa de Electroquímica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2012 EN
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Membrane selective electrodes were used to determine Naftidrofuryl Oxalate (NFL) in presence of its alkaline degradate (I). The membrane selective electrodes include construction of water insoluble ion-association complexes. These are NFL-tetraphenyl borate (NFL-TPB), NFL-reinikate (NFL-R). These complexes are used as electroactive materials, in poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) matrix membrane sensors, for the determination of NFL. The performance characteristics of these sensors, evaluated according to IUPAC recommendations, reveal fast, stable and linear response for NFL. The sensors are used for determination of NFL in plasma. The suggested method was used to determine NFL in synthetic mixtures and in commercial tablets. The obtained results were statistically compared with official HPLC method, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision.