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Partial molar volumes of glycine and DL-alanine in aqueous ammonium sulfate solutions at 278.15, 288.15, 298.15 and 308.15 K

Martins, Mónia A. R.; Ferreira, Olga; Hnedkovsky, Lubomır; Cibulka, Ivan; Pinho, Simão
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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In this work, the partial molar volumes of glycine and DL-alanine in aqueous solutions of ammonium sulfate at 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.7, and 1.0 mol kg-1 are determined between 278.15 and 308.15 K. Transfer volumes were obtained, which are larger for glycine than DL-alanine. On the contrary, the hydration numbers are higher for DL-alanine than glycine, and dehydration of the amino acids is observed with increasing temperature or salt molality. The data suggest that interactions between ion and charged/hydrophilic groups are predominant and, by applying the methodology proposed by Friedman and Krishnan, it was concluded that they are mainly pairwise. A group-contribution scheme has been successfully applied to the pairwise volumetric interaction coefficient. Finally, the dehydration effect on glycine, alanine and serine in the presence of different electrolytes has been rationalized in terms of the charge density and a parameter accounting for the cation’s hydration.

Electrochemical oxidation of glycine by doped nickel hydroxide modified electrode

VIDOTTI, Marcio; TORRESI, Susana I. Cordoba de; KUBOTA, Lauro T.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The electrocatalytic oxidation of glycine by doped nickel hydroxide modified electrodes and their use as sensors are described. The electrode modification was carried out by a simple electrochemical coprecipitation and its electrochemical properties were investigated. The modified electrode presented activity for glycine oxidation after applying a potential required to form NiOOH (similar to 0.45 V vs Ag/AgCl). In these conditions a sensitivity of 0.92 mu A mmol(-1) L and a linear response range from 0.1 up to 1.2 mmol L(-1) were achieved in the electrolytic Solutions at PH 12.6. Limits of detection and quantification were found to be 30 and 110 mu mol L(-1), respectively. Kinetic studies performed with rotating disk electrode (RDE) and by chronoamperometry allowed to determine the heterogeneous rate constant of 4.3 x 10(2) mol(-1) Ls(-1), Suggesting that NiOOH is a good electrocatalyst for glycine oxidation. NiOOH activity to oxidize other amino acids was also investigated, (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Fapesp; CNPq[152312/2007-2]; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

Efeitos da mal nutrição protéica sobre o metabolismo da glicina em cerebelo de ratos durante o seu desenvolvimento; Study of developmental effects of protein malnutrition on glycine metabolism in cerebellum of rats

Souza, Karine Bresolin de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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Malnutrition is a worldwide problem affecting millions of unborn and young children during the most vulnerable stages of brain development (1). All restriction of protein during the perinatal period of life can alter the development of mammalian fetus and have marked repercussions on development of the Central Nervous System (CNS). The brain is vulnerable to protein malnutrition with altered morphologic and biochemical maturation, leading to impaired functions. The focus of this study is to investigate [U-14C]glycine metabolism in malnourished rats submitted to pre- and postnatal protein deprivation (diet: 8% protein with addition and without addition of L-methionine) on glycine metabolism of rats (normonourished group: 25% protein). It was observed that protein malnutrition alters oxidation to CO2, conversion to lipids and protein synthesis from [U-14C]glycine in cerebellum of malnourished rats without addition of L-methionine on a diet at 7 and 21 days of postnatal life. Our results also indicate that protein malnutrition causes a retardation in the normally ordered progression of brain development, and the malnourished groups have smaller cells, reduction in cell numbers and smaller cerebellar weight comparing to the control group.; Resumo não disponível.

Survey of glycine-rich proteins (GRPs) in the Eucalyptus expressed sequence tag database

Bocca, Sílvia Nora; Magioli, Cláudia Santos; Mangeon, Amanda; Margis, Rogerio; Junqueira, Ricardo Magrani; Jorge, Vanessa Cardeal; Martins, Gilberto Sachetto
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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The occurrence of quasi-repetitive glycine-rich peptides has been reported in different organisms. Glycine-rich regions are proposed to be involved in protein-protein interactions in some mammalian protein families. In plants, a set of glycine-rich proteins (GRPs) was characterized several years ago, and since then a wealth of new GRPs have been identified. GRPs may have very diverse sub-cellular localization and functions. The only common feature among all different GRPs is the presence of glycine-rich repeat domains. The expression of genes encoding GRPs is developmentally regulated, and also induced, in several plant genera, by physical, chemical and biological factors. In addition to the highly modulated expression, several GRPs also show tissue-specific localization. GRPs specifically expressed in xylem, phloem, epidermis, anther tapetum and roots have been described. In this paper, the structural and functional features of these proteins in Eucalyptus are summarized. Since this is the first description of GRPs in this species, particular emphasis has been given to the expression pattern of these genes by analyzing their abundance and prevalence in the different cDNA-libraries of the Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project Consortium (ForEST). The comparison of GRPs from Eucalyptus and other species is also discussed.

Identificação e caracterização de genes codificantes de proteínas ricas em glicina ligantes de RNA em soja (Glycine max (L.) Merril)

Poersch, Liane Balvedi
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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A soja constitui uma das culturas mais importantes mundialmente, tanto social quanto economicamente. Consequentemente, informações moleculares sobre processos de desenvolvimento, bem como conhecimento detalhado das interações entre condições estressoras e a resposta da planta a fatores ambientais são necessários. A identificação e caracterização de genes que respondem a condições ambientais específicas constituem um passo inicial no entendimento dos processos adaptativos. Proteínas ricas em glicina (GRPs) são polipeptídeos contendo um grande número do aminoácido glicina em sua estrutura primária. Os genes codificantes de GRPs são regulados ao longo do desenvolvimento e regulados por auxina, ABA, frio, ferimentos, luz, ritmo circadiano, salinidade, seca, patógenos e encharcamento. Entretanto, há pouca informação sobre GRPs de plantas e seus papéis no desenvolvimento e resposta a estresses. As GRPs podem ser divididas em quatro classes (I, II, III, IV) de acordo com sua estrutura primária e presença de domínios característicos. A classe IV é composta por proteínas ligantes de RNA. Domínios adicionais permitem dividir a classe IV de GRPs em quatro subclasses (IVa, IVb, IVc, IVd). A subclasse IVc é representada por proteínas contendo um cold-schock domain (CSD) e dedos de zinco CCHC tipo retrovirais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi: (i) identificar e caracterizar os genes codificantes de classe IV de GRPs...

Estudo de competição inter e intraespecífica envolvendo Glycine max (L. ) Merril e Cyperus rotundus (L.), em condições de casa de vegetação

Pitelli, R.A.; Durigan, Julio Cezar; Benedetti, N.J.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira da Ciência das Plantas Daninhas Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira da Ciência das Plantas Daninhas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 129-137
POR
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O presente experimento teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos da competição inter e intraespecífica envolvendo Glycine max (L.) Merril e Cyperus rotundus L. sobre as características das plantas e acúmulos de N, P, K, Ca e Mg pelas espécies envolvidas. Para tanto, estipulou-se um tratamento em que se desenvolveram três plantas de Glycine max e outro em que se desenvolveram 3 tubérculos de Cyperus rotundus por vaso. Para estudar os efeitos da competição intraespecífica, em dois outros tratamentos dobraram-se as populações por vaso. No estudo da competição interespecífica permitiu-se o desenvolvimento de três plantas de Glycine max e de três tubérculos de Cyperus rotundus num mesmo vaso. de uma maneira geral, pôde-se observar que principalmente devido às diferenças no hábito de crescimento das duas espécies, a expressão da competição inter e intraespecífica, em cada uma delas, assume aspectos distintos. No caso de Cyperus rotundus, o efeito do dobro da densidade pôde ser compensado, em parte, pela maior produção de manifestações epígeas e de tubérculos, aliados ao maior desenvolvimento dos tubérculos na menor densidade de plantio. No caso da competição interespecífica, os resultados sugerem um efeito decisivo do sombreamento de Leguminosae sobre o comportamento da Cyperaceae. Os padrões de efeitos da competição pelos nutrientes foi determinado também pelas diferenças no recrutamento dos elementos do solo pelas espécies envolvidas.; Inter and intraspecific competition studies envolving Glycine max (L.) Merril and Cyperus rotundus L. were performed by measuring the effects on the growth and accumulation of N...

Ação do Agrostemin sobre a altura e o número de folhas de plantas de soja (Glycine max L. MERRILL cv. IAC-8)

Fernandes, A.A.H.; Rodrigues, J.D.; Rodrigues, S.D.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ) Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 6-12
POR
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O presente estudo teve por finalidade avaliar o efeito de um estimulante vegetal, o Agrostemin, sobre a altura e o número de folhas das plantas de soja (Glycine max L. MERRILL cv. IAC-8). O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação. Foram estudados seis tratamentos, correspondentes as seguintes dosagens, épocas e formas de aplicação: testemunha (T1); 0,125g Agrostemin/l00g sementes (T2); 0,125g Agrostemin/100g semente e pulverização foliar à 333 ppm (T3); 0,125g Agrostemin/l00g sementes e pulverização foliar à 500 ppm (T4); pulverização foliar à 333 ppm (T5) e pulverização foliar à 500 ppm (T6). Realizaram-se três coletas de plantas, com intervalo de 14 dias. O experimento foi em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando-se duas análises de variância com desdobramento em efeitos de regressão. Através dos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que o Agrostemin quando aplicado via semente (T2) ou via foliar à 500 ppm (T6), aumentou a altura e o número de folhas. Ao aplicar o produto via semente mais via foliar à 500 ppm (T4), estas medidas diminuiram.; A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Agrostemmin (plant stimulant) on height and number of leaves of soybean plants (Glycine max L Merril cv. IAC-8). Six treatments were studied: check (T1); 0...

Desempenho de genótipos de soja-hortaliça de ciclo precoce [Glycine max (L.) Merril] em diferentes densidades

Charlo, Hamilton César de O.; Castoldi, Renata; Vargas, Pablo Forlan; Braz, Leila Trevizan; Mendonça, José Lindorico de
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA) Publicador: Editora da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 630-634
POR
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Objetivando-se avaliar o desempenho de dois genótipos de soja-hortaliça de ciclo precoce [Glycine max (L.) Merril], em diferentes densidades, foi instalado um ensaio, em área experimental do Setor de Olericultura e Plantas Aromático-Medicinais, pertencente ao Departamento de Produção Vegetal, nas dependências da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV-UNESP), Campus de Jaboticabal-SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de parcelas subdivididas, adotando-se nas parcelas os genótipos e nas subparcelas as densidades, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Cada parcela experimental foi constituída por quatro linhas de 4,5m de plantio, com densidades de 20, 10 e 7 plantas por metro e 0,60m nas entrelinhas, sendo consideradas para avaliação 20 plantas por parcela, das duas linhas centrais. As sementes foram semeadas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido de 128 células, contendo substrato Plantmax Hortaliças®. O transplantio ocorreu dez dias após a semeadura, em solo devidamente preparado, conforme recomendações para a cultura. A colheita foi realizada quando os legumes estavam em estádio reprodutivo R6. Avaliaram-se os genótipos JLM010 e CNPSOI quanto às características: número médio de legumes por planta...

Synthesis and characterization of manganese-glycine and copper-glycine adducts

Farias,Robson Fernandes de
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2002 EN
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This work reports the synthesis and characterization of adducts of general formula MCl2.ngly, where M= Mn and Cu; n= 2 and 4, and gly= glycine. The manganese adducts were synthesized by dissolution of both, manganese chloride and glycine in water, whereas the copper adducts were obtained by using an alternative solid state synthesis approach. For all adducts, the obtained infrared data shows that the coordination involves the amine nitrogen atom, as well as an oxygen atom of the COO- group. The TG curves for the synthesized adducts exhibit only one mass loss step associated with the release of glycine molecules.

Obese women on a low energy rice and bean diet: effects of leucine, arginine or glycine supplementation on protein turnover

Marchini,J.S.; Lambertini,C.R.; Ferriolli,E.; Dutra de Oliveira,J.E.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2001 EN
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This study examined if leucine, arginine or glycine supplementation in adult obese patients (body mass index of 33 ± 4 kg/m²) consuming a Brazilian low energy and protein diet (4.2 MJ/day and 0.6 g protein/kg) affects protein and amino acid metabolism. After four weeks adaptation to this diet, each subject received supplements of these amino acids (equivalent to 0.2 g protein kg-1 day-1) in random order. On the seventh day of each amino acid supplementation, a single-dose 15N-glycine study was carried out. There were no significant differences in protein flux, synthesis or breakdown. The protein flux (grams of nitrogen, gN/9 h) was 55 ± 24 during the nonsupplemented diet intake and 39 ± 10, 44 ± 22 and 58 ± 35 during the leucine-, glycine- and arginine-supplemented diet intake, respectively; protein synthesis (gN/9 h) was 57 ± 24, 36 ± 10, 41 ± 22 and 56 ± 36, respectively; protein breakdown (gN/9 h) was 51 ± 24, 34 ± 10, 32 ± 28 and 53 ± 35, respectively; kinetic balance (gN/9 h) was 3.2 ± 1.8, 4.1 ± 1.7, 3.4 ± 2.9 and 3.9 ± 1.6. There was no difference in amino acid profiles due to leucine, arginine or glycine supplementation. The present results suggest that 0.6 g/kg of dietary protein is enough to maintain protein turnover in obese women consuming a reduced energy diet and that leucine...

Survey of glycine-rich proteins (GRPs) in the Eucalyptus expressed sequence tag database (ForEST)

Bocca,Silvia Nora; Magioli,Claudia; Mangeon,Amanda; Junqueira,Ricardo Magrani; Cardeal,Vanessa; Margis,Rogério; Sachetto-Martins,Gilberto
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2005 EN
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The occurrence of quasi-repetitive glycine-rich peptides has been reported in different organisms. Glycine-rich regions are proposed to be involved in protein-protein interactions in some mammalian protein families. In plants, a set of glycine-rich proteins (GRPs) was characterized several years ago, and since then a wealth of new GRPs have been identified. GRPs may have very diverse sub-cellular localization and functions. The only common feature among all different GRPs is the presence of glycine-rich repeat domains. The expression of genes encoding GRPs is developmentally regulated, and also induced, in several plant genera, by physical, chemical and biological factors. In addition to the highly modulated expression, several GRPs also show tissue-specific localization. GRPs specifically expressed in xylem, phloem, epidermis, anther tapetum and roots have been described. In this paper, the structural and functional features of these proteins in Eucalyptus are summarized. Since this is the first description of GRPs in this species, particular emphasis has been given to the expression pattern of these genes by analyzing their abundance and prevalence in the different cDNA-libraries of the Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project Consortium (ForEST). The comparison of GRPs from Eucalyptus and other species is also discussed.

Glycine as a potential window for minimal access fetal surgery

Ford, W.; Cool, J.; Byard, R.; Allanson, M.
Fonte: KARGER Publicador: KARGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1997 EN
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Carbon dioxide insufflation of the uterine cavity in sheep enables electrocautery to the surface and superficial tissues of the fetal lamb, using minimally invasive surgery. Absorption of the CO2 however, causes a potentially lethal acidosis. To enable the use of electrocautery dissection of the fetal sheep, without using gas, we have partially replaced the amniotic fluid with 0.5% glycine. To determine whether glycine would have any short- or long-term deleterious effects on the developing fetus, we replaced amniotic fluid with 0.5% glycine in 10 normal fetuses at 101 days of gestation (normal gestation 145–149 days), without later replacing it with the removed amniotic fluid. Histological changes were then sought in the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and pulmonary tree, at 2 (‘early’, n = 5) or 6 weeks (‘late’, n = 5) after the introduction of the glycine. There were no histological differences between these and normal sheep at either time point. The use of glycine as a replacement for amniotic fluid subsequently enabled us to carry out electrocautery dissection of the sheep fetus and electrocoagulation of any bleeding vessel. Its use was not associated with any apparent untoward effects. Therefore, it has the potential to be used in minimally invasive surgery on the fetal trachea or on an enlarged fetal bladder.

The human glycine receptor β subunit: primary structure, functional characterisation and chromosomal localisation of the human and murine genes; The human glycine receptor beta subunit: primary structure, functional characterisation and chromosomal localisation of the human and murine genes

Handford, C.; Lynch, J.; Baker, E.; Webb, G.; Ford, J.; Sutherland, G.; Schofield, P.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1996 EN
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The inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) is a pentameric receptor comprised of α and β subunits, of which the β subunit has not been characterised in humans. A 2106 bp cDNA, isolated from a human hippocampal cDNA library, contained an open reading frame of 497 amino acids which encodes the β subunit of the human GlyR. The mature human GlyR β polypeptide displays 99% amino acid identity with the rat GlyR β subunit and 48% identity with the human GlyR α1 subunit. Neither [3H]strychnine binding nor glycine-gated currents were detected when the human GlyR β subunit cDNA was expressed in the human embryonic kidney 293 cell line. However, co-expression of the β subunit cDNA with the α1 subunit cDNA resulted in expression of functional GlyRs which showed a 4-fold reduction in the EC50 values when compared to α1 homomeric GlyRs. Glycine-gated currents of α1/β GlyRs were 17-fold less sensitive than homomeric α1 GlyRs to the antagonists picrotoxin, picrotoxinin and picrotin, providing clear evidence that heteromeric α1/β GlyRs were expressed. The β subunit appears to play a structural rather than ligand binding role in GlyR function. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation was used to localise the gene encoding the human GlyR β subunit (GLRB) to chromosome 4q32...

Glycine toxicity and unexpected intra-operative death

Byard, R.; Harrison, R.; Wells, R.; Gilbert, J.
Fonte: Amer Soc Testing Materials Publicador: Amer Soc Testing Materials
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 EN
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A rare complication of the use of glycine irrigation fluid during prostatic surgery in a 69-year-old man is described. Following cystolithopexy and transurethral resection of the prostate for benign prostatomegaly, abdominal distension developed with increasing ventilatory pressures. Despite retroperitoneal fluid evacuation at subsequent urgent laparotomy, cardiac arrest occurred that was not amenable to resuscitation. At autopsy a traumatic defect in the posterior bladder wall filled with calculus debris was confirmed that did not communicate with the peritoneal cavity. Hyponatremia with markedly elevated levels of blood, urine, and body fluid glycine were demonstrated. Death was, therefore, attributed to glycine toxicity following tracking of glycine through a surgical defect in the posterior bladder wall. Careful dissection of surgical sites is required in such cases to demonstrate any additional trauma that may be associated with the fatal episode. Analysis of body fluids for glycine and electrolytes is also necessary to assist in the determination of possible mechanisms of death.

The presence of 1 mM glycine in vitrification solutions protects oocyte mitochondrial homeostasis and improves blastocyst development

Zander, D.; Cashman, K.; Lane, M.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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PURPOSE: Embryos generated from oocytes which have been vitrified have lower blastocyst development rates than embryos generated from fresh oocytes. This is indicative of a level of irreversible damage to the oocyte possibly due to exposure to high cryoprotectant levels and osmotic stress. This study aimed to assess the effects of vitrification on the mitochondria of mature mouse oocytes while also examining the ability of the osmolyte glycine, to maintain cell function after vitrification. METHODS: Oocytes were cryopreserved via vitrification with or without 1 mM Glycine and compared to fresh oocyte controls. Oocytes were assessed for mitochondrial distribution and membrane potential as well as their ability to fertilise. Blastocyst development and gene expression was also examined. RESULTS: Vitrification altered mitochondrial distribution and membrane potential, which did not recover after 2 h of culture. Addition of 1 mM glycine to the vitrification media prevented these perturbations. Furthermore, blastocyst development from oocytes that were vitrified with glycine was significantly higher compared to those vitrified without glycine (83.9 % vs. 76.5 % respectively; p < 0.05) and blastocysts derived from oocytes that were vitrified without glycine had significantly decreased levels of IGF2 and Glut3 compared to control blastocysts however those derived from oocytes vitrified with glycine had comparable levels of these genes compared to fresh controls. CONCLUSION: Addition of 1 mM glycine to the vitrification solutions improved the ability of the oocyte to maintain its mitochondrial physiology and subsequent development and therefore could be considered for routine inclusion in cryopreservation solutions.; Deirdre Zander-Fox & Kara S. Cashman & Michelle Lane

A novel method based on combination of semi-in vitro and in vivo conditions in Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root transformation of Glycine species

Mohammadi Dehcheshmeh, M.; Ebrahimie, E.; Tyerman, S.; Kaiser, B.
Fonte: C A B I Publishing Publicador: C A B I Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
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Despite numerous advantages of the many tissue culture-independent hairy root transformation protocols, the process is often compromised in the initial in vitro culture stage where inability to maintain high humidity and the delivery of nourishing culture medium decrease cellular morphogenesis and organ formation efficiency. Ultimately, this influences the effective transfer of produced plantlets during transfer from in vitro to in vivo conditions, where low survival rates occur during the acclimation period. We have developed an intermediate protocol for Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation in Glycine species by combining a two-step in vitro and in vivo process that greatly enhances the efficiency of hairy root formation and which simplifies the maintenance of the transformed roots. In this protocol, cotyledonary nodes of Glycine max and Glycine canescens seedlings were infected by A. rhizogenes K599 carrying a reporter gene construct constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Glass containers containing sand and nutrient solution were employed to provide a moist clean microenvironment for the generation of hairy roots from inoculated seedlings. Transgenic roots were then noninvasively identified from nontransgenic roots based on the detection of GFP. Main roots and nontransgenic roots were removed leaving transgenic hairy roots to support seedling development...

Glycine increases the number of somatostatin receptors and somatostatin-mediated inhibition of the adenylate cyclase system in the rat hippocampus

Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo
Fonte: Wiley-Liss Publicador: Wiley-Liss
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info.eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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The glycine and somatostatin (SS) neurotransmission systems in the brain have been implicated in the function of sensory, motor, and nociceptive pathways. To investigate a possible relationship between these two components, we studied the influence of glycine on the binding of 125I-Tyr11-SS to its receptors and on SS-like immunoreactivity (SSLI) levels in the rat hippocampus and frontoparietal cortex. An intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) dose of 16 or 160 nmol of glycine induced an increase in the total number of specific SS receptors in the hippocampus but not in the frontoparietal cortex at 15 min following injection, with no changes in the affinity constant. This effect seems to be mediated by inhibitory strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors since pretreatment with the antagonist strychnine (80 μg/100 g body weight, intravenously) abolished this response. No significant changes in SSLI content were detected in either brain region of glycine- and strychnine plus glycine-treated rats as compared to control values. Since SS receptors are coupled via guanine nucleotide-binding G proteins to the adenylyl cyclase (AC) system, we also examined the inhibitory effects of SS and the guanine nucleotide Gpp(NH)p on AC activity in hippocampal membranes of control...

Modulation de la neurogénèse par la glycine

Côté, Sébastien
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Les vertébrés, du poisson à l'homme, possèdent un potentiel membranaire médié en partie par les ions chlorure (Cl-). L’une des premières formes d’activité neuronale lors du développement est la dépolarisation médiée par les ions chlorures extrudés par les canaux glycinergiques (GlyR) et GABAergiques. Cette dépolarisation est rendu possible grâce à l’expression retardée du co-transporteur d’ions chlorure et de potassium KCC2 lors du développement qui génère un gradient hyperpolarisant postnatalement chez les mammifères. Le rôle de cette dépolarisation précoce paradoxale durant le développement est inconnu. En injectant l’ARNm de KCC2 dans des embryons de poissons zébrés nouvellement fertilisé, nous avons devancé l’expression de ce co-transporteur rendant ainsi la glycine hyperpolarisante dans tous les neurones dès les premières phases du développement. Nous avons aussi ciblé le récepteur glycinergique directement en bloquant son activité et son expression à l’aide d’une drogue spécifique, la strychnine et d’un morpholino antisens (Knockdown). Dans les trois cas (KCC2, strychnine et GlyR KD), les perturbations de l’activité neuronale ont provoqués des erreurs dans la neurogenèse...

Cross-species amplification from crop soybean Glycine max provides informative microsatellite markers for the study of inbreeding wild relatives

Hempel, K; Peakall, Rodney
Fonte: National Research Council of Canada Publicador: National Research Council of Canada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The development of microsatellite markers through transfer of primers from related species (cross-species amplification) remains a little-explored alternative to the de novo method in plants. In this study of 100 microsatellite loci from Glycine max, we examined two aspects of primer transfer. First, we tested if source locus properties can predict primer transfer and polymorphism in Glycine cyrtoloba and Glycine clandestina. We transferred 23 primers to G. cyrtoloba and 42 to G. clandestina, with 19 loci polymorphic within G. clandestina. However, we could not predict transfer or polymorphism from the source locus properties. Second, we evaluated the subset of 11 polymorphic loci for study in G. clandestina populations representing two local morphotypes. All loci were informative within populations (population mean He ± SE = 0.58 ± 0.04). We directly sequenced 28 alleles at 4 representative loci. The allelic patterns and sequencing results established that 8 of 11 loci were typical microsatellites, confirming the utility of primer transfer as an alternative to de novo development. Additionally, we found that morphotypic differentiation between populations was paralleled by changes in polymorphism level at six loci and size homoplasy at one locus. We interpret these patterns as being a product of selfing in G. clandestina. Our results demonstrate the value of allele sequence knowledge for the most effective use of microsatellites.

Comparison of taurine- and glycine-induced conformational changes in the M2-M3 domain of the glycine receptor

Han, Nian Lin; Clements, John D; Lynch, Joseph
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Inc Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
356.8242%
In the ionotropic glutamate receptor, the global conformational changes induced by partial agonists are smaller than those induced by full agonists. However, in the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel receptor family, the structural basis of partial agonism is not understood. This study investigated whether full and partial agonists induce different conformation changes in the glycine receptor chloride channel (GlyR). A substituted cysteine accessibility analysis demonstrated previously that glycine binding induced an increase in surface accessibility of all residues from Arg271 to Lys 276 in the M2-M3 domain of the homomeric α1 GlyR. Here we compare the surface accessibility changes induced by the full agonist, glycine, and the partial agonist, taurine. In GlyRs incorporating the A272C, S273C, L274C, or P275C mutation, the reaction rate of the cysteine-specific compound, methanethiosulfonate ethyltrimethylammonium, depended on how strongly the receptors were activated but was agonist-independent. Reaction rates could not be compared in the R271C and K276C mutant GlyRs because methanethiosulfonate ethyltrimethylammonium did not modify the extremely small currents induced by saturating taurine or equivalent low glycine concentrations. The results indicate that bound taurine and glycine molecules impose identical conformational changes to the M2-M3 domain. We therefore conclude that the higher efficacy of glycine is due to an increased ability to stabilize a common activated configuration.