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Rare-earth impurities in gallium nitride: The role of the Hubbard potential

Caroena, G.; Justo Filho, João Francisco; Machado, W. V. M.; Assali, L. V. C.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA; LAUSANNE Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA; LAUSANNE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
718.83195%
We performed a first principles investigation on the electronic properties of 4f-rare earth substitutional impurities in zincblende gallium nitride (GaN:REGa, with RE=Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm). The calculations were performed within the all electron methodology and the density functional theory. We investigated how the introduction of the on-site Hubbard U potential (GGA + U) corrects the electronic properties of those impurities. We showed that a self-consistent procedure to compute the Hubbard potential provides a reliable description on the position of the 4f-related energy levels with respect of the GaN valence band top. The results were compared to available data coming from a recent phenomenological model. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

GaN power amplifier for satellite communications; Amplificador de potência em GaN para comunicações via satélite

Gomes, Jorge Miguel Abrantes de Almeida
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
518.83195%
The satellite communications have become a valid alternative to conventional communications, through fiber or copper, in situations of catastrophe or even as complement to improve the quality of the services provided at a worldwide scale. Recently, radio frequency engineers have worked towards a reliable solution to replace the travelling wave tube amplifiers on board of the satellite communications. Despite the travelling wave tube amplifiers reveal a good performance, its weight, size and cost are a serious technical problem to the main satellite manufacturers. However, this scenario tends to change due to the exploitation of the Gallium Nitride technology in high power, efficiency and frequency applications. The objective of this work involves an implementation of two power amplifiers in class B, resorting to a Gallium Nitride transistors and using different types of planar transmission lines, for a 5.8GHz frequency which is often used in uplink transmissions for C-band or even in recent applications of wireless power transmission. The best results were obtained for the microstrip lines power amplifier, achieving 34.1dBm of output power, 62.35% of drain efficiency at saturation and a small-gain of 17dB.; As comunicações via satélite têm-se tornado uma alternativa válida às vias de comunicações convencionais...

Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting

Kim, Hoon-sik; Brueckner, Eric; Song, Jizhou; Li, Yuhang; Kim, Seok; Lu, Chaofeng; Sulkin, Joshua; Choquette, Kent; Huang, Yonggang; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
503.97797%
Properties that can now be achieved with advanced, blue indium gallium nitride light emitting diodes (LEDs) lead to their potential as replacements for existing infrastructure in general illumination, with important implications for efficient use of energy. Further advances in this technology will benefit from reexamination of the modes for incorporating this materials technology into lighting modules that manage light conversion, extraction, and distribution, in ways that minimize adverse thermal effects associated with operation, with packages that exploit the unique aspects of these light sources. We present here ideas in anisotropic etching, microscale device assembly/integration, and module configuration that address these challenges in unconventional ways. Various device demonstrations provide examples of the capabilities, including thin, flexible lighting “tapes” based on patterned phosphors and large collections of small light emitters on plastic substrates. Quantitative modeling and experimental evaluation of heat flow in such structures illustrates one particular, important aspect of their operation: small, distributed LEDs can be passively cooled simply by direct thermal transport through thin-film metallization used for electrical interconnect...

Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods

Tsai, Chia-Chang; Li, Guan-Hua; Lin, Yuan-Ting; Chang, Ching-Wen; Wadekar, Paritosh; Chen, Quark Yung-Sung; Rigutti, Lorenzo; Tchernycheva, Maria; Julien, François Henri; Tu, Li-Wei
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/12/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
503.97797%
Gallium nitride [GaN] nanorods grown on a Si(111) substrate at 720°C via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were studied by field-emission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence [CL]. The surface topography and optical properties of the GaN nanorod cluster and single GaN nanorod were measured and discussed. The defect-related CL spectra of GaN nanorods and their dependence on temperature were investigated. The CL spectra along the length of the individual GaN nanorod were also studied. The results reveal that the 3.2-eV peak comes from the structural defect at the interface between the GaN nanorod and Si substrate. The surface state emission of the single GaN nanorod is stronger as the diameter of the GaN nanorod becomes smaller due to an increased surface-to-volume ratio.

Effects of post-deposition annealing ambient on band alignment of RF magnetron-sputtered Y2O3 film on gallium nitride

Quah, Hock Jin; Cheong, Kuan Yew
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
503.97797%
The effects of different post-deposition annealing ambients (oxygen, argon, forming gas (95% N2 + 5% H2), and nitrogen) on radio frequency magnetron-sputtered yttrium oxide (Y2O3) films on n-type gallium nitride (GaN) substrate were studied in this work. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to extract the bandgap of Y2O3 and interfacial layer as well as establishing the energy band alignment of Y2O3/interfacial layer/GaN structure. Three different structures of energy band alignment were obtained, and the change of band alignment influenced leakage current density-electrical breakdown field characteristics of the samples subjected to different post-deposition annealing ambients. Of these investigated samples, ability of the sample annealed in O2 ambient to withstand the highest electric breakdown field (approximately 6.6 MV/cm) at 10−6 A/cm2 was related to the largest conduction band offset of interfacial layer/GaN (3.77 eV) and barrier height (3.72 eV).

Synthesis of gallium nitride nanostructures by nitridation of electrochemically deposited gallium oxide on silicon substrate

Ghazali, Norizzawati Mohd; Yasui, Kanji; Hashim, Abdul Manaf
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
516.28125%
Gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures were successfully synthesized by the nitridation of the electrochemically deposited gallium oxide (Ga2O3) through the utilization of a so-called ammoniating process. Ga2O3 nanostructures were firstly deposited on Si substrate by a simple two-terminal electrochemical technique at a constant current density of 0.15 A/cm2 using a mixture of Ga2O3, HCl, NH4OH and H2O for 2 h. Then, the deposited Ga2O3 sample was ammoniated in a horizontal quartz tube single zone furnace at various ammoniating times and temperatures. The complete nitridation of Ga2O3 nanostructures at temperatures of 850°C and below was not observed even the ammoniating time was kept up to 45 min. After the ammoniating process at temperature of 900°C for 15 min, several prominent diffraction peaks correspond to hexagonal GaN (h-GaN) planes were detected, while no diffraction peak of Ga2O3 structure was detected, suggesting a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN. Thus, temperature seems to be a key parameter in a nitridation process where the deoxidization rate of Ga2O3 to generate gaseous Ga2O increase with temperature. The growth mechanism for the transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN was proposed and discussed. It was found that a complete transformation can not be realized without a complete deoxidization of Ga2O3. A significant change of morphological structures takes place after a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN where the original nanorod structures of Ga2O3 diminish...

Low-Threshold Indium Gallium Nitride Quantum Dot Microcavity Lasers

Woolf, Alexander J.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
539.2812%
Gallium nitride (GaN) microcavities with embedded optical emitters have long been sought after as visible light sources as well as platforms for cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) experiments. Specifically, materials containing indium gallium nitride (InGaN) quantum dots (QDs) offer an outstanding platform to study light matter interactions and realize practical devices, such as on-chip light emitting diodes and nanolasers. Inherent advantages of nitride-based microcavities include low surface recombination velocities, enhanced room-temperature performance (due to their high exciton binding energy, as high as 67 meV for InGaN QDs), and emission wavelengths in the blue region of the visible spectrum. In spite of these advantages, several challenges must be overcome in order to capitalize on the potential of this material system. Such diffculties include the processing of GaN into high-quality devices due to the chemical inertness of the material, low material quality as a result of strain-induced defects, reduced carrier recombination effciencies due to internal fields, and a lack of characterization of the InGaN QDs themselves due to the diffculty of their growth and therefore lack of development relative to other semiconductor QDs. In this thesis we seek to understand and address such issues by investigating the interaction of light coupled to InGaN QDs via a GaN microcavity resonator. Such coupling led us to the demonstration of the first InGaN QD microcavity laser...

Effects of Substrate Temperature on Indium Gallium Nitride Nanocolumn Crystal Growth

Keating, S.; Urquhart, M.G.; McLaughlin, D.V.P.; Pearce, J.M.
Fonte: ACS Publicador: ACS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
718.83195%
Indium gallium nitride films with nanocolumnar microstructure were deposited with varying indium content and substrate temperatures using plasma-enhanced evaporation on amorphous SiO2 substrates. FESEM and XRD results are presented, showing that more crystalline nanocolumnar microstructures can be engineered at lower indium compositions. Nanocolumn diameter and packing factor (void fraction) was found to be highly dependent on substrate temperature, with thinner and more closely packed nanocolumns observed at lower substrate temperatures.; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

Carbon Nanotube Doping Procedures for Three-Dimensional Macro-Structures and Gallium-Nitride Functionalization

Hashim, Daniel Paul
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
619.45633%
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in all of their forms are considered “gamechanger” materials that will revolutionize the modern world through many diverse applications. Over 20 years of research has gone into CNT materials, yet we still see their limited use in feasible real-world applications. Part of the reason is because it still remains a challenge for materials scientists to engineer these extraordinary nano-scale building blocks into covalently interconnected three-dimensional (3-D) structures, and to realize macro-scaled sizes via a bulk synthesis process. Another challenge is being able to create CNT-semiconductor hybrid materials by covalently joining other useful semiconductor compounds with CNTs in order to harness their value for electronics applications. The experimental research compiled in the first part of this thesis pioneers an innovative approach to synthesize 3-D macro-structured forms of CNTs by utilizing a heteroatom doping strategy via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The importance of substitutional doping effects of boron on CNT structural morphology is characterized experimentally and theoretically for the first time so as to create a robust, solid, 3-D networked, CNT “sponge” form. The CNT “sponge” was characterized to exhibit an exotic combination of multifunctional properties including high porosity...

Indium gallium nitride multijunction solar cell simulation using silvaco atlas

Garcia, Baldomero
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
540.28484%
This thesis investigates the potential use of wurtzite Indium Gallium Nitride as photovoltaic material. Silvaco Atlas was used to simulate a quad-junction solar cell. Each of the junctions was made up of Indium Gallium Nitride. The band gap of each junction was dependent on the composition percentage of Indium Nitride and Gallium Nitride within Indium Gallium Nitride. The findings of this research show that Indium Gallium Nitride is a promising semiconductor for solar cell use.

Two-dimensional modeling of aluminum gallium nitride/gallium nitride high electron mobility transistor

Holmes, Kenneth L.
Fonte: Monterey, Calif. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, Calif. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xvi, 61 p. : col. ill. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
727.9729%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMT's) are microwave power devices that have the performance characteristics to improve the capabilities of current and future Navy radar and communication systems. The Office of Naval Research (ONR) is funding research for the development of GaN-based microwave power amplifiers for use in future radar and communication systems. This thesis studies the effects of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs' polarization, piezoelectric (PZ) and spontaneous, properties utilizing the commercially available Silvaco AtlasTM software for modeling and simulation. The polarization properties are suspected to enhance the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the AlGaN/GaN interface.; Lieutenant, United States Navy

Graphene stabilization of two-dimensional gallium nitride

Balushi, Zakaria Y. Al; Wang, Ke; Ghosh, Ram Krishna; Vilá, Rafael A.; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; DeSario, Paul A.; Paul, Dennis F.; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Datta, Suman; Redwing, Joan M.; Robinson, Joshua A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
511.21562%
The spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) materials beyond graphene offers a remarkable platform to study new phenomena in condensed matter physics. Among these materials, layered hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), with its wide bandgap energy (5.0-6.0 eV), has clearly established that 2D nitrides are key to advancing novel devices. A gap, however, remains between the theoretical discovery of 2D nitrides beyond hBN and experimental realization of such structures. Here we demonstrate the robust synthesis of 2D bilayer gallium nitride (GaN) via a novel migration enhanced encapsulated growth (MEEG) technique utilizing epitaxial graphene. We theoretically predict and experimentally validate using MEEG, that the atomic structure of 2D GaN is notably different from reported theory. Moreover, we establish that graphene plays a critical role in stabilizing the direct bandgap, 2D buckled structure. Our results provide a foundation for discovery and stabilization of novel 2D nitrides that are difficult to prepare via traditional synthesis.

Raman Measurements and Stress Analysis in Gallium Ion Implanted Gallium Nitride Epitaxial Layers on Sapphire

Mal, S.; Singha, A.; Dhara, S.; Roy, A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
516.28125%
In this article, we estimate hydrostatic stress developed in gallium ion implanted gallium nitride epitaxial layers using Raman measurements. We have calculated deformation potential constants for $E_2$(high) mode in these epi-layers. The presence of a polar phonon-plasmon coupling in these systems has also been demonstrated. In as-implanted samples, with an increase in implantation fluence, we have observed disorder-activated Raman scattering.; Comment: 26pages, 3 figures

Distinctive Signature of Indium Gallium Nitride Quantum Dot Lasing in Microdisks Cavities

Woolf, Alexander; Puchtler, Tim; Aharonovich, Igor; Zhu, Tongtong; Niu, Nan; Wang, Danqing; Oliver, Rachel A.; Hu, Evelyn L.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
523.2859%
Low threshold lasers realized within compact, high quality optical cavities enable a variety of nanophotonics applications. Gallium nitride (GaN) materials containing indium gallium nitride (InGaN) quantum dots and quantum wells offer an outstanding platform to study light matter interactions and realize practical devices such as efficient light emitting diodes and nanolasers. Despite progress in the growth and characterization of InGaN quantum dots, their advantages as the gain medium in low threshold lasers have not been clearly demonstrated. This work seeks to better understand the reasons for these limitations by focusing on the simpler, limited-mode microdisk cavities, and by carrying out comparisons of lasing dynamics in those cavities using varying gain media including InGaN quantum wells, fragmented quantum wells, and a combination of fragmented quantum wells with quantum dots. For each gain medium, we utilize the distinctive, high quality (Q~5500) modes of the cavities, and the change in the highest intensity mode as a function of pump power to better understand the dominant radiative processes. The variations of threshold power and lasing wavelength as a function of gain medium help us identify the possible limitations to lower-threshold lasing with quantum dot active medium. In addition...

Ultra-low threshold Gallium Nitride photonic crystal nanobeam laser

Niu, Nan; Woolf, Alexander; Wang, Danquing; Zhu, Tongtong; Quan, Qimin; Oliver, Rachel A.; Hu, Evelyn L.
Fonte: AIP Publicador: AIP
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
518.83195%
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from AIP at http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/apl/106/23/10.1063/1.4922211.; We report exceptionally low thresholds (9.1??J/cm2) for room temperature lasing at ?450?nm in optically pumped Gallium Nitride (GaN) nanobeam cavity structures. The nanobeam cavity geometry provides high theoretical Q (>100?000) with small modal volume, leading to a high spontaneous emission factor, ??=?0.94. The active layer materials are Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) fragmented quantum wells (fQWs), a critical factor in achieving the low thresholds, which are an order-of-magnitude lower than obtainable with continuous QW active layers. We suggest that the extra confinement of photo-generated carriers for fQWs (compared to QWs) is responsible for the excellent performance; This work was enabled by facilities available at the Center for Nanoscale Systems (CNS), a member of the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN), which was supported by the National Science Foundation under NSF Award No. ECS- 0335765. This work was also supported in part by the NSF Materials World Network (Award No. 1008480), the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (Award No. EP/H047816/1)...

Distinctive Signature of Indium Gallium Nitride Quantum Dot Lasing in Microdisk Cavities

Woolf, Alexander; Puchtler, Tim; Aharonovich, Igor; Zhu, Tongtong; Niu, Nan; Wang, Danqing; Oliver, Rachel A.; Hu, Evelyn L.
Fonte: PNAS Publicador: PNAS
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
523.2859%
This is the author's accepted manuscript. The final version is available from PNAS at http://www.pnas.org/content/111/39/14042.abstract.; Low threshold lasers realized within compact, high quality optical cavities enable a variety of nanophotonics applications. Gallium nitride (GaN) materials containing indium gallium nitride (InGaN) quantum dots and quantum wells offer an outstanding platform to study light matter interactions and realize practical devices such as efficient light emitting diodes and nanolasers. Despite progress in the growth and characterization of InGaN quantum dots, their advantages as the gain medium in low threshold lasers have not been clearly demonstrated. This work seeks to better understand the reasons for these limitations by focusing on the simpler, limited-mode microdisk cavities, and by carrying out comparisons of lasing dynamics in those cavities using varying gain media including InGaN quantum wells, fragmented quantum wells, and a combination of fragmented quantum wells with quantum dots. For each gain medium, we utilize the distinctive, high quality (Q~5500) modes of the cavities, and the change in the highest-intensity mode as a function of pump power to better understand the dominant radiative processes. The variations of threshold power and lasing wavelength as a function of gain medium help us identify the possible limitations to lower-threshold lasing with quantum dot active medium. In addition...

Nitride semiconductors studied by atom probe tomography and correlative techniques

Bennett, Samantha
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
523.8028%
Optoelectronic devices fabricated from nitride semiconductors include blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs). To design efficient devices, the structure and composition of the constituent materials must be well-characterised. Traditional microscopy techniques used to examine nitride semiconductors include transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). This thesis describes the study of nitride semiconductor materials using these traditional methods, as well as atom probe tomography (APT), a technique more usually applied to metals that provides three-dimensional (3D) compositional information at the atomic scale. By using both APT and correlative microscopy techniques, a more complete understanding of the material can be gained, which can potentially lead to higher-efficiency, longer-lasting devices. Defects, such as threading dislocations (TDs), can harm device performance. An AFM-based technique was used to show that TDs affect the local electrical properties of nitride materials. To investigate any compositional changes around the TD, APT studies of TDs were attempted, and evidence for oxygen enrichment near the TD was observed. The dopant level in nitride devices also affects their optoelectronic properties...

Solid-state metathesis reactions under pressure: A rapid route to crystalline gallium nitride

Wallace, Charles H.; Kim, Sang-Ho; Rose, Garry A.; Rao, Lin; Heath, James R.; Nicol, Malcolm; Kaner, Richard B.
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia da Califórnia Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia da Califórnia
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/02/1998
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518.83195%
High pressure chemistry has traditionally involved applying pressure and increasing temperature until conditions become thermodynamically favorable for phase transitions or reactions to occur. Here, high pressure alone is used as a starting point for carrying out rapid, self-propagating metathesis reactions. By initiating chemical reactions under pressure, crystalline phases, such as gallium nitride, can be synthesized which are inaccessible when initiated from ambient conditions. The single-phase gallium nitride made by metathesis reactions under pressure displays significant photoluminescence intensity in the blue/ultraviolet region. The absence of size or surface-state effects in the photoluminescence spectra show that the crystallites are of micron dimensions. The narrow lines of the x-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron microscopy confirm this conclusion. Brightly luminescent thin films can be readily grown using pulsed laser deposition.

Gallium Nitride and Indium Gallium Nitride Based Photoanodes in Photoelectrochemical Cells

Clinger, John D.
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
736.4582%
Opila, Robert L.; Kolodzey, James; Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells are integrated electrolyzers that split water into hydrogen and oxygen, using energy from the sun to create an energy storage medium that does not release undesirable emissions. New materials for both the photoanode and cathode of the device are needed to reduce cost as well as increase efficiency. An effective photoanode must be non toxic, have the ability to split water, absorb most of the solar spectrum, and demonstrate stability in aqueous solutions. Gallium nitride is stable and non toxic and has the ability to split water, but can only absorb a small fraction of the solar spectrum due to having a bandgap of 3.2eV. This thesis focuses on introducing indium into the gallium nitride, lowering the bandgap of the photoanode, while maintaining the desirable characteristics inherent with GaN. GaN, InGaN and GaN/InGaN samples were grown using Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) and were electrochemically tested to determine stability as well as performance, through the use of cyclic voltammetry, linear scan voltammetry, and incident photon conversion efficiency measurements. GaN sample behavior resembles that of titanium dioxide, another commonly used material for photoanodes with a similar wide bandgap...

Gallium and Oxygen Accumulations on Gallium Nitride Surfaces Following Argon Ion Milling in Ultra-High Vacuum Conditions

Butcher, Kenneth Scott A; Afifuddin, A; Tansley, T L; Brack, N; Pigram, P J; Timmers, Heiko; Prince, K E; Elliman, Robert
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
626.694%
Metallic gallium was observed on the surfaces of GaN commercial samples following argon ion milling. SIMS measurements confirmed that the commercial GaN had approximately 0.02% bulk oxygen present. The SIMS signal was standardized using a specimen of known oxygen content, as determined by elastic recoil detection analysis using 200MeV heavy ions of 197Au. Despite this 2-5% oxygen was observed by XPS in the bulk of the GaN after the argon ion milling. This oxygen is believed to be from the original surface oxide that re-cycles on the GaN surface during the ion milling.