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Bosnia and Herzegovina : Accounting and Auditing; Bosna i Hercegovina - Izvjestaj o postivanju standard i kodeksa : racunovodstvo i revizija

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.27%
This assessment of accounting and auditing (A&A) practices in Bosnia and Herzegovina is part of a joint initiative by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) to prepare reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). The assessment focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of the accounting and auditing environment that influence the quality of corporate financial reporting, and includes a review of both statutory requirements and actual practice. It uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks and draws on international experience and best practices. This assessment updates the findings of the previous A&A ROSC conducted and published in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2004. With a population of 3.8 million, Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the smallest countries in Central and Eastern Europe. That population is largely made up of three constituent peoples: Bosniaks, Serbs, and Croats. Prior to the war, the three groups were more evenly distributed throughout the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina...

Argentina - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.1%
This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Argentina, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Argentina is one of the four developing countries in the world to have submitted two national communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), indicating strong commitment by the government for addressing climate change issues across sectors. Agriculture (including land use change and forestry) is the largest contributor to green house gas (GHG) emissions in the country, while contributing less than six percent of Gross Domestic product (GDP), and it represents fifty-five percent of the country's export base (including processed agricultural goods). The emission reduction potential of the agricultural sector (including land use change and forestry) is significant and not yet sufficiently explored in the country. Argentina currently counts with only one Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in the agricultural sector. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate variability. The extension and improvement of both irrigation infrastructure and climate-sensitive insurance coverage for agricultural production can reduce some of the observed vulnerabilities in the country.

Mongolia - Sources of Growth : Country Economic Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.27%
This economic report aims to inform the ongoing debate on the Government's long term development priorities in Mongolia. It discusses the key facts and potential implications the government would need to consider when determining its public spending, public investment program, fiscal space, and borrowing strategy going forward. The report begins by reviewing the Mongolian growth experience over the 1990s as a pre-requisite to understand the present endowments, and the circumstances under which one needs to think about the future. Chapter 2 applies the "growth diagnostics" approach to identify those factors that are "binding" constraints to growth and are areas in need of immediate policy interventions by the government. Chapter 3 discusses the issues that will need to be addressed in order to develop non-mining sector activities with the aim of economic and export diversification and suggests policies to encourage firm innovation'' and private sector growth. Chapter 4 discusses policies to relax infrastructure bottlenecks in the context of regional development and Mongolia's unique geography. Chapter 5 presents a menu of policies tailored to address the mismatch of skills workers bring to the market and those demanded by the market. Chapter 6 discusses issues related to appropriate management and development of its mineral wealth...

What are the Constraints to Inclusive Growth in Zambia?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.42%
Despite positive, relatively broad-based and stable growth record in recent years and immense untapped potential in agriculture, mining and services, Zambia's poverty rates have not declined significantly and remain high. Income growth is limited by coordination failures such as poor access to domestic and international markets, inputs, extension services and information. High indirect costs - most of which attributable to infrastructure service-related inputs into production including energy, transport, telecom, water, but also insurance, marketing and professional service - undermine Zambia's competitiveness limit job creation and therefore serve as a major constraint to pro-poor growth. Continued real appreciation is another serious threat to the competitiveness of export-oriented and import-competing sectors and to job creation. For Zambia to stay competitive and sustain the growth momentum it will be critical to improve productivity - including the productivity of its labor force, and to lower indirect production costs related to basic services. Carefully crafted monetary and fiscal policies will also be critical in responding to the real appreciation pressures. Improving the quality and access to secondary and tertiary education is essential if the poor are to benefit from future growth of the non-farm economy. Weak governance and in particular poor government effectiveness...

Trade and Shared Prosperity in the Caribbean Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.27%
This policy note is based on the seven chapters of the Caribbean trade report, The New Trade Environment and Shared Prosperity in the Caribbean, prepared by the World Bank for the Caribbean Growth Forum. Despite fairly respectable economic growth over the decades and a degree of high trade openness, unemployment rates remain very high in the Caribbean, averaging 10 percent for the region between 2002 and 2009, and poverty reduction has been slow. The purpose of this note is to provide background information on the role of trade in the unemployment and poverty reduction in the Caribbean and, based on recent World Bank analysis, to suggest areas where greater policy attention could promote trade and thus reduce poverty. The report begins with a profile of employment in the Caribbean, and discusses the impact of trade on employment during the global financial crisis. Evidence is reviewed on the role of trade in employment and development over the long term, and whether the poor in the Caribbean benefit from export activities. Then the report presents a discussion how addressing constraints on exports and reducing tariff levels will enhance growth and reduce poverty. The conclusion summarizes the main issues of addressing constraints on exports and promoting broad-based benefits of trade. The report's analysis shows that international trade plays a major role in terms of job creation and poverty reduction in the Caribbean...