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Efeitos clínicos e microbiológicos do óleo de copaíba (Copaifera officinalis) sobre bactérias formadoras de placa dental em cães; Clinical and microbiological effects of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis) on dental plaque forming bacteria in dogs

PIERI, F.A.; MUSSI, M.C.; FIORINI, J.E.; SCHNEEDORF, J.M.
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Veterinária Publicador: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Veterinária
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
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O potencial de uso do óleo de copaíba (Copaifera officinalis) na prevenção da doença periodontal, eliminando seu agente etiológico, foi avaliado em 18 cães sem raça definida, distribuídos homogeneamente em três grupos: teste, (contendo óleo de copaíba) controle positivo e controle negativo. Os tratamentos ocorreram três vezes ao dia, durante oito dias. Ao nono dia, os animais receberam aplicação tópica de fucsina básica 0,5% para evidenciação do biofilme. Mudanças na halitose e gengivite foram avaliadas diariamente por inspeção visual. Adicionalmente, foram realizados testes laboratoriais de inibição de aderência de Streptococcus mutans e ensaio antimicrobiano de difusão em ágar, sobre bactérias formadoras de placa dental. Os resultados da placa evidenciada apontaram áreas de cobertura microbiana nos dentes de 53,4±8,8%, 28,5±5,4%, e 22,3±5,3% para os grupos negativo, positivo e teste, respectivamente, indicando diferença entre o controle negativo e os demais grupos (P<0,05). Quanto à melhora nos aspectos clínicos, halitose e gengivite, o grupo teste respondeu melhor quando comparado ao grupo controle negativo (P<0,05). A análise dos ensaios de difusão e inibição de aderência mostrou superioridade do grupo da copaíba (teste) em relação aos outros grupos (P<0...

Early dental plaque formation on toothbrushed titanium implant surfaces

AMARANTE, Evandro Scligiaano; CHAMBRONE, Leandro; LOTUFO, Roberto Fraga Moreira; LIMA, Luiz A.
Fonte: MOSHER & LINDER, INC Publicador: MOSHER & LINDER, INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Purpose: To evaluate the qualitative and quantitative differences on dental plaque formation on two different roughness titanium implant surfaces, i.e. machined and titanium plasma sprayed, as well as the amount of plaque removal by regular toothbrushing after 72-hour plaque accumulation. Methods: Eight systemically healthy subjects were recruited from the patient pool of a private dental practice. All patients underwent oral hygiene instruction and full mouth prophylaxis. Subsequently, maxillary casts from all patients were obtained and removable 0.7 mm-thick acetate stents without occlusal contact points were fabricated to support four titanium specimens of 4x2x2 mm divided into two groups (machined and plasma sprayed). Subjects were instructed to wear the stents for 72 hours, full time, removing them only during regular oral hygiene. Subsequently, the appliances were immediately repositioned and then the test side was brushed for 20 seconds. At the end of the 72-hour period, the stents were removed and prepared for microbiological analysis. Results: Both machined and plasma sprayed brushed surfaces presented statistically significant fewer bacteria than non-brushed surfaces. Similarly, regarding surface roughness, machined surfaces presented a total number of bacteria significantly smaller than those presented by plasma sprayed surfaces (P< 0.05). Statistically...

The antibacterial effect of photodynamic therapy in dental plaque-derived biofilms

Fontana, C. R.; Abernethy, A. D.; Som, S.; Ruggiero, K.; Doucette, S.; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chierici; Boussios, C. I.; Kent, R.; Goodson, J. M.; Tanner, A. C. R.; Soukos, N. S.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc
Tipo: Outros Formato: 751-759
ENG
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Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Background and Objective: Photodynamic therapy has been advocated as an alternative to antimicrobial agents to suppress subgingival species and to treat periodontitis. Bacteria located within dense biofilms, such as those encountered in dental plaque, have been found to be relatively resistant to antimicrobial therapy. In the present study, we investigated the ability of photodynamic therapy to reduce the number of bacteria in biofilms by comparing the photodynamic effects of methylene blue on human dental plaque microorganisms in the planktonic phase and in biofilms.Material and Methods: Dental plaque samples were obtained from 10 subjects with chronic periodontitis. Suspensions of plaque microorganisms from five subjects were sensitized with methylene blue (25 mu g/mL) for 5 min then exposed to red light. Multispecies microbial biofilms developed from the same plaque samples were also exposed to methylene blue (25 mu g/mL) and the same light conditions as their planktonic counterparts. In a second set of experiments, biofilms were developed with plaque bacteria from five subjects, sensitized with 25 or 50 mu g/mL of methylene blue and then exposed to red light. After photodynamic therapy...

Toothbrushing with vegetable oil: a clinical and laboratorial analysis.

Aguiar, Alciara Alice de Almeida; Saliba, Nemre Adas
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 168-173
ENG
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The dentifrices currently available in the marketplace contain many anticariogenic substances, fluoride and abrasives aimed to better clean the dental surface, remove dental plaque, improve salivary flow and its buffer capacity and reduce colonies of bacteria such as S. mutans, the causative agent of dental caries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of adequately removing dental plaque using an experimental almond oil dentifrice (Titoil) with no abrasives or antiplaque agents. This study was carried out with 80 volunteers, all of them 18-year-old recruits from the military training school of Araçatuba -- SP. Saliva sampling and dental plaque disclosing were undertaken both before and after 28 days of toothbrushing with a low abrasive dentifrice (Group 1: 40 volunteers) or with Titoil (Group 2: 40 volunteers). Statistical analysis of the results revealed that the experimental dentifrice (Titoil) did not interfere with salivary flow and reduced dental plaque more than the low abrasive dentifrice, improved the salivary buffer capacity and decreased salivary S. mutans (Caritest-SM) as much as regular dentifrices. It was concluded that if the dental industry replaces abrasive by vegetable oil in dentifrices, these will be more effective in maintaining oral health and will cause less dental abrasion.

The cariogenic dental biofilm: good, bad or just something to control?

Wolff,Mark Steven; Larson,Charlie
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica - SBPqO Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica - SBPqO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2009 EN
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This paper discusses the role of dental biofilm and adjunctive therapies in the management of dental caries. Dental biofilm is a site of bacterial proliferation and growth, in addition to being a location of acid production. It also serves as a reservoir for calcium exchange between the tooth and saliva. The salivary pellicle, a protein-rich biofilm layer, regulates the reaction between tooth surface, saliva and erosive acids. The protective effects of this pellicle on enamel are well established. However, understanding the effects of the pellicle/biofilm interaction in protecting dentin from erosive conditions requires further research. Saliva interacts with the biofilm, and is important in reducing the cariogenic effects of dental plaque as acidogenic bacteria consume fermentable carbohydrates producing acids that may result in tooth demineralization. Adequate supplies of healthy saliva can provide ingredients for successful remineralization. Strategies for managing the cariogenic biofilm are discussed with emphasis on the effectiveness of over-the-counter (OTC) products. However, since many toothpaste components have been altered recently, new clinical trials may be required for true validation of product effectiveness. A new generation of calcium-based remineralizing technologies may offer the ability to reverse the effects of demineralization. Nevertheless...

The antimicrobial effect of 0.1 ppm ozonated water on 24-hour plaque microorganisms in situ

Sadatullah,Syed; Mohamed,Nor Himazian; Razak,Fathilah Abdul
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica - SBPqO Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica - SBPqO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2012 EN
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Ozone is a known oxidant present in the atmosphere and is commercially produced by simple ozonizer machines. It is a powerful antimicrobial agent in its gaseous and aqueous forms. Ozone readily dissolves in water and retains its antimicrobial property even in the dissolved state. In this study, the effect of 0.1 ppm ozonated water was analyzed on 24-hour supragingival plaque (SP) samples in situ. SP was collected from the two most posterior teeth in the contra-lateral quadrants before and after a 30-second rinse with either distilled water (control group) or 0.1 ppm ozonated water (test group). The plaque was used to count the number of total bacteria, total anaerobic bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans on selective agar media. The statistical analysis of the number of colony forming units (CFUs) obtained demonstrated a significant antimicrobial effect of ozonated water on the total bacteria (p = 0.01) and anaerobes (p = 0.02). A reduction in the post-rinse CFU count for Streptococcus mutans was also observed, but the effect was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). The Candida species was only grown from one sample. Ozonated water at the 0.1 ppm concentration was effective in reducing the load of 24-hour plaque bacteria...

Phosphorylcholine-Dependent Cross-Reactivity between Dental Plaque Bacteria and Oxidized Low-Density Lipoproteins

Schenkein, Harvey A.; Berry, Collin R.; Purkall, Donald; Burmeister, John A.; Brooks, Carol N.; Tew, John G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2001 EN
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Antibodies reactive with phosphorylcholine (PC) are ubiquitous in human sera, but the antigens stimulating their production and their function are not clear. Previous studies have shown that a significant proportion of dental plaque bacteria contain PC as determined by reactivity with PC-specific mouse myeloma proteins and monoclonal antibodies. Additionally, serum antibody concentrations of immunoglobulin (IgG) G anti-PC are higher in sera of individuals who have experienced periodontal attachment loss than those who are periodontally healthy. These data implicate the oral microflora as a source of antigen-stimulating anti-PC responses. Recent data also indicate that antibodies with specificity for PC are elevated in ApoE-deficient mice, a model for studies of athersclerosis, and that such antibodies bound oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL) (oxLDL) in atherosclerotic plaques. These data prompted the hypothesis that human anti-PC could bind to both oral bacteria and human oxLDL, and that these antigens are cross-reactive. We therefore examined the ability of human anti-PC to bind to PC-bearing strains of oral bacteria using enzyme-linked immunosorbent inhibition assays and by assessment of direct binding of affinity-purified human anti-PC to PC-bearing Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Our results indicated that PC-bearing strains of Streptococcus oralis...

Coaggregation-Mediated Interactions of Streptococci and Actinomyces Detected in Initial Human Dental Plaque

Palmer, Jr., Robert J.; Gordon, Sharon M.; Cisar, John O.; Kolenbrander, Paul E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2003 EN
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Streptococci and actinomyces that initiate colonization of the tooth surface frequently coaggregate with each other as well as with other oral bacteria. These observations have led to the hypothesis that interbacterial adhesion influences spatiotemporal development of plaque. To assess the role of such interactions in oral biofilm formation in vivo, antibodies directed against bacterial surface components that mediate coaggregation interactions were used as direct immunofluorescent probes in conjunction with laser confocal microscopy to determine the distribution and spatial arrangement of bacteria within intact human plaque formed on retrievable enamel chips. In intrageneric coaggregation, streptococci such as Streptococcus gordonii DL1 recognize receptor polysaccharides (RPS) borne on other streptococci such as Streptococcus oralis 34. To define potentially interactive subsets of streptococci in the developing plaque, an antibody against RPS (anti-RPS) was used together with an antibody against S. gordonii DL1 (anti-DL1). These antibodies reacted primarily with single cells in 4-h-old plaque and with mixed-species microcolonies in 8-h-old plaque. Anti-RPS-reactive bacteria frequently formed microcolonies with anti-DL1-reactive bacteria and with other bacteria distinguished by general nucleic acid stains. In intergeneric coaggregation between streptococci and actinomyces...

Galactose oxidase-glucan binding domain fusion proteins as targeting inhibitors of dental plaque bacteria.

Lis, M; Kuramitsu, H K
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1997 EN
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In order to inhibit the growth of bacteria present in the human oral cavity, a novel system which targets antimicrobial agents to dental plaque has been developed. This system involves a hybrid protein consisting of a peptide expressing the bactericidal properties of galactose oxidase (GAO) fused to the glucan binding domain (GBD) of the Streptococcus mutans glucosyltransferase-S enzyme. A gene encoding GAO from the fungus Fusarium sp. has been inserted into an Escherichia coli expression vector and fused to sequences encoding the GBD, which binds to the glucans synthesized by oral streptococci. Bacterial extracts expressing the hybrid protein were tested for their ability to target the GAO activity to an in vitro plaque model consisting of streptococcal cells bound to microtiter plate wells. The binding of the hybrid protein to the streptococcal cells through its GBD and the dependence of binding on the production of glucans by bacteria were demonstrated. Furthermore, killing of three different species of oral streptococci by bound hybrid protein in conjunction with the galactose-lactoperoxidase-iodide cytotoxic system has been demonstrated. These results suggest a novel strategy for controlling dental plaque formation as well as dental caries in humans.

Detection of immunoglobulin A1 protease-induced Fab alpha fragments on dental plaque bacteria.

Ahl, T; Reinholdt, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1991 EN
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The mechanisms by which immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) protease activity may enable bacteria to evade the effect of specific secretory IgA (S-IgA) antibodies are not clear. A possibility which has received indirect experimental support is that bacteria, as a consequence of the protease activity, become coated with incompetent Fab alpha fragments instead of with intact antibody molecules. Using a combination of nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting, we detected Fab alpha fragments not only on oral streptococci (Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus gordonii) incubated in saliva but also on the bacteria in incipient dental plaque. These results are of relevance to our previous observation that IgA1 protease activity may neutralize the ability of S-IgA antibodies to inhibit the adherence of oral streptococci to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite.

Survival of Bacteria from Human Dental Plaque Under Various Transport Conditions

Hoover, Charles I.; Newbrun, Ernest
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1977 EN
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The effects of transport media, temperature, and anaerobiosis on the survival of bacteria from human supragingival dental plaque were studied. Individual samples were obtained by passing sterile, unwaxed dental floss through the interproximal spaces. The plaque-bearing portion of floss was immediately placed in vials containing reduced transport fluid, viability-preserving microbistatic medium, or reduced salt solution transport fluid. Plaque samples were dispersed by ultrasonic oscillation, serially diluted, and plated in duplicate on MM10-sucrose-blood agar, mitis salivarius bacitracin agar, and Rogosa tomato juice agar. Initial viable counts (time 0) were compared with viable count determinations after 48- and 72-h storage. Quantitative recovery (>30%) of various groups of oral bacteria was accomplished from both reduced transport fluid and viability-preserving microbistatic medium after 48- and 72-h storage. Storage of dental plaque in reduced salt solution proved unsatisfactory for most bacteria (less than 10% survival). Since growth of some bacteria may occur in viability-preserving microbistatic medium and the charcoal present interferes with colonly enumeration on low-dilution plates, we found reduced transport fluid to be the most suitable medium for transport and recovery of bacteria from supragingival dental plaque. Subzero storage (−196 and −40°C) did not enhance the survival of bacteria from dental plaque; storage at moderate (5 and 20°C) temperatures gave better recovery of viable bacteria. Survival after anaerobic or aerobic storage was comparable for total colony-forming units; however...

Specific and nonspecific immune factors in dental plaque fluid and saliva from young and old populations.

Cole, M F; Hsu, S D; Baum, B J; Bowen, W H; Sierra, L I; Aquirre, M; Gillespie, G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1981 EN
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Separate samples of supragingival dental plaque overtly free of blood were centrifuged to obtain the free fluid phase (plaque fluid). Bound protein was eluted from the plaque bacteria and matrix by washing the plaque with a low-pH buffer. The plaque fluid, low pH eluate, and whole saliva were assayed for immunoglobulins A, G, and M, the third component of complement, lysozyme, lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase. Concentrations of total protein and albumin were also determined. Antibody reactive with specific plaque bacteria was detected by indirect immunofluorescent microscopy. Specific and nonspecific immune proteins were present in plaque fluid from adult subjects at significantly greater concentrations than in their saliva, which suggests that these proteins are concentrated in dental plaque. The results indicate that both saliva and gingival exudate contribute to the immunological proteins found in the free fluid phase of dental plaque. The observation that immunoglobulin A antibody reactive with plaque bacteria could be detected in plaque fluid suggests that a wide variety of immunological reactions may occur in the dental plaque. These potential interactions between host, plaque bacteria, and their products could serve to influence the plaque flora and its ability to induce disease.

Differential medium for detecting dental plaque bacteria resembling Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii.

Ellen, R P; Balcerzak-Raczkowski, I B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1975 EN
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A medium for detecting colonies of Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii in dental plaque samples was developed. The medium (CNAC-20) contains 20.0 mug of 3CdSO4-8H2O per ml of Columbia CNA agar base. Laboratory strains of A. viscosus grew on CNAC-20 in characteristic round, white, smooth, opaque colonies. Increasing the cadmium concentration impaired the growth of some A. viscosus strains. Stock strains of A. naeslundii and A. israelii grew in colonies of similar white, opaque morphology. The few strains of other gram-positive plaque bacteria that grew on CNAC-20 had colonies easily distinguished from those of A. viscosus. Most of the bacterial strains freshly isolated from Actinomyces-like colonies on CNAC-20 that had been inoculated with human dental plaque samples were found to have cultural characteristics consistent with previous descriptions of A. viscosus or A. naeslundii. CNAC-20 may facilitate investigations into the relationship of microaerophilic Actinomyces with the etiology of dental diseases.

Efficiency of Various Growth Media in Recovering Oral Bacterial Flora from Human Dental Plaque

Syed, Salam A.; Loesche, Walter J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1973 EN
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MM10 sucrose blood agar (MM10 SB agar), N2C agar, Schaedler agar (SH agar), and mitis salivarius agar (MS agar) were tested for their ability to recover human dental plaque flora by a continuous anaerobic procedure and by a conventional anaerobic method. MM10 SB agar yielded higher recovery of bacteria from plaque samples as determined by the enumeration of colony-forming units (CFU). The CFU on N2C agar, SH agar, and MS agar were lower than MM10 SB agar when the continuous anaerobic procedure was used. The superior performance of MM10 SB agar was much more apparent when used for the cultivation of dental plaque by the conventional anaerobic method. Under these conditions the counts were consistently higher on MM10 SB agar as compared to the other media tested. However, the differential counts of Streptococcus sanguis and S. mutans from carious plaque samples were in general comparable on all culture media. Deletion of blood from MM10 SB agar did not lower counts. The elimination of dithiothreitol from this medium resulted in a significantly lower recovery of bacteria from the plaque samples when cultured by the conventional anaerobic method. The storage of MM10 SB agar for varying periods of time aerobic conditions did not seem to affect its performance. These findings suggest that MM10 SB agar is an ideal culture medium for the isolation...

Survival of Human Dental Plaque Flora in Various Transport Media

Syed, Salam A.; Loesche, Walter J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1972 EN
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Dental plaque samples from (i) subjects with no apparent oral disease, (ii) mentally retarded subjects with periodontal disease, and (iii) subjects with active caries were collected in three transport media viz. a dithiothreitol poised balanced mineral salt solution designated as reduced transport fluid (RTF), VMG II, and modified Stuart medium (SBL). The samples were dispersed by sonic treatment, diluted in the respective medium in which they were collected, and cultured on MM10 sucrose agar. The efficiency of the transport media in the survival of dental plaque flora was determined by comparing the quantitative recovery (expressed as percentage of the initial viable count) from the specimens stored for various lengths of time. The data showed a great variation in the recovery of the oral bacterial flora from the plaque samples. VMG II and SBL served better than RTF as storage media for non-disease-associated dental plaque cultured under strict anaerobic conditions. Recoveries of bacteria from periodontal plaque specimens stored in RTF were higher than SBL and VMG II under identical conditions. The organisms present in the carious plaque samples appeared to survive much better in RTF and VMG II than in SBL as determined by conventional anaerobic culturing technique. However...

Prophylaxis for infective endocarditis: antibiotic sensitivity of dental plaque.

MacFarlane, T W; McGowan, D A; Hunter, K; MacKenzie, D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1983 EN
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The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacteria isolated from bacteraemia after dental extraction was compared with that of bacteria isolated from dental plaque samples from the same patient. The results supported the current practice of using penicillin and erythromycin empirically for prophylaxis. The prediction of the most appropriate antibiotic for prophylaxis using dental plaque samples was most accurate when the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of plaque isolates were used. It appears that a predictive test using dental plaque may be of some value in patients with recent or long-term antibiotic therapy.

Aggregative Behavior of Bacteria Isolated from Canine Dental Plaque

Elliott, David R.; Wilson, Michael; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Spratt, David A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2006 EN
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Interbacterial adhesion of bacteria isolated from canine dental plaque was assessed by performing a visual coaggregation assay. Using conditions mimicking those likely to be encountered in vivo, the entire cultivable plaque microbiota from a single dog was assessed, and eight (6.7%) unique coaggregation interactions were detected for 120 crosses. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize several of the bacteria in isolation and as coaggregates, which revealed surface structures that may be involved in adhesion and coaggregation. The results of this study indicate that the prevalence of coaggregating pairs of dental plaque bacteria in dogs is similar to the prevalence of coaggregating pairs of dental plaque bacteria reported in humans. In addition, genera found in both hosts generally exhibited similar coaggregation reactions; however, autoaggregation was found to be more common among oral bacteria isolated from dogs.

Antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of Indian chewing sticks on dental plaque: An in vitro study

Rao, Dola Srinivasa; Penmatsa, Tanuja; Kumar, Alapati Kranthi; Reddy, M. Narendra; Gautam, Nalam Sai; Gautam, Nalam Radhika
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2014 EN
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The anti-microbial efficacy of aqueous extracts of Indian chewing sticks against different kinds of plaque bacteria in vitro was investigated. Supra-gingival plaque is cultured and subjected to the antibacterial activity of the aqueous extracts of chewing sticks (Neem, Acacia, Pongamia glabra, Achyranthes aspera, Streblus asper) separately. The results of the study demonstrate that all the five chewing sticks under study possess inhibitory potential against bacteria present in dental plaque mainly on aerobes. The antibacterial efficacy of aqueous extracts has antibacterial effects and could be used as a therapeutic agent and therefore, it appears to be potent anti-microbial agents that could be considered as a medicinal plant. Results of this study showed chewing sticks contained antibacterial agents, but the concentration and composition of the active substances differed among the plants.

Sequencing ancient calcified dental plaque shows changes in oral microbiota with dietary shifts of the Neolithic and Industrial revolutions

Adler, C.; Dobney, K.; Weyrich, L.; Kaidonis, J.; Walker, A.; Haak, W.; Bradshaw, C.; Townsend, G.; Soltysiak, A.; Alt, K.; Parkhill, J.; Cooper, A.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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The importance of commensal microbes for human health is increasingly recognized yet the impacts of evolutionary changes in human diet and culture on commensal microbiota remain almost unknown. Two of the greatest dietary shifts in human evolution involved the adoption of carbohydrate-rich Neolithic (farming) diets (beginning ~10,000 years before the present) and the more recent advent of industrially processed flour and sugar (in ~1850). Here, we show that calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) on ancient teeth preserves a detailed genetic record throughout this period. Data from 34 early European skeletons indicate that the transition from hunter-gatherer to farming shifted the oral microbial community to a disease-associated configuration. The composition of oral microbiota remained unexpectedly constant between Neolithic and medieval times, after which (the now ubiquitous) cariogenic bacteria became dominant, apparently during the Industrial Revolution. Modern oral microbiotic ecosystems are markedly less diverse than historic populations, which might be contributing to chronic oral (and other) disease in postindustrial lifestyles.; Christina J Adler, Keith Dobney, Laura S Weyrich, John Kaidonis, Alan W Walker, Wolfgang Haak...

Effect of Pomegranate Juice on Dental Plaque Microorganisms (Streptococci and Lactobacilli)

Kote, Sowmya; Kote, Sunder; Nagesh, Lakshminarayan
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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To study the effect of pomegranate juice on dental plaque microorganisms. A clinical trial was conducted on thirty healthy volunteers aged 25-30 years who visited Out Patient Department (OPD) of Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, Davangere during the month of October 2006. Before conducting the study, thorough oral prophylaxis was done and the subjects were asked to refrain from the oral hygiene procedures for 24 hrs. Dental plaque was collected from each subject, before and after rinsing 30ml of pomegranate juice without sugar. Plaque samples were cultured using Mitis Salivarius Agar and Rogosa SL Agar media. Wilcoxon's signed rank test was used for statistical analysis. Results showed that pomegranate rinse was effective against dental plaque microorganisms. There was a significant reduction in the number of colony forming units of streptococci (23%) and lactobacilli (46%). The ruby red seeds may be a possible alternative for the treatment of dental plaque bacteria.