The purpose of this study was to compare the removal of root surface smear layer following active application of EDTA gel and EDTA-T (texapon) gel in different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%), using scanning electron microscopy. A total of 220 dentin blocks obtained from the root surfaces of extracted teeth were divided into 3 groups: Group I - (control) application of saline solution (n = 20); Group II - EDTA gel (pH 7.0) was applied in the following concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24% (n = 100); Group III - EDTA-T gel (pH 7.0) applied in the same concentrations described above (n = 100). The photomicrographs were evaluated by one calibrated examiner using a smear layer removal index and following statistical analysis (Kruskal-Wallis test). The results demonstrated that the specimens treated with EDTA and EDTA-T gel presented a better smear layer removal than the control group (p < 0.01); no statistically significant differences were observed between the EDTA and EDTA-T groups and between the concentrations tested (Mann-Whitney, p > 0.05). Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that all treatment modalities effectively removed the smear layer from the root surface. The addition of texapon into the EDTA gel formulation did not increase its effectiveness.
Growth of Stapylococcus aureus in various ionic surface-active agents resulted in loss of the ability to produce penicillinase, whereas growth in nonionic surface-active agents had no effect on penicillinase production. The curing effect of various alkyl sulfates was found to be dependent upon the chain length. Curing by surface-active agents could be inhibited by magnesium. Reciprocal transduction experiments showed that curing by a surface-active agent was a property of the plasmid, not of the bacterial strain in which the plasmic resides.
Sixty-one surface-active agents were evaluated in a procedure designed to assess their ability to remove the envelope from the core component of avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV). The procedure consisted of centrifugation of intact AMV through a series of sucrose gradients each containing an upper layer of agent at one of eight concentrations between 0.01 and 10%. The effectiveness of an agent in producing AMV cores was indicated by (i) the appearance of light-scattering bands in the region of core buoyant density in gradient tubes; (ii) the range of surfactant concentration over which these bands appeared; and (iii) an electron microscopy assessment by the negative-staining technique of the relative proportion of core to non-core material in each of these bands. Six nonionic surfactants were selected by this screening method for comparison in regard to recovery of core protein and endogenous ribonucleic acid (RNA)-dependent deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerase activity, as well as further morphologic evaluation by electron microscopy. The nonionic surfactants of the polyoxyethylene alcohol class (particularly, Sterox SL) were most effective. Nonionic surfactants of the polyoxyethylene alkylphenol class (particularly, Nonidet P-40) were also effective. Sterox SL and Nonidet P-40 each gave a more than fivefold increase in specific activity of endogenous RNA-dependent DNA polymerase...
Cleaning work is a common cause of both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Cleaning agents for industrial and household use are registered in the Danish Product Register Data Base (PROBAS) according to a special notification rule issued by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. About 2350 registered washing and cleaning agents containing about 1250 different chemical substances were marketed in Denmark in February 1992. The occurrence of 49 contact allergens in 16 different product types within washing and cleaning agents were listed. Preservatives and surface active agents made up the main part of contact allergens. Isothiazolinones and formaldehyde releasers were the most commonly registered preservatives, and coconut diethanolamide the most commonly registered surface active agent. The major product types registered as containing contact allergens were general cleaners, skin cleaners, hair shampoos, and floor polishes.
Selected cationic and anionic surface-active compounds were tested to determine their virucidal effect on the foot-and-mouth disease virus, type O, strain M11, propagated in primary calf kidney cells. The chemical inactivation of the virus was tested with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0% concentrations of the selected compounds. Virus controls with pH adjusted to cover the expected range of the mixtures of the chemicals and virus were also tested. The absence of virus from the mixtures of chemical and virus after reaction at 28 C for 2 hr was assayed by inoculating suckling mice with the mixtures. One cationic compound, alkyl methyl isoquinilinium chloride, showed considerable antiviral activity due largely to pH effect. The use of the surface-active agents investigated in this study, in the presence of organic material, would not be recommended as virucides.
Whereas dilute solutions of surface active agents modify the properties of cell membranes, particularly in relation to their electrical behaviour, moderate and strong solutions provoke more serious structural damage of the membrane, leading to an increase of its permeability and, finally, to cytolysis. These phenomena have inspired some authors to apply detergents as possible cancer chemotherapeuticals so far, however, with only poor results. The disintegrating effect of tumour emboli into single cells by certain detergents, and the ingenious discovery that the mutual adhesiveness between cancer cells is much less than between normal cells, have led the present authors to investigate the action of some biological surface active agents, alone as well as in some of their associations on the “take” of Yoshida sarcoma implants. Certain associations showed, in contradistinction to the separately applied components, surprisingly favourable activity. It could be established that a correlation actually exists between inhibitory effect and surface activity.
The intravenous injection of the surface-active agents Tween 80 and Triton A20 into rabbits fed a normal diet resulted in marked and sustained elevations of the cholesterol, phospholipid, and total lipid content of their blood. The increase in phospholipid in general paralleled that of the blood cholesterol. The implications of the findings are briefly discussed.
A study was made of the relationship of blood lipids to the development of experimental atherosclerosis. Rabbits fed a diet containing cholesterol were found to develop hyperlipemia characterized by a great increase in blood cholesterol and a much lesser increase in blood phospholipids; after several weeks they manifested conspicuous atherosclerosis of the aorta, as has often been observed by others. Comparable rabbits fed the same diets containing added cholesterol were given in addition repeated intravenous injections of the surface-active agents Tween 80 and Triton A20; these animals developed hyperlipemia which was characterized by a great increase in blood cholesterol and an equivalent or even greater increase in phospholipids, and they had much less atherosclerosis than did the control rabbits fed cholesterol alone. In further experiments it was observed that repeated intravenous injections of Tween 80 did not result in resorption of previously induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. The findings are discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of natural and experimental atherosclerosis.
Rabbits subjected to subtotal hepatectomy failed to develop increased serum cholesterol levels following parenteral injection of triton WR 1339, the finding indicating that the liver is essential for the establishment of the hypercholesterolemia induced by surface-active agents. The cholesterol content of the livers of rabbits rendered hyperlipemic by means of triton remained unchanged both during the rapid rise of the serum cholesterol levels and during the return to normal values. By contrast, the cholesterol content of the livers of rabbits fed cholesterol rose progressively over a period of 5 weeks, concommittant with the increase in serum cholesterol levels. The findings provide support for the hypothesis that surface-active agents bring about hyperlipemia by altering the circulating lipoproteins in some manner so that they are retained in the circulating body fluids.
Mice rendered hyperlipemic by means of intravenous or subcutaneous injections of triton WR 1339 were found to have an increase in the total amount of cholesterol in their bodies. This observation indicates that the injected surface-active agent affects the metabolism of cholesterol and brings about hyperlipemia by augmenting the synthesis of lipides, or by interfering with their degradation or excretion, or by some combination of these factors. The implications of the findings for the pathogenesis of the hyperlipemia induced by triton are discussed further in the accompanying paper (16).
Cell lysis induced by lytic agents is the terminal phase of a series of events leading to membrane disorganization and breadkdown with the release of cellular macromolecules. Permeability changes following exposure to lytic systems may range from selective effects on ion fluxes to gross membrane damage and cell leakage. Lysis can be conceived as an interfacial phenomenon, and the action of surface-active agents on erythrocytes has provided a model in which to investigate relationships between hemolysis and chemical structure, ionic charge, surface tension lowering, and ability to penetrate monolayers of membrane lipid components. Evidence suggests that lysis follows the attainment of surface pressures exceeding a "critical collapse" level and could involve membrane cholesterol or phospholipid. Similarities of chemical composition of membranes from various cell types could account for lytic responses observed on interaction with surface-active agents. Cell membranes usually contain about 20–30 % lipid and 50–75 % protein. One or two major phospholipids are present in all cell membranes, but sterols are not detectable in bacterial membranes other than those of the Mycoplasma group. The rigid cell wall in bacteria has an important bearing on their response to treatment with lytic agents. Removal of the wall renders the protoplast membrane sensitive to rapid lysis with surfactants. Isolated membranes of erythrocytes and bacteria are rapidly dissociated by surface-active agents. Products of dissociation of bacterial membranes have uniform behavior in the ultracentrifuge (sedimentation coefficients 2–3S). Dissociation of membrane proteins from lipids and the isolation and characterization of these proteins will provide a basis for investigating the specificity of interaction of lytic agents with biomembranes.
Of over 100 commercially produced surface-active agents tested against the bilharziasis vector snail Biomphalaria sudanica, 13 were found to possess considerable and highly selective molluscicidal properties at concentrations of less than 1 ppm for exposures of 48 hours. Against crustacea, fish, water plants, mosquito larvae, mice, and the eggs of B. sudanica, the toxicities of the 13 surfactants were slight. The chemicals did not appear to be absorbed by organic matter to any appreciable extent. It is thought that the toxicity to B. sudanica is of both a chemical and a physical nature.
The actions of alcohols and anesthetics on ion channels are poorly understood. Controversy continues about whether bilayer restructuring is relevant to the modulatory effects of these surface active agents (SAAs). Some voltage-gated K channels (Kv), but not KvAP, have putative low affinity alcohol-binding sites, and because KvAP structures have been determined in bilayers, KvAP could offer insights into the contribution of bilayer mechanics to SAA actions. We monitored KvAP unitary conductance and macroscopic activation and inactivation kinetics in PE:PG/decane bilayers with and without exposure to classic SAAs (short-chain 1-alkanols, cholesterol, and selected anesthetics: halothane, isoflurane, chloroform). At levels that did not measurably alter membrane specific capacitance, alkanols caused functional changes in KvAP behavior including lowered unitary conductance, modified kinetics, and shifted voltage dependence for activation. A simple explanation is that the site of SAA action on KvAP is its entire lateral interface with the PE:PG/decane bilayer, with SAA-induced changes in surface tension and bilayer packing order combining to modulate the shape and stability of various conformations. The KvAP structural adjustment to diverse bilayer pressure profiles has implications for understanding desirable and undesirable actions of SAA-like drugs and...
Due to the specific structure of surfactants molecules they are applied in different areas of human activity (industry, household). After using and discharging from wastewater treatment plants as effluent stream, surface active agents (SAAs) are emitted to various elements of the environment (atmosphere, waters, and solid phases), where they can undergo numerous physic-chemical processes (e.g., sorption, degradation) and freely migrate. Additionally, SAAs present in the environment can be accumulated in living organisms (bioaccumulation), what can have a negative effect on biotic elements of ecosystems (e.g., toxicity, disturbance of endocrine equilibrium). They also cause increaseing solubility of organic pollutants in aqueous phase, their migration, and accumulation in different environmental compartments. Moreover, surfactants found in aerosols can affect formation and development of clouds, which is associated with cooling effect in the atmosphere and climate changes. The environmental fate of SAAs is still unknown and recognition of this problem will contribute to protection of living organisms as well as preservation of quality and balance of various ecosystems. This work contains basic information about surfactants and overview of pollution of different ecosystems caused by them (their classification and properties...
Le méthotrexate (MTX), un agent anti-cancéreux fréquemment utilisé en chimiothérapie, requiert généralement un suivi thérapeutique de la médication (Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, TDM) pour surveiller son niveau sanguin chez le patient afin de maximiser son efficacité tout en limitant ses effets secondaires. Malgré la fenêtre thérapeutique étroite entre l’efficacité et la toxicité, le MTX reste, à ce jour, un des agents anti-cancéreux les plus utilisés au monde. Les techniques analytiques existantes pour le TDM du MTX sont coûteuses, requièrent temps et efforts, sans nécessairement fournir promptement les résultats dans le délai requis. Afin d’accélérer le processus de dosage du MTX en TDM, une stratégie a été proposée basée sur un essai compétitif caractérisé principalement par le couplage plasmonique d’une surface métallique et de nanoparticules d’or. Plus précisément, l’essai quantitatif exploite la réaction de compétition entre le MTX et une nanoparticule d’or fonctionnalisée avec l’acide folique (FA-AuNP) ayant une affinité pour un récepteur moléculaire, la réductase humaine de dihydrofolate (hDHFR), une enzyme associée aux maladies prolifératives. Le MTX libre mixé avec les FA-AuNP...
Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is recommended as an endodontic irrigant in view of its broad antimicrobial and tissue dissolution capacities. To enhance its penetration into inaccessible areas of root canals and to improve its overall effect, the addition of surface-active agents has been suggested. The aim of this investigation was to review the effect of the reduction of the surface tension on the performance of NaOCl in endodontics. A search was performed in the Medline electronic database (articles published up to 28 July 2012, in English) with the search terms and combinations as follows: 'sodium hypochlorite AND surface tension or interfacial force or interfacial tension or surface-active agent or amphiphilic agent or surface active agent or surfactant or tenside or detergent'. The purpose of this search was to identify publications that compared NaOCl alone and NaOCl modified with the addition of a surface-active agent in endodontics. A hand search of articles published online ('in-press' and 'early view'), and appearing in the reference list of the articles included, was further performed, using the same search criteria as the electronic search. The search identified 302 publications, of which 11 fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria of the review. The evidence available suggests that surface-active agents improve the penetration of NaOCl in the main canal and have no effect on its pulp tissue dissolution ability. There are...
1. The ability of homologous series of alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes to cause alteration of intracellular catalase increases approximately threefold for each methylene group added, thus following Traube's rule. Equiactive concentrations of alcohols (methanol to octanol) varied over a 4,000-fold range, yet the average corresponding surface tension was 42 ± 2 dynes/cm., that for ketones 43 ± 2, and for aldehydes (above C1) 41 ± 3. 2. Above C8 the altering activity of alcohols ceased to follow Traube's rule, and at C18 was nil. Yet the surface activities of alcohols from nonanol to dodecanol did follow Traube's rule. These two facts show that the interface which is being affected by these agents is not the cell surface, for if it were, altering activity should not fall off between C9 and C12 where surface activity is undiminished; they show also that micelle formation by short range association of hydrocarbon "tails," usually invoked to explain decrease in biological activity of compounds above C8, is not responsible for this effect in these experiments, in which permeability of the cell membrane probably is involved. 3. The most soluble alcohols and aldehydes (alcohols C1 to C8; aldehydes C1, C2), but not ketones, cause, above optimal concentration...
Aniphiphilic cobalt(III) cage complexes with bridgehead octyl, dodecyl and hexadecyl hydrocarbon chain substituents have been synthesized simply by co-condensation of formaldehyde and long chain aliphatic aldehydes with the tripodal cobalt(III) hexaamine
Electrochemical methods were combined with redox-active surfactants to actively control the motions and positions of aqueous and organic liquids on millimeter and smaller scales. Surfactant species generated at one electrode and consumed at another were used to manipulate the magnitude and direction of spatial gradients in surface tension and guide droplets of organic liquids through simple fluidic networks. Solid microparticles could be transported across unconfined surfaces. Electrochemical control of the position of surface-active species within aqueous films of liquid supported on homogeneous surfaces was used to direct these films into periodic arrays of droplets with deterministic shapes and sizes.
The conformation of the lung surfactant lipid bilayer (termed tubular myelin) is shown to fit an infinite periodic surface, which is free from self-intersections and with zero or close to zero average curvature. A single lipid bilayer is curved in space,