Aiming at the development of an active food packaging, the goal of this study was to increase stilbenes (resveratrol (RV), pterostilbene (PT) and pinosylvin (PS)) aqueous solubility and stability using hydropropyl-cyclodextrins (HP-CDs) and bile salts. To evaluate stilbene concentration, an HPLC-DAD method was validated. Stilbene solubility was improved by the formation of inclusion complexes and micellar systems with higher solubility values obtained for the inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins. Inclusion complexes revealed a 1:1 stoichiometry for RV and PT and a 1:2 for PS. Solid state characterisation was carried out using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. 1H NMR studies were also performed to characterise the prepared complexes. Photostability studies revealed that CDs were able to increase stilbene photostability at 4 °C. This work showed that stable stilbene solutions can be achieved using hydroxypropyl-CDs, contributing for their incorporation in several materials for the food and pharmaceutical industries.
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 08/10390-2; Processo FAPESP: 09/06499-1; Tuberculosis (TB) is a truly global disease, found in every country on earth. One-third of humanity, over 2 billion people, carry the bacillus that causes TB and 2 million people die of the disease each year. Despite that, no new specific drug against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been developed since the 1960s. There are several candidates for new anti-TB agents, but none proven clinically effective. Stilbenes are compounds found in numerous medicinal plants and food products with some known biological and even antimycobacterial activity. This paper describes the synthesis and the anti-M. tuberculosis activity of eight stilbene analogues. The synthesis and characterization of these compounds are shown, and the results compared with one "first"-line drug used in current therapy.
Glutathione transferase (GT; EC 22.214.171.124) mRNA levels were measured in human liver samples by using mouse and human cDNA clones that encode class-mu and class-alpha GT. Although all the RNA samples examined contained class-alpha GT mRNA, class-mu GT mRNA was found only in individuals whose peripheral leukocytes expressed GT activity on the substrate trans-stilbene oxide. The mouse class-mu cDNA clone was used to identify a human class-mu GT cDNA clone, lambda GTH411. The amino acid sequence of the GT encoded by lambda GTH411 is identical with the 23 residues determined for the human liver GT-mu isoenzyme and shares 76-81% identity with mouse and rat class-mu GT isoenzymes. The mouse and human class-mu GT cDNA inserts hybridize with multiple BamHI and EcoRI restriction fragments in the human genome. One of these hybridizing fragments is missing in the DNA of individuals who lack GT activity on trans-stilbene oxide. Hybridizations with nonoverlapping subfragments of lambda GTH411 suggest that there are at least three class-mu genes in the human genome. One of these genes appears to be deleted in individuals lacking GT activity on trans-stilbene oxide.
Formation of the stilbenes pinosylvin and pinosylvin 3-methyl ether, as well as the activity of the biosynthetic enzyme stilbene synthase (pinosylvin-forming), were induced several hundred- to thousandfold in primary needles of 6-week-old pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings upon exposure to a single pulse of ozone of at least 0.15 microliters per liter. The seedlings required 4 hours of exposure as a minimum for the induction of stilbene biosynthesis when exposed to 0.2 microliters per liter ozone. Both stilbene synthase activity and stilbene accumulation increased with the duration of ozone treatment. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and the activity of chalcone synthase, a key enzyme of the flavonoid pathway that uses the same substrates as stilbene synthase, were also stimulated about twofold by ozone. Stilbene biosynthesis appears to represent the first example of a dose-dependent biochemical response to ozone in a conifer species and may serve as a useful biomarker to study stress impacts on pine trees.
The extensively studied trans-stilbene molecule is known to give only weak fluorescence in solution and inside loosely-fitting synthetic capsules. However, trans-stilbene has been recently studied in the context of antibody interiors, where binding results in strong blue fluorescence. The present research was undertaken to understand the spatial factors that influence stilbene fluorescence. trans-Stilbene was encapsulated in the snug, self-assembled complex 1.1 and exhibited fluorescence quenching due to the distortion of its ground-state geometry. When the complex is elongated by incorporating glycouril spacers, trans-stilbene is allowed to adapt a fully coplanar arrangement and fluorescence returns.
Deluc, Laurent G.; Decendit, Alain; Papastamoulis, Yorgos; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C.; Cramer, Grant R.
Fonte: American Chemical SocietyPublicador: American Chemical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
The impact of water deficit on stilbene biosynthesis in wine grape (Vitis vinifera) berries was investigated. Water deficit increased the accumulation of trans-piceid (the glycosylated form of resveratrol) by 5-fold in Cabernet Sauvignon berries but not in Chardonnay. Similarly, water deficit significantly increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in the biosynthesis of stilbene precursors in Cabernet Sauvignon. Increased expression of stilbene synthase, but not that of resveratrol-O-glycosyltransferase, resulted in increased trans-piceid concentrations. In contrast, the transcript abundance of the same genes declined in Chardonnay in response to water deficit. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the promoters of stilbene synthase genes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and Pinot Noir. These polymorphisms resulted in eight changes within the predicted cis regulatory elements in Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. These results suggest that cultivar-specific molecular mechanisms might exist that control resveratrol biosynthesis in grapes.
Following on from our recent enforced geometry optimization (EGO) investigation of isomerization in cis-stilbene (J Comput Chem, in press) we report the discovery of two interesting new, symmetrical “fused sandwich” isomers of both cis-stilbene and the related cis-azobenzene. The isomers were obtained by applying external forces to pairs of carbon atoms from each of the benzene rings in cis-stilbene and cis-azobenzene simultaneously, and are all at least 100 kcal mol-1 higher in energy than the starting material. Each new structure was characterized as a minimum by vibrational analysis. Despite their high energy, all of the new isomers appear to be kinetically stable with respect to rearrangement back to cis-stilbene or cis-azobenzene, respectively.
Accurate localization of phytoalexins is a key for better understanding their role. This work aims to localize stilbenes, the main phytoalexins of grapevine. The cellular localization of stilbene fluorescence induced by Plasmopara viticola, the agent of downy mildew, was determined in grapevine leaves of very susceptible, susceptible, and partially resistant genotypes during infection. Laser scanning confocal microscopy and microspectrofluorimetry were used to acquire UV-excited autofluorescence three-dimensional images and spectra of grapevine leaves 5–6 days after inoculation. This noninvasive technique of investigation in vivo was completed with in vitro spectrofluorimetric studies on pure stilbenes as their fluorescence is largely affected by the physicochemical environment in various leaf compartments. Viscosity was the major physicochemical factor influencing stilbene fluorescence intensity, modifying fluorescence yield by more than two orders of magnitude. Striking differences in the localization of stilbene fluorescence induced by P. viticola were observed between the different genotypes. All inoculated genotypes displayed stilbene fluorescence in cell walls of guard cells and periclinal cell walls of epidermal cells. Higher fluorescence intensity was observed in guard-cell walls than in any other compartment due to increased local viscosity. In addition stilbene fluorescence was found in epidermal cell vacuoles of the susceptible genotype and in the infected spongy parenchyma of the partially resistant genotype. The very susceptible genotype was devoid of fluorescence both in the epidermal vacuoles and the mesophyll. This strongly suggests that the resistance of grapevine leaves to P. viticola is correlated with the pattern of localization of induced stilbenes in host tissues.
The stilbene derivative, cis-3, 4’, 5-trimethoxy-3’-aminostilbene (stilbene 5c), is a potentially potent antitumor agent that acts via binding to the colchicine-binding site in tubulin. The current studies were designed to investigate the effectiveness of stilbene 5c against the HCT-116 human colon cancer cell line and B16/F10 melanoma cells as well as human endothelial cell formation and tumor perfusion. Stilbene 5c produced a time-dependent decrease in cell viability in both cell lines and the capacity of the cells to proliferate was not restored upon removal of the drug. Treatment with stilbene 5c also promoted both senescence and autophagy in both cell lines. TUNEL and annexin 5 staining indicated that apoptosis also occurs in stilbene 5c-treated HCT-116 cells, but not in B16/F10 melanoma cells. DAPI staining revealed morphological changes in the cell nuclei (binucleated and micronucleated cells) indicative of mitotic catastrophe in HCT-116 cells but not in the B16/F10 melanoma cells. p53-null HCT-116 cells demonstrated a similar growth arrest/cell death response to stilbene as p53-wild type HCT-116 cells. Stilbene 5c also completely inhibited human endothelial cell tube formation on Matrigel, consistent with potential anti-angiogenic actions. Using a new method developed for monitoring the pharmacodynamic effects of stilbene 5c in vivo...
Stilbene urea derivatives as a novel and competitive class of non-glycosidic α-glucosidase inhibitors are effective for the treatment of type II diabetes and obesity. The main purposes of our molecular modeling study are to explore the most suitable binding poses of stilbene derivatives with analyzing the binding affinity differences and finally to develop a pharmacophore model which would represents critical features responsible for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Three-dimensional structure of S. cerevisiae α-glucosidase was built by homology modeling method and the structure was used for the molecular docking study to find out the initial binding mode of compound 12, which is the most highly active one. The initial structure was subjected to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for protein structure adjustment at compound 12-bound state. Based on the adjusted conformation, the more reasonable binding modes of the stilbene urea derivatives were obtained from molecular docking and MD simulations. The binding mode of the derivatives was validated by correlation analysis between experimental Ki value and interaction energy. Our results revealed that the binding modes of the potent inhibitors were engaged with important hydrogen bond...
The molecular regulation of stilbene phytoalexin biosynthesis in developing Vitis vinifera L. grape berries was investigated using a UV induction system. Berries were collected at 1, 5, 10 and 16 weeks post-flowering from the cultivars Shiraz, Semillon, Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay and the skins analysed for resveratrol production following irradiation with UV-C light. The rate and maximal level of resveratrol accumulation increased markedly in berries sampled from 1–5 weeks post-flowering and then dramatically declined in maturing berries sampled from 10–16 weeks post-flowering in all cultivars. In berries sampled at 1 and 5 weeks post-flowering, maximal levels of resveratrol accumulation were recorded at incubation periods of 24 and 48 h respectively whereas maximal resveratrol levels were not recorded in week 16 berry skins until 72 h after UV-treatment. Gene expression analysis indicated that stilbene synthase (STS) mRNA accumulated within 4–8 h of UV treatment in berries sampled at 1 and 5 weeks post-flowering, but did not increase in week 16 berries until 24–48 h following UV-irradiation. Furthermore, the overall level of STS gene expression declined in berries sampled 10–16 weeks post-flowering. The results demonstrate that inducible stilbene accumulation in ripening grape berries is highly regulated at the level of STS gene transcription. This decline in inducible STS gene expression may be a major factor contributing to the increased susceptibility of ripening grape berries to Botrytis cinerea infection.; Anthony J. Bais...
Kidney tumors from stilbene estrogen (diethylstilbestrol)-treated Syrian hamsters were screened for somatic genetic alterations by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain-reaction (RAPD-PCR) fingerprinting. Fingerprints from tumor tissue were generated by single arbitrary primers and compared with fingerprints for normal tissue from the same animal, as well as normal and tumor tissues from different animals. Sixty one of the arbitrary primers amplified 365 loci that contain approximately 476 kbp of the hamster genome. Among these amplified DNA fragments, 44 loci exhibited either qualitative or quantitative differences between the tumor tissues and normal kidney tissues. RAPD-PCR loci showing decreased and increased intensities in tumor tissue DNA relative to control DNA indicate that loci have undergone allelic losses and gains, respectively, in the stilbene estrogen-induced tumor cell genome. The presence or absence of the amplified DNA fragments indicate homozygous insertions or deletions in the kidney tumor DNA compared to the age-matched normal kidney tissue DNA. Seven of 44 mutated loci also were present in the kidney tissues adjacent to tumors (free of macroscopic tumors). The presence of mutated loci in uninvolved (non-tumor) surrounding tissue adjacent to tumors from stilbene estrogen-treated hamsters suggests that these mutations occurred in the early stages of carcinogenesis. The cloning and sequencing of RAPD amplified loci revealed that one mutated locus had significant sequence similarity with the hamster Cyp1A1 gene. The results show the ability of RAPD-PCR to detect and isolate...
1. A study was made of the hydroxylation of trans-stilbene in rabbits, guinea pigs and mice, as well as by rabbit liver microsomes. 2. In the rabbit in vivo, trans-stilbene is converted into 4-hydroxy-,4,4′-dihydroxy-,3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-stilbene, and hydroxylation plays a more significant role in the metabolism of trans-stilbene than has previously been reported. 3. Investigation of the hydroxylation of 4-hydroxystilbene in the rabbit in vivo demonstrated its ready conversion into 4,4′-dihydroxystilbene and established its intermediacy in the formation of this compound and the methylated analogues of 3,4-dihydroxystilbene. 4. Hydroxylation of trans-stilbene in the guinea pig was found to follow a pattern similar, both qualitatively and quantitatively, to that in the rabbit. 5. Studies in the mouse revealed only limited yields of 4,4′-dihydroxystilbene. 6. Studies of the hydroxylation of trans-stilbene and 4-hydroxystilbene by rabbit liver microsomes located two of the reactions that occur with these compounds in vivo. 7. Work with a solubilized liver-microsomal preparation provided evidence that `stilbene hydroxylase' activity is not completely lost on solubilization, thus allowing for future microsomal enzyme-isolation studies.
1. Inhibition of 36Cl- efflux in frog muscle by the stilbene disulphonates (SD) SITS (4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2'-disulphonate) and DNDS (4,4'-dinitro-stilbene-2,2'-disulphonate) depends on the external pH, while the blocking of Cl- conductance with SITS is independent of pH. The 36Cl- efflux inhibition with DNDS has been studied in thin depolarized muscle fibre bundles in order to examine whether this difference is consistent with one transporter or reflects the existence of two mutually independent conductive and non-conductive SD-sensitive Cl- pathways. 2. The 36Cl- efflux response to a sudden inward KCl gradient was studied. At high pH the efflux decreased as predicted for dominant conductive Cl- single-filing, and at low pH the efflux increased in agreement with dominant non-conductive Cl- antiport. DNDS inhibition resulted in the same response, an efflux decrease, at both high and low pH, suggesting a selective reduction of the non-conductive contribution at low pH. 3. The inhibition of 36Cl- efflux as a function of the DNDS concentration at an external pH of 6.9 showed complex kinetics, which could be described as the sum of two Michaelis-Menten functions with different half-inhibition concentrations of DNDS. 4. The results support the hypothesis that the stilbene disulphonate-sensitive Cl- transport is mediated by two separate transporters rather than one.
The rotaxane 3(E,E) serves as the basis of a light driven molecular muscle, where reversible photoisomerisation of the stilbene units causes the cyclodextrins to move off and on the stilbene units, contracting and extending the distance between the blocki
8 pages, 3 figures, 1 table.-- PMID: 19102745 [PubMed].-- PMCID: PMC2628674.; Supplementary information (additional files 1, 2, 3) available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1756-0500/1/132/additional/; [Background] Plant cell cultures have been shown as feasible systems for the production of secondary metabolites, being the elicitation with biotic or abiotic stimuli the most efficient strategy to increase the production of those metabolites. Vitaceae phytoalexins constitute a group of molecules belonging to the stilbene family which are derivatives of the trans-resveratrol structure and are produced by plants and cell cultures as a response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The potential benefits of resveratrol on human health have made it one of the most thoroughly studied phytochemical molecules. The aim of this study was to evaluate the elicitor effect of both cyclodextrin (CD) and methyljasmonate (MeJA) on grapevine cell cultures by carrying out a quantitative analysis of their role on resveratrol production and on the expression of stilbene biosynthetic genes in Vitis vinifera cv Monastrell albino cell suspension cultures.; [Findings] MeJA and CD significantly but transiently induced the expression of stilbene biosynthetic genes when independently used to treat grapevine cells. This expression correlated with resveratrol production in CD-treated cells but not in MeJA-treated cells...
6 pages, 2 figures, 2 tables.-- Online version published Aug 2003.; The stilbene induction capacity of the red wine grape varieties 'Tempranillo' (TEM), 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (CAS), 'Merlot' (MER), 'Syrah' (SYR), 'Monastrell' (MON), 'Garnacha' (GAR) and 'Cariñena' (CAR) exposed to post-harvest UV-C irradiation is reported for the first time. The induction of trans-piceatannol, trans-resveratrol and viniferins, among other stilbenes, was characterized using high-performance liquid chromatograph with diode-array and mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-DAD-MS-MS). All the wine grape varieties increased their resveratrol, piceatannol and viniferin content after UV-C treatment with the exception of the variety MON in which only piceatannol was induced. Other stilbenes such as astringin (piceatannol glucoside) or piceid (resveratrol glucoside) were induced to a lesser extent and only in some varieties. The stilbene induction capacity of grapes submitted to UV-C irradiation did not necessarily match the final corresponding maximum stilbene content reached in each variety. The total stilbene induction capacity of the grapes ranged from 2.4-fold (in MER) to 10.9-fold (in both CAS and CAR) with respect to untreated grapes (control). The total stilbene content (mg stilbene/100 g fresh weight...
8 pages, 5 figures, 4 tables.; The red table grape varieties Flame, Red Globe, Crimson, and Napoleon, as well as the white varieties Superior, Dominga, and Moscatel Italica, were irradiated with a previously optimized UV-C postharvest irradiation protocol (510 W, 40 cm, 60 s). The induction kinetics of the stilbenes trans-resveratrol, trans-piceid, trans-piceatannol, trans-astringin, and viniferins was followed by using HPLC-DAD/MS/MS. The most inducible stilbenes were trans-resveratrol, trans-piceatannol, and viniferins. Both quantitative and qualitative differences were observed in both the stilbene induction kinetics and stilbene content in the seven table grapes analyzed here. The total resveratrol content ranged from 0.69 mg/100 g fw (Dominga) to 2.3 mg/100 g fw (Red Globe). The net resveratrol induction ranged from 3.4-fold (Flame) to 2315-fold (Red Globe). The highest viniferins content was observed in the variety Flame (0.73 mg/100 g fw), although the variety Red Globe presented the highest viniferins induction (175-fold). The highest content and induction of piceatannol (0.17 mg/100 g fw and 173-fold, respectively) was observed in the variety Flame. It should be stressed that taking into account the health-beneficial effects claimed for stilbenes...
7 pages, 4 tables, 2 figures.; The use of postharvest controlled irradiation by UV pulses is proposed as a potential method to produce stilbene-enriched red wine. “Monastrell” grapes were UV-C-irradiated to increase stilbene content. The main inducible stilbenes were resveratrol and piceatannol, which are molecules with reported health-beneficial activities. The evolution of both compounds was followed in the different steps of an “analytical” traditional maceration wine-making process. The final wine made from UV-C-irradiated grapes was enriched about 2- and 1.5-fold in resveratrol and piceatannol, respectively, when compared to the control wine. In addition, no difference was detected regarding the standard enological parameters (color, acidity, etc.). It is strongly suggested that, with the use of more susceptible wine grapes to induce bioactive stilbenes upon UV-C irradiation, the stilbene-enrichment of wine can be much higher.; This work has been financially supported by the Spanish CICYT ALI97-0681 and AGL-
2000-2014. E.C. is a holder of a grant from the “Movilidad de Investigadores y Tecnólogos” program under the action “Mit-Becas;Modalidad F2”.; Peer reviewed
Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries and calli were irradiated with ultraviolet C (UV-C) to investigate the effects on the biosynthesis of stilbene. The stilbene content in the berry skins was enhanced significantly after 10 min of UV-C irradiation over the 24 h time course, and the results varied depending on the development stage of the fruit. The maximum production of total stilbene in the berry skins occurred at 12 h after treatment, with a content of 848.45 ± 23.53 pg/g fresh weight (FW) at the beginning of véraison, 591.77 ± 26.90 pg/g FW at the end of véraison, and 170.71 ± 6.85 pg/g FW at the ripening stage. Different UV-C dosages, from 5 to 30 min, induced stilbene accumulation considerably in the calli over the 120 h experimental period, and 20 min was the most efficient. The maximum of total stilbene accumulation in the calli was 125.07 ± 3.01 pg/g FW at 96 h after 20 min irradiation. Total phenolics and total flavonoid content increased after UV-C irradiation in both the berry skins and calli. The relative expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in the branching point of stilbene and flavonoid biosynthesis was up-regulated by UV-C irradiation. The results show that UV-C irradiation significantly promotes stilbene and flavonoid biosynthesis in grape berry skins and calli...