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Investigation by Combined Solid-State NMR and SAXS Methods of the Morphology and Domain Size in Polystyrene-b-Polyethylene Oxide-b-Polystyrene Triblock Copolymers

BONK, Fabio A.; CALDARELLI, Stefano; PHAN, Trang; BERTIN, Denis; AZEVÊDO, Eduardo Ribeiro de; MANTOVANI, Gerson Luiz; BONAGAMBA, Tito José; PLIVELIC, Tomas S.; TORRIANI, Iris L.
Fonte: JOHN WILEY & SONS INC Publicador: JOHN WILEY & SONS INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The microphase structure of a series of polystyrene-b-polyethylene oxide-b-polystyrene (SEOS) triblock copolymers with different compositions and molecular weights has been studied by solid-state NMR, DSC, wide and small angle X-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS). WAXS and DSC measurements were used to detect the presence of crystalline domains of polyethyleneoxide (PEO) blocks at room temperature as a function of the copolymer chemical composition. Furthermore, DSC experiments allowed the determination of the melting temperatures of the crystalline part of the PEO blocks. SAXS measurements, performed above and below the melting temperature of the PEO blocks, revealed the formation of periodic structures, but the absence or the weakness of high order reflections peaks did not allow a clear assessment of the morphological structure of the copolymers. This information was inferred by combining the results obtained by SAXS and (1)H NMR spin diffusion experiments, which also provided an estimation of the size of the dispersed phases of the nanostructured copolymers. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 48:55-64,2010; Region Provence Alpes Cote d`Azur (PACA) - France; Region Provence Alpes Cote d`Azur (PACA) - France; ARKEMA; ARKEMA; ARCUS PACA-Bresil; ARCUS PACA-Bresil; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); FAPESP

On the temperature stability of extracellular hemoglobin of Glossoscolex paulistus, at different oxidation states: SAXS and DLS studies

Carvalho, José Wilson Pires; Zanetti, Patricia Soares Santiago; Batista, Tatiana; Garrido Salmon, Carlos Ernesto; Barbosa, Leandro Ramos Souza; Itri, Rosangela; Tabak, Marcel
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV; AMSTERDAM Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV; AMSTERDAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Glossoscolex paulistus hemoglobin (HbGp) was studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). DLS melting curves were measured for met-HbGp at different concentrations. SAXS temperature studies were performed for oxy-, cyanomet- and met-HbGp forms, at several pH values. At pH 5.0 and 6.0, the scattering curves are identical from 20 to 60 degrees C, and R-g is 108 angstrom, independent of the oxidation form. At pH 7.0, protein denaturation and aggregation occurs above 55 degrees C and 60 degrees C, for oxy and met-HbGp, respectively. Cyanomet-HbGp, at pH 7.0, is stable up to 60 degrees C. At alkaline pH (8.0-9.0) and higher temperature, an irreversible dissociation process is observed, with a decrease of R-g, D-max and I(0). Analysis by p(r), obtained from GNOM, and OLIGOMER, was used to fit the SAXS experimental scattering curves by a combination of theoretical curves obtained for HbLt fragments from the crystal structure. Our results show clearly the increasing contribution of smaller molecular weight fragments, as a function of increasing pH and temperature, as well as, the order of thermal stabilities: cyanomet-> oxy- > met-HbGp. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.; Brazilian agency FAPESP; Brazilian agency FAPESP; Brazilian agency CNPq; Brazilian agency CNPq; Brazilian agency CAPES; Brazilian agency CAPES; CNPq; CNPq; FAPESP; FAPESP [2010/09719-0]

Estudos de XRD e SAXS aplicados à Polianilina e à Poli(o-metoxianilina); XRD and SAXS studies applied to Polyaniline and Poly(o-methoxyaniline)

Sanches, Edgar Aparecido
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/03/2011 PT
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A Polianilina (PANI) e os polímeros derivados da anilina têm recebido grande atenção devido às suas aplicações tecnológicas. A introdução de grupos funcionais polares e de grupos alquila à cadeia principal da PANI é um artifício para se obter polímeros solúveis em uma maior variedade de solventes orgânicos. A Poli(o-metoxianilina) (POMA) é um dos derivados da PANI e sua diferença estrutural está na presença do grupo (-OCH3) na posição orto dos anéis de carbono, sendo bastante estudada na forma de pó ou de filmes para as mais diversas aplicações. Apesar do grande número de trabalhos realizados com a PANI e seus derivados, são poucos os que focam um estudo estrutural desses materiais nas formas dopada (ES) e desdopada (EB). PANI e POMA foram sintetizadas quimicamente utilizando-se 0,5 e 1,0M 'H'CL' e tempos de síntese compreendidos entre 0,5 e 96 h. As amostras foram caracterizadas por XRD, SAXS e SEM. Através dos dados de XRD, utilizou-se o ajuste LeBail para obter informações microestruturais através do programa FULLPROF. A análise de XRD mostrou que o tempo de síntese não interferiu significativamente na cristalinidade da PANI, porém, é um parâmetro importante na síntese da POMA, a qual se tornou mais cristalina. Através do SAXS foi possível obter os valores dos raios de giro (Rg) e a dimensão máxima das partículas (Dmáx) a partir da função de distribuição de distâncias entre pares (p(r)) e...

Novos métodos para análise de curvas de espalhamento a baixo ângulo aplicados a um inibidor de α-amilase, à hexocinase e à aspartato transcarbamilase; New method for SAXS curves analysis and its application to an inhibitor of α-amylase, hexokinase and aspartate of transcarbamilase

Barberato, Claudio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/1996 PT
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Este trabalho teve por finalidade a implementação e desenvolvimento de novos métodos para a análise de curvas de espalhamento de raios X a baixo ângulo por sistemas monodispersos. O resultado básico final deste trabalho foi a confecção de três programas de computador e suas aplicações em proteínas de interesse biológico. ELLFIT é um programa de computador que encontra o elipsóide cuja curva de SAXS melhor se ajusta a uma dada curva experimental. Para casos favoráveis este programa é capaz de determinar a dimensão máxima e algumas características básicas do formato da partícula. CRYSOL é um programa para a avaliação de curvas de espalhamento em solução para proteínas com estrutura atômica conhecida. O programa usa a expansão de multipolos para o cálculo rápido da promediação espacial e simula uma camada de hidratação ao redor da proteína. CRYSOL pode predizer a curva de SAXS de uma determinada proteína e compará-la com dados experimentais. HOMDIM é um programa para a determinação da posição das sub-unidades de um homodímero no caso de ser conhecida somente a estrutura da sub-unidade sozinha. Dada a curva experimental e a amplitude da sub-unidade, HOMDIM procura os parâmetros posicionais que descrevem o homodímero. Estes e outros programas foram aplicados a várias proteínas. O método da expansão de multipolos foi usado na determinação do envelope molecular de uma inibidora de ALPHA-amilase. O programa CRYSOL foi utilizado para resolver uma ambiguidade na estrutura quatemária cristalina da hexocinase e o programa HOMDIM para a proposição de um novo modelo para a estrutura quatemária da aspartato transcarbamilase no estado R em solução; This work was aimed at the implementation and development of new methods for solution scattering analysis of monodisperse systems. The basic final result of this work was the development of three programs and their applications to proteins of biological interest. ELLFIT is a computer program...

Estudo de interações entre membranas lipídicas por experimentos de SAXS: o efeito da composição; Study of interactions between lipid membranes by SAXS experiments: the role of the composition

Rubim, Rafael Leite
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/08/2014 PT
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Neste trabalho, realizamos um estudo das propriedades estruturais e elásticas da fase lamelar e também das interações relevantes que levam à estabilização dessa estrutura periódica. A composição da membrana, assim como sua hidratação, foi variada de maneira sistemática com o objetivo de introduzir alterações na flexibilidade da bicamada e no regime de confinamento. A fase lamelar é constituída de lecitina à qual é incorporado, em diferentes proporções, um co-surfactante comercial, formado por uma mistura de ácidos graxos etoxilados, Para o estudo das interações entre as bicamadas a fase lamelar foi submetida a uma pressão osmótica conhecida. Por meio de experimentos de SAXS, foram determinados os parâmetros estruturais que caracterizam a fase lamelar, para um dado valor de pressão. Os resultados experimentais obtidos são ajustados considerando-se um potencial efetivo de interação entre as bicamadas, permitindo a determinação de parâmetros quantitativos, caracterizando as diferentes contribuições atrativa e repulsivas. Em um segundo momento, foi realizado um estudo para caracterização da fase lamelar, desta vez, introduzindo um co-surfactante não comercial com o objetivo de investigar as alterações que ocorrem na interface devido à presença dos grupos etoxilados. Observa-se que a incorporação do co-surfactante amplia o domínio de diluição da fase lamelar atingindo período em torno de 200 Å...

Structure-property relationships of smectic liquid crystalline polyacrylates as revealed by SAXS

Pereira, Fabiano Vargas; Borsali, Redouane; Ritter, Olga Maria Schimidt; Goncalves, Paulo Fernando Bruno; Merlo, Aloir Antonio; Silveira, Nadya Pesce da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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A influência da estrutura química dos grupos mesogênicos e do tamanho dos grupos espaçadores, no comportamento de fase de uma série de cristais líquidos poliméricos de cadeia lateral (SCLCP), foram estudados utilizando-se espalhamento de raios-X a Baixo Ângulo (SAXS) e Microscopia Ótica de Luz Polarizada (POM). Análises do arranjo das mesofases em amostras não orientadas e orientadas por ação do campo magnético são descritas. O papel do tamanho do espaçador lateral no empacotamento local e na largura da camada esmética determinados nas mesofases SmA e SmC é elucidado. Os ângulos θ formados entre os grupos mesogênicos e a normal às camadas nas mesofases SmC foram determinados. Um estudo a respeito do grau de ordem em função da temperatura, para os polímeros esméticos foi possível através de medidas de SAXS. Uma ordenação particular em um dos SCLCPs estudados é relacionada com a coexistência de duas fases distintas.; The influence of the chemical structure of the mesogenic groups and the length of the spacer groups on the phase behavior in a series of side-chain liquid crystalline polyacrylates (SCLCP) have been studied using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and Polarized Optical Microscopy (POM). Analyses of the mesophase arrangement in unaligned and aligned samples by magnetic field are reported. The role of the spacer length on the local packing and on the thickness of the layers encountered in the SmA and SmC mesophases is elucidated. The tilt angles θ of the mesogenic cores related to the normal of the layers in the SmC mesophases are measured. A study about the degree of order as a function of temperature for the smectic polymers was possible using SAXS measurements. A particular arrangement in one of the studied SCLCPs is related to the coexistence of two different phases.

On the temperature stability of extracellular hemoglobin of Glossoscolex paulistus, at different oxidation states: SAXS and DLS studies

Carvalho, Jose Wilson P.; Santiago, Patricia S.; Batista, Tatiana; Garrido Salmon, Carlos Ernesto; Barbosa, Leandro R. S.; Itri, Rosangela; Tabak, Marcel
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 44-55
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Processo FAPESP: 10/09719-0; Glossoscolex paulistus hemoglobin (HbGp) was studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). DLS melting curves were measured for met-HbGp at different concentrations. SAXS temperature studies were performed for oxy-, cyanomet- and met-HbGp forms, at several pH values. At pH 5.0 and 6.0, the scattering curves are identical from 20 to 60 degrees C, and R-g is 108 angstrom, independent of the oxidation form. At pH 7.0, protein denaturation and aggregation occurs above 55 degrees C and 60 degrees C, for oxy and met-HbGp, respectively. Cyanomet-HbGp, at pH 7.0, is stable up to 60 degrees C. At alkaline pH (8.0-9.0) and higher temperature, an irreversible dissociation process is observed, with a decrease of R-g, D-max and I(0). Analysis by p(r), obtained from GNOM, and OLIGOMER, was used to fit the SAXS experimental scattering curves by a combination of theoretical curves obtained for HbLt fragments from the crystal structure. Our results show clearly the increasing contribution of smaller molecular weight fragments...

Fractal character of the SAXS correlation volume in poly(ethylene glycol)/silica hybrid wet gels

Donatti, Dario A.; Vollet, Dimas R.; Ruiz, Alberto Ibanez
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 243-248
ENG
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was employed to study the nanostructural properties of poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)/silica hybrid wet gels prepared from hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in mixtures with PEG/(PEG + TEOS) molar ratio in the nominal range between 0 and 0.8. The SAXS pattern was found to be well fitted by the scattering from a polymeric particle of radius of gyration R (g) with an internal structure of primary silica particles described by a polymeric constraint of a mass-fractal of dimension D. R (g) increases with the PEG quantity while D first increases from 2.24 for the pure TEOS-derived gel to reach values between 2.46 and 2.40 with the additions of PEG. The correlation volume V (c) as determined by SAXS for such a polymeric structure behaves as a volume-fractal and accordingly scales with R (g) as V (c) similar to R (g) (D) . An overall mean value of about 1 nm could be estimated as an upper limit for the radius of the primary silica particle building up the structure of all the wet gels, independent of the PEG addition.

SAXS study of gelation, aging and drying of silica-polypropyleneglycol hybrid materials

Dahmouche, K.; Santilli, C. V.; Chaker, J. A.; Pulcinelli, S. H.; Craievich, A. F.
Fonte: Japan J Applied Physics Publicador: Japan J Applied Physics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 172-175
ENG
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New silica-polypropyleneglycol ormosils (organically modified silicates) with covalent bends between the organic (polymer) and inorganic (silica) phases have been prepared by the sol-gel process. Their structural evolution during sol formation, sol-gel transition, gel aging and drying has been studied in situ by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The experimental SAXS curves corresponding to sols and gels exhibit features expected from fractal objects. Clusters of size around 55 Angstrom with an initial fractal dimension D = 2.4 are formed in the sol. They are constituted of small primary silica particles chemically crosslinked at the end of the polymer chains. A strong liquid-like spatial correlation between the silica particles develops during drying due to the shrinkage of the polymeric network induced by water and ethanol evaporation. The continuous increase in SAXS intensity during drying, while the interparticle distance remains constant, is a consequence of the progressive growth of the dry fraction of the total volume. After drying, the gel structure consists of a rather compact arrangement of silica particles embedded in the polypropyleneglycol matrix.

SAXS study of monodispersed silica nanospheres obtained by an amino acid route

Bertholdo, Roberto; dos Reis, Flavia V. E.; Pulcinelli, Sandra H.; Santilli, Celso V.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2622-2625
ENG
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Spherical silica nanoparticles were prepared using a basic amino acid catalysis route and the kinetics of the particles growth was investigated by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). L-arginine was used in the polar aqueous phase as the basic catalyst whereas the tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) was dissolved in the cyclohexane oil phase as the silicate monomer source. The SAXS measurements were taken in the aqueous phase at different reaction times. A high degree of monodispersity was clearly evidenced for the spherical nanoparticles as a result of the pronounced high-order oscillations observed in the SAXS curves. The SAXS data show that the particles number density remains unchanged since both the particle size as well as the volume fraction gradually increase. This process was discussed based on a reaction-controlled addition of monomer species at the surface of the growing particles. Consequently, the monodispersed spherical nanoparticles radius can as such be finely tuned from 7 to 12 nm by varying the reaction time. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

SAXS measurements of the porosity in Cu(II)-doped SnO2 xerogels during crystallization

Brito, G. E. S.; Santilli, C. V.; Pulcinelli, S. H.; Craievich, A. F.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 41-47
ENG
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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); The small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique was used to study the porosity which develops in Cu(II)-doped SnO2 monolithic xerogels during crystallization. The influence of the upper temperature of heat-treatment and of Cu(II) content on the structure was determined. Previous studies of the porosity in undoped SnO2 samples treated at temperatures ranging from 300 up to 600°C demonstrated the existence of a bimodal size distribution (one distribution was due to intra-aggregate and the other to inter-aggregate pores). However, the SAXS data from Cu(II)-doped samples heated to 500°C had a single mode distribution due only to inter-aggregate pores. Doped samples isothermically treated at 500°C were studied by the in situ SAXS technique. The time evolution of the scattering intensity function, or structure function of the porous material, exhibits a dynamical scaling property. The asymptotic behavior at high q (wave numbers) of the scaled function and consequently the nature and morphology of the porosity interface are a function of Cu(II) content. The kinetic exponents predicted by the statistical theory for the structure function suggest that the mechanism of porosity coarsening is controlled by surface diffusion. © 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) effect on the thermal stability of oxy-HbGp: Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies

Carvalho, José Wilson P.; Alves, Fernanda Rosa; Batista, Tatiana; Carvalho, Francisco Adriano O.; Santiago, Patrícia S.; Tabak, Marcel
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 561-570
ENG
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Glossoscolex paulistus (HbGp) hemoglobin is an oligomeric protein, presenting a quaternary structure constituted by 144 globin and 36 non-globin chains (named linkers) with a total molecular mass of 3.6MDa. SDS effects on the oxy-HbGp thermal stability were studied, by DLS and SAXS, at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0. DLS and SAXS data show that the SDS-oxy-HbGp interactions induce a significant decrease of the protein thermal stability, with the formation of larger aggregates, at pH 5.0. At pH 7.0, oxy-HbGp undergoes complete oligomeric dissociation, with increase of temperature, in the presence of SDS. Besides, oxy-HbGp 3.0mg/mL, pH 7.0, in the presence of SDS, has the oligomeric dissociation process reduced as compared to 0.5mg/mL of protein. At pH 9.0, oxy-HbGp starts to dissociate at 20°C, and the protein is totally dissociated at 50°C. The thermal dissociation kinetic data show that oxy-HbGp oligomeric dissociation at pH 7.0, in the presence of SDS, is strongly dependent on the protein concentration. At 0.5mg/mL of protein, the oligomeric dissociation is complete and fast at 40 and 42°C, with kinetic constants of (2.1±0.2)×10-4 and (5.5±0.4)×10-4s-1, respectively, at 0.6mmol/L SDS. However, at 3.0mg/mL, the oligomeric dissociation process starts at 46°C...

Cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) effect on the thermal stability of oxy-HbGp: Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies

Carvalho, Jose Wilson P.; Carvalho, Francisco Adriano O.; Batista, Tatiana; Santiago, Patricia S.; Tabak, Marcel
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 14-24
ENG
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Processo FAPESP: 13/09349-6; Glossoscolex paulistus (HbGp) hemoglobin is an oligomeric protein, displaying a quaternary structure constituted by 144 globin and 36 non-globin chains (named linkers) with a total molecular mass of 3.6 MDa. CTAC effects on the oxy-HbGp thermal stability were investigated, by DLS and SAXS, at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0. DLS data show that the oxy-HbGp-CTAC interactions induce a significant decrease of the protein thermal stability, with the formation of larger aggregates, at pH 5.0 and 7.0. In the acidic pH, oxy-HbGp 0.5 mg/mL, undergoes a partial oligomeric dissociation, on going from 0.2 to 0.6 mmol/L of CTAC, accompanied by a decrease in the D-h values from 27 +/- 1 to 22 +/- 1 nm. It is observed, for the first time, that in the absence and in the presence of CTAC, oxy-HbGp undergoes a partial oligomeric dissociation, with increase of temperature, before denaturation and aggregation at pH values 7.0 and 5.0. SAXS data show that oxy-HbGp undergoes denaturation at 60 degrees C, in the presence of CTAC, pH 5.0. At neutral pH 7.0, the aggregation process starts at 20 degrees C...

SAXS Studies of the Endoglucanase Cel12A from Gloeophyllum trabeum Show Its Monomeric Structure and Reveal the Influence of Temperature on the Structural Stability of the Enzyme

Miotto, Lis S.; Reis, Caio V. dos; Neto, Mario de Oliveira; Polikarpov, Igor
Fonte: Mdpi Ag Publicador: Mdpi Ag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 5202-5211
ENG
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 09/08233-9; Endoglucanases are key enzymes applied to the conversion of biomass aiming for second generation biofuel production. In the present study we obtained the small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) structure of the G. trabeum endo-1,4-beta-glucanase Cel12A and investigated the influence of an important parameter, temperature, on both secondary and tertiary structure of the enzyme and its activity. The CD analysis for GtCel12A revealed that changes in the CD spectra starts at 55 degrees C and the T-m calculated from the experimental CD sigmoid curve using the Boltzmann function was 60.2 +/- 0.6 degrees C. SAXS data showed that GtCel12A forms monomers in solution and has an elongated form with a maximum diameter of 60 +/- 5 angstrom and a gyration radius of 19.4 +/- 0.1 angstrom as calculated from the distance distribution function. Kratky analysis revealed that 60 degrees C is the critical temperature above which we observed clear indications of denaturation. Our results showed the influence of temperature on the stability and activity of enzymes and revealed novel structural features of GtCel12A.

Estudos estruturais de fosfolipases de venenos de serpentes e aldose redutases de milho por cristalografia e SAXS; Structural studies of phospholipases from snake venoms and aldose reductases from maize by crystallography and SAXS

Marcelo Leite dos Santos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/03/2010 PT
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Nesta tese são apresentados os resultados da caracterização estrutural, principalmente por Cristalografia e Espalhamento de Raios X a Baixos Ângulos (SAXS), de importantes proteínas de venenos de serpentes e de semente de milho. Modelos estruturais foram obtidos para diferentes fosfolipases A2 (PLA2) de venenos, destacando-se dois modelos cristalográficos para uma PLA2 de Bothrops jararacussu resolvidos nos grupos de espaço P3121 e P212121, numa resolução máxima de 1,83 Å e 1,98 Å, cujos valores finais de Rfactor iguais a 19,7 % e 17,3 % (Rfree = 26,5 % e 23,8 %) foram obtidos, respectivamente. Ambos modelos apresentaram um inesperado fator de agregação plaquetária em seu sítio ativo e um interessante padrão pentagonal de moléculas de água altamente organizadas na superfície externa do canal hidrofóbico. Também foram recuperados envelopes de SAXS para uma PLA2 de Crotalus durissus cascavella, antes e após seu tratamento com naringina, que apresentaram uma nova configuração dimérica para fosfolipases A2 em solução e permitiram identificar o provável sítio de interação deste flavonóide. As proteínas de semente estudadas são aldose redutases (AR), as quais parecem estar envolvidas no metabolismo de sorbitol no milho. Esta mesma enzima em humanos está diretamente relacionada com complicações diabéticas em situações de hiperglicemia ao catalisar a conversão da glicose em excesso a sorbitol...

Investigation by Combined Solid-State NMR and SAXS Methods of the Morphology and Domain Size in Polystyrene-b-Polyethylene Oxide-b-Polystyrene Triblock Copolymers

BONK, Fabio A.; CALDARELLI, Stefano; PHAN, Trang; BERTIN, Denis; DEAZEVEDO, Eduardo R.; MANTOVANI, Gerson Luiz; BONAGAMBA, Tito J.; PLIVELIC, Tomas S.; TORRIANI, Iris L.
Fonte: JOHN WILEY & SONS INC Publicador: JOHN WILEY & SONS INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The microphase structure of a series of polystyrene-b-polyethylene oxide-b-polystyrene (SEOS) triblock copolymers with different compositions and molecular weights has been studied by solid-state NMR, DSC, wide and small angle X-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS). WAXS and DSC measurements were used to detect the presence of crystalline domains of polyethyleneoxide (PEO) blocks at room temperature as a function of the copolymer chemical composition. Furthermore, DSC experiments allowed the determination of the melting temperatures of the crystalline part of the PEO blocks. SAXS measurements, performed above and below the melting temperature of the PEO blocks, revealed the formation of periodic structures, but the absence or the weakness of high order reflections peaks did not allow a clear assessment of the morphological structure of the copolymers. This information was inferred by combining the results obtained by SAXS and (1)H NMR spin diffusion experiments, which also provided an estimation of the size of the dispersed phases of the nanostructured copolymers. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 48:55-64,2010; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)

Structure-property relationships of smectic liquid crystalline polyacrylates as revealed by SAXS

Pereira,Fabiano V.; Borsali,Redouane; Ritter,Olga M.S.; Gonçalves,Paulo F.; Merlo,Aloir A.; Silveira,Nadya P. da
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2006 EN
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The influence of the chemical structure of the mesogenic groups and the length of the spacer groups on the phase behavior in a series of side-chain liquid crystalline polyacrylates (SCLCP) have been studied using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and Polarized Optical Microscopy (POM). Analyses of the mesophase arrangement in unaligned and aligned samples by magnetic field are reported. The role of the spacer length on the local packing and on the thickness of the layers encountered in the SmA and SmC mesophases is elucidated. The tilt angles theta of the mesogenic cores related to the normal of the layers in the SmC mesophases are measured. A study about the degree of order as a function of temperature for the smectic polymers was possible using SAXS measurements. A particular arrangement in one of the studied SCLCPs is related to the coexistence of two different phases.

Experiências simultâneas de espalhamento de raios X e calorimetria diferencial de varredura (SAXS/WAXD/DSC) com resolução temporal utilizando radiação síncrotron

Plivelic,Tomás S.; Cassu,Silvana N.; Gonçalves,Maria do Carmo; Torriani,Iris L.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Polímeros Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Polímeros
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2005 PT
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37.263997%
Neste trabalho apresentamos uma nova instrumentação instalada na linha de SAXS do LNLS. Este equipamento permite a realização de experimentos simultâneos e resolvidos no tempo de espalhamento de raios X a baixos e altos ângulos (SAXS/WAXD) e calorimetria diferencial de varredura (DSC). O dispositivo de DSC mostrou-se comparável a equipamentos convencionais, com taxas de variação de temperatura de até 60 °C/min e uma precisão de 0.1 °C. O uso de uma fonte de radiação síncrotron e de detetores de raios X sensíveis à posição permitiu a obtenção de dados com uma resolução temporal de 30 s. A aplicação deste arranjo experimental no estudo da cristalização isotérmica e da fusão em materiais poliméricos é mostrada para o caso da policaprolactona (PCL) e suas blendas com polietileno clorado (PCL/PECl). As experiências mostraram a formação simultânea da estrutura cristalina e da morfologia lamelar nos diferentes estágios da cristalização assim como mudanças na cinética do processo com o tratamento isotérmico e a composição da blenda. Finalmente cabe destacar que experimentos simultâneos de SAXS/WAXD/DSC permitem o estudo de distintos processos abrangendo não apenas os de cristalização, mas também a formação de colóides e géis ou as transições de fase estruturais em diversos materiais.

SAXS and X-ray Crystallography Studies of the Cellulosome from Clostridium thermocellum

Currie, Mark
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Cellulosomes are the most efficient plant cell wall degradation machines discovered to date. All cellulosomal components contain protein modules connected by linkers of varying lengths, which are predicted to be flexible. Consequently, structural studies of the cellulosome have employed a “dissect and build” strategy, whereby individual modules are studied in isolation with the hope to later model the intact complex. However, representative individual structures are now available for all of the cellulosome modules and many questions still remain. The studies described in this thesis depart from the ‘dissection’ stage and enter the ‘build’ stage of cellulosome structural studies of the cellulosome from Clostridium thermocellum. We first describe the crystal structure of a heterodimeric complex comprising the type-II cohesin (CohII) from cell surface anchoring protein SdbA and a trimodular C-terminal truncation of the CipA scaffoldin protein containing the ninth type-I cohesin module (CohI9), a linker, the X-module (X), and the type-II dockerin module (DocII). This structure revealed novel intertwining of scaffoldin molecules and extensive reciprocal contacts between the CohI9 and the X-module of another scaffoldin molecule. Sedimentation velocity experiments indicate dimerization also occurs in solution. We have carried out the crystallization and structural analysis of a heterotrimeric complex containing the CohI9—X-DocII:CohII complex bound to the type-I dockerin module (DocI) from the Cel9D enzyme...

SAXS and EXAFS Studies of Ion Beam Synthesized Au Nanocrystals

Kluth, Patrick; Johannessen, Bernt; Cookson, D J; Foran, Garry J; Ridgway, Mark C
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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We have used small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to investigate Au nanocrystals (NCs) fabricated by high dose ion implantation into thin SiO2 and subsequent annealing at different temperatures. Size distributions were determined from SAXS and structural parameters were extracted from EXAFS measurements, the latter analyzed as a function of NC size. Increasing implantation dose leads to an increasing average NC size and broadening of the size distribution. A significant size-dependent bond length contraction with respect to bulk material was observed. For samples annealed at 1100 °C our analysis suggests that an increased structural disorder is predominantly located at the NC surface. Post-implantation annealing at temperatures of 500 °C and 800 °C for 1 h in forming gas had no detectable influence on the NC size distribution, however, a significant influence on the structural parameters, in particular increased disorder was observed. This is potentially the result of stress induced disorder due to the different thermal expansion of the NC and matrix materials.