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Surface roughness evolution of soils containing rock fragments

Van Wesemael, Bas; Poesen, Jean; Figueiredo, Tomás de; Govers, Gérard
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Soil surface roughness is a dynamic property which determines, to a large extent, erosion and infiltration rates. Although soils containing rock fragments are widespread in the Mediterranean region, the effect of the latter on surface roughness evolution is yet poorly understood. Therefore, laboratory experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effect of rock fragment content, rock fragment size and initial moisture content of the fine earth on the evolution of interrill surface roughness during simulated rainfall. Surface elevations of simulated plough layers along transects of 50 cm length were measured before and after simulated rainfall (totalling 192.5 mm, I = 70 mm h−1) with a laser microreliefmeter. The results were used to investigate whether systematic variations in interrill surface roughness along stony hillslopes in southeastern Spain could be attributed to rock fragment cover and rock fragment size. Soil surface elevations were measured along the contour lines (50 cm long transects) with a contact microreliefmeter. Roughness was expressed by two parameters related to the height and frequency of roughness elements, respectively: standard deviation of de-trended surface elevations (random roughness: RR)...

RELATIONS BETWEEN SOIL SURFACE ROUGHNESS, TORTUOSITY, TILLAGE TREATMENTS, RAINFALL INTENSITY AND SOIL AND WATER LOSSES FROM A RED YELLOW LATOSOL

Bramorski, Julieta; Maria, Isabella C. de; Silva, Renato Lemos e; Crestana, Silvio
Fonte: SOC BRASILEIRA DE CIENCIA DO SOLO; VICOSA Publicador: SOC BRASILEIRA DE CIENCIA DO SOLO; VICOSA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.024297%
The soil surface roughness increases water retention and infiltration, reduces the runoff volume and speed and influences soil losses by water erosion. Similarly to other parameters, soil roughness is affected by the tillage system and rainfall volume. Based on these assumptions, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tillage treatments on soil surface roughness (RR) and tortuosity (T) and to investigate the relationship with soil and water losses in a series of simulated rainfall events. The field study was carried out at the experimental station of EMBRAPA Southeastern Cattle Research Center in Sao Carlos (Fazenda Canchim), in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Experimental plots of 33 m(2) were treated with two tillage practices in three replications, consisting of: untilled (no-tillage) soil (NTS) and conventionally tilled (plowing plus double disking) soil (CTS). Three successive simulated rain tests were applied in 24 h intervals. The three tests consisted of a first rain of 30 mm/h, a second of 30 mm/h and a third rain of 70 mm/h. Immediately after tilling and each rain simulation test, the surface roughness was measured, using a laser profile meter. The tillage treatments induced significant changes in soil surface roughness and tortuosity...

Relations between soil surface roughness, tortuosity, tillage treatments, rainfall intensity and soil and water losses from a red yellow latosol; Relações entre a rugosidade superficial, a tortuosidade, o modo de preparo, a intensidade de chuva e as perdas de solo e água em um latossolo vermelho-amarelo (LVA)

Bramorski, Julieta; De Maria, Isabella C.; Silva, Renato Lemos e; Crestana, Silvio
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.024297%
The soil surface roughness increases water retention and infiltration, reduces the runoff volume and speed and influences soil losses by water erosion. Similarly to other parameters, soil roughness is affected by the tillage system and rainfall volume. Based on these assumptions, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tillage treatments on soil surface roughness (RR) and tortuosity (T) and to investigate the relationship with soil and water losses in a series of simulated rainfall events. The field study was carried out at the experimental station of EMBRAPA Southeastern Cattle Research Center in São Carlos (Fazenda Canchim), in São Paulo State, Brazil. Experimental plots of 33 m² were treated with two tillage practices in three replications, consisting of: untilled (no-tillage) soil (NTS) and conventionally tilled (plowing plus double disking) soil (CTS). Three successive simulated rain tests were applied in 24 h intervals. The three tests consisted of a first rain of 30 mm/h, a second of 30 mm/h and a third rain of 70 mm/h. Immediately after tilling and each rain simulation test, the surface roughness was measured, using a laser profile meter. The tillage treatments induced significant changes in soil surface roughness and tortuosity...

Análise da rugosidade superficial de diferentes marcas comerciais de resina acrílica para coroas provisórias; Surface roughness analysis of acrylic resin for provisional crowns under different commercial brands

Nishida, Cintia Lumi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/06/2010 PT
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As coroas provisórias apresentam algumas características que podem comprometer a estética e facilitar aderência de microorganismos e formação de placa. Estudos prévios demonstraram que a forma de processamento influi na rugosidade e porosidade de uma marca comercial de resina acrílica comumente utilizada para a confecção de provisórias. Como diferentes marcas comerciais apresentam diferenças de qualidade, o presente estudo teve como objetivo principal avaliar a rugosidade superficial de quatro marcas comerciais de resina acrílica utilizadas na confecção de coroas provisórias (Dencor, Vipi, Duralay e Alike) de acordo com quatro técnicas de manipulação, diretas e indiretas. Os processamentos avaliados foram: GRUPO I autopolimerização sob pressão em matriz de silicona; GRUPO II - autopolimerização térmica em mufla; GRUPO III autopolimerização utilizando a técnica do pincel; GRUPO IV autopolimerização pela mistura em pote dappen. Para cada tipo de processamento foram confeccionados 12 corpos-deprova de cada material, totalizando 48 corpos-de-prova para cada grupo e 192 espécimes ao total. Logo após a confecção dos espécimes foi realizado o teste de rugosidade de superfície (Ra) através de um rugosímetro/perfilômetro. Posteriormente...

Efeito da escovação e enxaguatório bucal na alteração de cor e rugosidade de resinas compostas; Effect of toothbrushing and mouthwash on the color change and surface roughness of composite resins.

Trauth, Keico Graciela Sano
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/07/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.024297%
O presente estudo avaliou in vitro a influência de diferentes tipos de enxaguatórios bucais associados com a escovação, na alteração de cor e rugosidade superficial de diferentes tipos de resinas compostas diretas (M1- Filtek Supreme XT, M2- Z100, M3- Ice) por meio do espectrocolorímetro PCB 6807 da BYK-Gradner, rugosímetro modelo SJ-201P Mitutoyo e Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura. Foram preparados 300 corpos de prova (n=10) para a variável alteração de cor, e destes espécimes 180 (n=6) foram submetidos ao ensaio de rugosidade superficial. Os espécimes foram polidos com discos Soft Lex, na sequência de abrasividade decrescente e armazenados em saliva artificial a 37°(±1°C) até o momento de serem submetidos nas soluções S1- Solução com álcool e com corante, Colgate Plax Fresh Mint; S2- Solução sem álcool e com corante, Oral-B; S3- Solução com álcool e sem corante, Cepacol; S4- Solução sem álcool e sem corante, Colgate Plax e S5- Grupo controle, Saliva Artificial e realização das leituras das variáveis em estudo, nos tempos T0- imediatamente após o polimento, T1- 7dias, T2- 14dias, e T3- 21dias. Todos os espécimes dos grupos experimentais foram imersos sob agitação, nos diferentes enxaguatórios bucais...

Avaliação do desgaste e da alteração da rugosidade superficial em resinas compostas de diferentes características submetidas à escovação simulada e ciclagem de pH; Wear and surface roughness alteration evaluation of different composite resins after toothbrushing and pH cycling

Oliveira, Gabriela Ulian de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/08/2011 PT
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O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar quantitativamente a alteração na rugosidade superficial e o desgaste de resinas compostas com diferentes características de matriz orgânica e de carga inorgânica frente ao teste de escovação simulada e ciclagem de pH. Foram testadas três resinas compostas: Filtek Z250 (Bis-GMA, microhíbrida), Filtek Z350 (Bis-GMA, nanoparticulada) e Filtek P90 (silorano, microhíbrida)(3M-ESPE). Para cada resina foram confeccionados dois grupos (n=10) de corpos de prova retangulares (15mmx5mmx4mm). Após a polimerização e polimento adequado dos espécimes, a rugosidade inicial (Ra) foi obtida pela média de três leituras com o Rugosímetro Hommel T1000. Metade de cada corpo de prova foi protegida com esmalte de unha e um dos grupos de cada resina foi submetido a um protocolo de ciclagem de pH (desmineralização-pH 4,3 e remineralização-pH 7,0). Para o teste de abrasão foram realizados 100.000 ciclos de escovação simulada, permanecendo a metade protegida como grupo controle. Na metade escovada foi verificada a rugosidade final, seguindo os mesmos parâmetros iniciais, e o desgaste (µm) foi quantificado pela média de 3 leituras do perfil real abrangendo as duas superfícies (controle e escovada). Os resultados obtidos (ANOVA...

Efeito in situ do clareamento caseiro e subseqüentes tratamentos de superfície na cor e rugosidade superficial de resinas compostas; In situ effect of home bleaching and subsequent surface treatment on color and surface roughness of composite resins

Garcia, Lourdes Maria González
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/04/2012 PT
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Este estudo avaliou in situ a susceptibilidade ao manchamento de duas resinas compostas Z350 XT® (M1) e Z250® (M2), ambas da 3M/ESPE por meio da alteração de cor e rugosidade superficial após o uso do agente clareador peróxido de carbamida 16% e subseqüentes tratamentos de superfície. Foram confeccionados 156 corpos-de-prova, n=13 para cada condição experimental. O estudo crossover teve duas fases de 14 dias cada, com um período de washout de 9 dias. Os corpos de prova de cada material foram montados em placas de acetato, distribuídos em 13 voluntários, na região dos segundos pré-molares, primeiros e segundos molares superiores e instalados nos participantes para a realização do tratamento proposto em cada fase. De acordo com aleatorização, 6 voluntários utilizaram na primeira fase do experimento o gel a base de peróxido de carbamida 16% (Home Peroxide, DMC) (CCL) e 7 voluntários o gel placebo (DMC) (SCL) da mesma composição do gel original, porém sem adição do peróxido. Os voluntários aplicaram os géis nos corpos-deprova por 8h/dia, durante 14 dias nas duas fases do experimento. Após o clareamento os corpos de prova foram submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos de superfícies: polimento com discos Sof Lex (3M/ESPE) (TR1)...

Ação do enxaguatório bucal à base de Casearia sylvestris e Clorexidina 0,12% na cor e rugosidade superficial do esmalte dental submetido ao clareamento caseiro e bebida alimentícia ácida; Action of Chlorhexidine and a mouthwash containing Casearia sylvestris in color and surface roughness of the dental enamel submitted to home bleaching and acid drink

Bohner, Lauren Oliveira Lima
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/12/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Enxaguatórios bucais podem ocasionar a alteração de cor do elemento dental, devido à desmineralização ocasionada pelo uso prolongado dos mesmos, e consequente aumento da rugosidade superficial. Outros fatores, como o clareamento caseiro e o consumo diário de bebidas ácidas são, da mesma forma, responsáveis pela dissolução do esmalte dental. Buscando superar os efeitos adversos da Clorexidina 0,12%, desenvolveu-se um enxaguatório bucal à base de uma planta medicinal, denominada Casearia sylvestris. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ação dos enxaguatórios bucais à base de Casearia sylvestris e Clorexidina 0,12% na cor e rugosidade superfícial do esmalte dental submetido a agente clareador e bebida alimentícia de pH 2,4. Amostras de dentes bovinos foram divididas em 3 grupos (n= 30), de acordo com a solução utilizada: Água destilada, Clorexidina 0,12% e Enxaguatório bucal à base de Casearia sylvestris. Cada grupo foi ainda dividido em subgrupos, de acordo com as categorias (n=10): Grupo controle, dentes clareados e dentes submetidos à imersão em bebida alimentícia ácida. O clareamento caseiro foi realizado com peróxido de carbamida 16%, por 6 horas diárias durante 8 dias, enquanto a imersão em suco de limão (pH 2...

Effect of thermal and mechanical cycles on the hardness and roughness of artificial teeth

Tenan, Heloísa de Paula Lemos; Sanitá, Paula Volpato; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Mima, Ewerton G.; Jorge, Janaina Habib
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 8-14
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In this study the effects of thermal and mechanical cycles on the hardness and roughness of artificial teeth were evaluated. Materials and Methods:Specimens were prepared and stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 48 hours (n=10).The hardness and roughness readings were made in the following time intervals, according to each group:G1: after specimen storage in distilled water at 37°C for 48 hours; G2: after 600.000 constant mechanical cycles; G3: after 1.200.000 constant mechanical cycles; G4: after 2.500 thermalcycling baths, alternated between hot water (55°C) and cold water (5°C) and G5: after 5.000 thermalcycling baths, alternated between hot water (55°C) and cold water (5°C). After cycling and storage procedures, the specimens of each group were submittedto surface roughness and hardness readouts. Statistical evaluation was performed by three-way analysis of variance, complemented by the Tukey multiple comparisons of means test. The level of significance adopted was 5%. There was no significant difference between G1, G4 and G5 as regards mean roughness of different brands of artificial teeth. Groups G2 and G3 showed higher mean roughness values, and generally equivalent values in all time intervals, except for Trilux (G3> G2). Significant differences in hardness values were observed in different brands of artificial teeth...

Avaliação da rugosidade superficial após o emprego de diferentes métodos de descontaminação da superfívie em discos de titânio : estudo in vitro; Evaluation of surface roughness after use different methods the decontamination on surface of titanium discs : study in vitro

Ana Lúcia Diefenbach
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/07/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.024297%
Os procedimentos capazes de descontaminar a superfície implantar removendo o biofilme garantem o sucesso e a longevidade dos implantes. As conseqüências na rugosidade superficial gerada por esses procedimentos têm sido avaliadas, porém novas propostas para descontaminação das superfícies implantares vêm sendo utilizadas, principalmente para o tratamento da periimplantite. Assim, objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, in vitro, a rugosidade superficial de discos cilíndricos de titânio após uso de cureta plástica; jato de bicarbonato; esfregaço de tetraciclina e ultrassom piezoelétrico. Foram utilizados 50 discos de titânio com dimensões de 5 mm de altura por 5 mm de largura, com superfícies jateadas com óxido de alumínio. Os discos foram divididos aleatoriamente em cinco grupos experimentais. Grupo 1(n=10) controle - sem tratamento; grupo 2(n=10) - recebeu 15 movimentos de raspagem com cureta plástica; grupo 3(n=10) - aplicação de jato de bicarbonato por 30s a cinco milímetros da superfície; grupo 4(n=10) - aplicação de tetraciclina ácida 50mg/ml por esfregaço vigoroso por 30 segundos e grupo 5(n=10) - aplicação de 15 movimentos de raspagem por meio de ultrassom piezoelétrico com irrigação de solução polidora. Após o procedimento foram realizadas três leituras paralelas e três perpendiculares ao sentido da instrumentação utilizando rugosímetro...

Relations between soil surface roughness, tortuosity, tillage treatments, rainfall intensity and soil and water losses from a red yellow latosol

Bramorski,Julieta; De Maria,Isabella C.; Silva,Renato Lemos e; Crestana,Silvio
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.024297%
The soil surface roughness increases water retention and infiltration, reduces the runoff volume and speed and influences soil losses by water erosion. Similarly to other parameters, soil roughness is affected by the tillage system and rainfall volume. Based on these assumptions, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tillage treatments on soil surface roughness (RR) and tortuosity (T) and to investigate the relationship with soil and water losses in a series of simulated rainfall events. The field study was carried out at the experimental station of EMBRAPA Southeastern Cattle Research Center in São Carlos (Fazenda Canchim), in São Paulo State, Brazil. Experimental plots of 33 m² were treated with two tillage practices in three replications, consisting of: untilled (no-tillage) soil (NTS) and conventionally tilled (plowing plus double disking) soil (CTS). Three successive simulated rain tests were applied in 24 h intervals. The three tests consisted of a first rain of 30 mm/h, a second of 30 mm/h and a third rain of 70 mm/h. Immediately after tilling and each rain simulation test, the surface roughness was measured, using a laser profile meter. The tillage treatments induced significant changes in soil surface roughness and tortuosity...

Influence of substratum surface roughness on periphytic algal community structure in a shallow tropical reservoir

Souza,Mariane Lima de; Ferragut,Carla
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Limnologia Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Limnologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 EN
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AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the algal periphytic community structure on substrates with differing surface roughness in early and longer-term colonization; METHODS: Periphyton was sampled after 30 days (June 24 to July 24, 2008) and 5 days (July 07 to July 12, 2010) substrate exposure during dry season. Plastic slides were used as artificial substrate. Treatments were smooth surface (control), low roughness, medium roughness and high roughness. Samples were collected for limnological condition and periphyton (chlorophyll-a, AFDM, algal biovolume and density, species richness and diversity) analysis; RESULTS: Periphytic biomass, algal density and biovolume had no significant difference among treatments after 30 and 5 days colonization time. Taxonomic similarity was the lowest among treatments and the greatest difference occurred between control and treatments with roughness surface. Bacillariophyceae biovolume decreased with increasing surface roughness. Adherence forms, algal classes and species descriptors were significantly different after 5 days colonization time, especially in medium e high roughness surface. In the colonization advanced phase only species descriptors differ among treatments. Periphytic algae with pads and stalks for adherence decreased with increasing surface roughness. CONCLUSION: Substrate physical properties had little or no influence on periphyton biomass accumulation...

Estudo da influência da vibração na medição da rugosidade; Study of the influence of vibration on roughness measurement

Dobes, Jefferson
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.024297%
Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar o efeito da vibração mecânica sobre os valores médios dos parâmetros de rugosidade e da incerteza associada à medição por meio de um rugosímetro eletromecânico modelo TR200 – HOMIS. Os ensaios foram realizados aplicando vibração na direção normal ao curso de deslocamento do apalpador, para diferentes valores de frequência e de amplitude. O sistema de geração de vibração consistiu de um excitador eletrodinâmico e a medição da aceleração foi realizada por meio de um acelerômetro piezelétrico. Para tanto, foram executadas as seguintes etapas: i) medição dos parâmetros de rugosidade (Ra, Rq, Rz e Rt) de três amostras, em condições sem vibração por meio do rugosímetro eletromecânico. Para efeitos de comparação e análise a rugosidade, também, foi medida sem contato utilizando um interferômetro; ii) pré-testes, que consistiram na medição da rugosidade e da vibração de forma simultânea em uma amostra de alumínio considerando uma banda de frequência de 50 Hz a 150 Hz e quatro níveis de aceleração; iii) a partir dos resultados obtidos nos pré-testes, foi definido o planejamento fatorial 32 no qual foram medidos Ra, Rq, Rz e Rt em três amostras considerando como variáveis independentes a frequência e a aceleração...

Efeito das t??cnicas de polimento e tempo na rugosidade superficial, dureza e microinfiltra????o de restaura????es de resina composta ap??s um ano de armazenagem; Effect of polishing techniques and time on surface roughness, microhardness and microleakage of resin composite restorations after oneyear storage

VENTURINI, Daniela
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Odontologia; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Odontologia; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Odontologia; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Odontologia; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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This study evaluated the effects of immediate and delayed polishing on surface roughness (Ra), microhardness (KHN) and microleakage of a microfilled composite (Filtek A110) and a hybrid composite (Filtek Z250) restorations after one-year storage. Standardized cavities preparations were made in the buccal surface of 256 bovine teeth; half were restored with each composite. Immediately after photo activation finishing was carried out with #280 grit sandpaper. For each composite, the specimens were randomly allocated for two sub-groups. The first group (IM) was immediately polished, using three different systems (n=16): A- Sof-Lex; B- Flexicups; and C- a sequential technique using Flexicups, Jiffy Polishing Brush and Flexibuffs. The specimens were stored in saline solution at 37??C. The second group (DE) was stored for two weeks and then polished with the same systems. Part of the specimens had their surface properties analyzed at the baseline, and the remaining specimens were stored for one-year in distilled water at 37??C. Five readings per specimen were taken for each specimen regarding surface roughness and microhardness. After immersion in basic fuchsin, microleakage was evaluated (X40) using standardized scores. Data were analyzed at significance level of 0.05 with analysis of variance and a SNK test (surface roughness and microhardness) or with Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis (microleakage). For comparison between baseline and one-year Student??s t test (Ra) and Mann-Withney (microleakage) were carried out. After one-year...

Effect of storage in water and thermocycling on hardness and roughness of resin materials for temporary restorations

Oliveira,Jerusa Cleci de; Aiello,Glauber; Mendes,Bruna; Urban,Vanessa Migliorini; Campanha,Nara Hellen; Jorge,Janaina Habib
Fonte: ABM, ABC, ABPol Publicador: ABM, ABC, ABPol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2010 EN
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PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of storage in water and thermocycling on hardness and roughness of resin materials for temporary restorations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three acrylic resins (Dencor-De, Duralay-Du, and Vipi Cor-VC) were selected and one composite resin (Opallis-Op) was used as a parameter for comparison. The materials were prepared according to the manufacturers' instructions and were placed in stainless steel moulds (20 mm in diameter and 5 mm thick). Thirty samples of each resin were made and divided into three groups (n = 10) according to the moment of Vickers hardness (VHN) and roughness (Ra) analyses: C (control group): immediately after specimen preparation; Sw: after storage in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 hours; Tc: after thermocycling (3000 cycles; 5-55 °C, 30 seconds dwell time). Data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (α = 0.05). RESULTS: Op resin had higher surface hardness values (p < 0.0001; 25.4 ± 3.4) than the other ones (De = 4.5 ± 0.6; Du = 5.5 ± 0.4; VC = 6.1 ± 0.9). There was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) in roughness among materials (De = 0.31 ± 0.07; Du = 0.51 ± 0.20; VC = 0.41 ± 0.15; Op = 0.42 ± 0.18). Storage in water did not change hardness and roughness of the tested materials (p > 0.05). There was a significant increase in roughness after thermocycling (p < 0.05)...

Effect of filler particles on surface roughness of experimental composite series

Marghalani,Hanadi Yousif
Fonte: Faculdade De Odontologia De Bauru - USP Publicador: Faculdade De Odontologia De Bauru - USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2010 EN
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OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different filler sizes and shapes on the surface roughness of experimental resin-composite series. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-three disc-shaped specimens of the series (Spherical-RZD 102, 105, 106, 107, 114 and Irregular-RZD 103, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112) were prepared in a split Teflon mold and irradiated with an halogen light-curing unit (450 mW/cm² for 40 s) at both top and bottom surfaces. The specimens were stored for 3 months in distilled water. The surface roughness values in form of surface finish-vertical parameter (Ra), maximum roughness depth (Rmax) and horizontal roughness parameter (Sm) were recorded using a contact profilometer. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Scheffé post-hoc test (a=0.05). RESULTS: The lowest surface roughness (Ra) was observed in S-100 (0.079±0.013), while the roughest surface was noted in I-450/700/1000 (0.125±0.011) and I-450/1000 (0.124±0.004). The spherical-shape series showed the smoothest surface finish compared to the irregular-shape ones with higher significant difference (p>0.05). The vertical surface roughness parameter (Ra) values increased as the filler size increased yielding a linear relation (r²=0.82). On the contrary...

Influence of topical acidulated phosphate fluoride on surface roughness of human enamel and different restorative materials

Botta,Ana Carolina; Mollica,Fernanda Brandão; Ribeiro,Carolina Ferraz; Araujo,Maria Amélia Máximo de; Nicoló,Rebeca Di; Balducci,Ivan
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
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PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of topical acidulated phosphate fluoride on the surface roughness of both human enamel and different restorative materials. METHODS: Resin-modified glass ionomer (Vitremer - V), microhybrid composite resin with fluoride (Tetric Ceram - T), and nanofiller composite resin without fluoride (Z350 - Z) were evaluated. Acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF, 1.23%) was applied to half of the specimens (groups VF, TF, ZF and EF). Ten intact human third molars were used to obtain enamel specimens (E). Six experimental groups (n=10) and two control groups (n=10) were formed. The mean surface roughness (Ra) of both the restorative materials and enamel, with and without fluoride, was evaluated with a profilometer. Data were analyzed with an ANOVA, Tukey's test, Student's t-test, and Dunn-Bonferroni test at the 5% significance level. RESULTS: The mean values of surface roughness, in micrometers, were as follows: Z=0.60; TF=1.00; ZF=1.05; VF=1.18; T=2.10; V=2.70; E=16.99; and EF=21.19. Both E and EF presented significantly higher surface roughness than the other experimental groups. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that APF increased the surface roughness of enamel and decreased the surface roughness of both resin-modified glass-ionomer cement and microhybrid composite resin with fluoride. The surface roughness of the nanofiller composite resin was not modified by APF.

Effect of filler particles on surface roughness of experimental composite series

Marghalani, Hanadi Yousif
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/02/2010 ENG
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OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different filler sizes and shapes on the surface roughness of experimental resin-composite series. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-three disc-shaped specimens of the series (Spherical-RZD 102, 105, 106, 107, 114 and Irregular-RZD 103, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112) were prepared in a split Teflon mold and irradiated with an halogen light-curing unit (450 mW/cm² for 40 s) at both top and bottom surfaces. The specimens were stored for 3 months in distilled water. The surface roughness values in form of surface finish-vertical parameter (Ra), maximum roughness depth (Rmax) and horizontal roughness parameter (Sm) were recorded using a contact profilometer. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Scheffé post-hoc test (a=0.05). RESULTS: The lowest surface roughness (Ra) was observed in S-100 (0.079±0.013), while the roughest surface was noted in I-450/700/1000 (0.125±0.011) and I-450/1000 (0.124±0.004). The spherical-shape series showed the smoothest surface finish compared to the irregular-shape ones with higher significant difference (p>;0.05). The vertical surface roughness parameter (Ra) values increased as the filler size increased yielding a linear relation (r²=0.82). On the contrary...

Experimental investigation on the effects of surface roughness on microscale liquid flow

Brackbill, Tim
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
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Microfluidics has become of interest recently with shrinking device sizes. Roughness structures left from machining processes on the inside of tubes and channels that were once not a concern may now create relative roughness that exceeds 5%. Confusion still exists in the literature as to the extent of the effects of roughness on laminar flow. This work aims to experimentally examine the effects of different roughness structures on internal flows in high aspect ratio rectangular microchannels. A total of four test sections were fabricated to test samples with different patterned rough surfaces, and to also vary the two opposite surfaces forming the long faces of the channel. These test sections allowed the same roughness samples to be tested at varying relative roughnesses and allowed a systematic study on their effects on pressure drop. The first test section looked at sawtooth effects on laminar flow. The second looked at uniform roughness on laminar flow. The third looked at sawtooth roughness in turbulent flow, and the fourth looked at varying pitch sawtooth roughness in laminar flow. Rough surfaces were formed in one of two ways. The first involved making structured repeating sawtooth ridges with a ball end mill on a CNC machine. The second was using sandpaper in a crosshatch pattern to make a more unpatterned roughened surface. In this study...

Effects of Wall Roughness on Adverse Pressure Gradient Boundary Layers

Mottaghian, Pouya
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
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Large-eddy Simulations were carried out on a flat-plate boundary layer over smooth and rough surfaces in the presence of an adverse pressure gradient, strong enough to induce separation. The inlet Reynolds number (based on freestream velocity and momentum thickness at the reference plane) is 2300. A sand-grain roughness model was implemented and spatial resolution requirements were determined. Two roughness heights were used and a fully-rough flow condition is achieved at the reference plane with roughness Reynolds numbers 60 and 120. As the friction velocity decreases due to the adverse pressure gradient the roughness Reynolds number varies from fully-rough to transitionally rough and smooth regime before the separation. The double-averaging approach illustrates how the roughness contribution decreases before the separation as the dispersive stresses decrease markedly compared to the upstream region. Before the flow detachment, roughness intensifies the Reynolds stresses. After the separation, the normal stresses, production and dissipation substantially increase through the adverse pressure gradient region. In the recovery region, the flow is highly three dimensional, as turbulent structures impinge on the wall at the reattachment region. Roughness initially increases the skin friction...