Página 1 dos resultados de 169 itens digitais encontrados em 0.003 segundos

Analysis and risk estimates to workers of Brazilian granitic industries and sandblasters exposed to respirable crystalline silica and natural radionuclides

ESTELLITA, L.; SANTOS, A. M. A.; Anjos, Roberto Meigikos dos; Yoshimura, Elisabeth Mateus; VELASCO, H.; Silva, Almy Anacleto Rodrigues da; AGUIAR, J. G.
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
531.5621%
Occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica and to radiation emitted by natural radionuclides present both in rocks and sands was studied in the Brazilian extractive process and granite product manufacture. Respirable airborne dust samples were collected in working environments, where workers perform different tasks with distinct commercial granites types, and also in places where sandblasters work with sands from different origins. The free crystalline silica contents were determined using X-ray diffraction of the respirable particulate fraction of each sample. Dust samples from granite cutting and sandblasting ambient had the natural radionuclides concentrations measured by gamma spectrometry. Dust concentrations in the workplaces were quite variable, reaching values up to 10 times higher than the respirable particle mass threshold limit value (TLV) set by the American Conference for Governmental Industrial Hygienists of 3 mg m(-3). Also the free crystalline silica concentrations were high. reaching values up to 48 times the TLV of 0.025 mg m(-3). Additionally, our results suggest that the risk of radiation-induced cancer in the granite or marble industries is negligible. However, the combined exposure to dust, gamma radiation...

Caracteristicas da poeira do processo de fabricação de materiais ceramicos para revestimento : estudo no polo de Santa Gertrudes; Characteristics of dust from the manufacturing process of ceramic materials for tiles : study in the Santa Gertrudes complex

Maria Margarida Teixeira Moreira-Lima
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/11/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
532.95992%
A poeira gerada no processo de fabricação de materiais cerâmicos pode ser um agente de risco à saúde dos trabalhadores, em especial quando em sua composição houver a presença de polimorfos da sílica nas formas cristalinas do ?-quartzo e da cristobalita. A exposição ocupacional à poeira respirável desses polimorfos pode ocasionar o aparecimento da silicose e de outras doenças associadas. Na indústria de revestimentos cerâmicos as informações sobre as características da poeira gerada nos seus processos e sobre a prevalência da silicose no setor são insuficientes para definir a magnitude do risco da exposição ocupacional à sílica. Este estudo de campo busca identificar parâmetros físicos e a concentração em sílica cristalina do material particulado suspenso no ar em indústrias de revestimentos cerâmicos para pisos e paredes. Foram selecionadas nove indústrias no município de Santa Gertrudes, no estado de São Paulo, com processo de fabricação por via seca, onde a matéria-prima principal é a argila vermelha proveniente da Formação Corumbataí. O estudo realizou-se por meio da observação sistemática das etapas do processo industrial, da coleta e análise de amostras da poeira presente nos ambientes de trabalho e da análise mineralógica da massa cerâmica manufaturada. As amostras de poeira foram analisadas por ravimetria e por difratometria de raios-X (DRX). Foi determinada a presença na poeira de partículas com tamanho na fração respirável (< 10 µm)...

Relation between dust exposure and lung function in miners and ex-miners.

Soutar, C A; Hurley, J F
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1986 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
423.87195%
A sample of men working in the British coal industry in the 1950s has been followed up and examined 22 years later. The relations between lung function and individual cumulative exposure to respirable dust have been studied in 1867 men who were still working in the industry at the time of follow up and 2192 men who had left. Levels of forced expired volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC ratio at follow up were found to be inversely related to exposure to respirable dust after allowing for other factors, even in men without pneumoconiosis. The magnitude of this estimated effect was equivalent to a loss of 228 ml FEV1 in response to an exposure of 300 gh/m3, a moderately high exposure for this group. Ex-miners aged under 65 had worse lung function than miners on average, suggesting that ill health had encouraged some of these men to leave the industry. Whereas a more severe response to dust exposure among ex-miners under 65 was suggested, this difference could easily have arisen by chance. The presence of symptoms of chronic bronchitis was associated with reduced levels of lung function, however, and, additionally, ex-miners under 65 with chronic bronchitis showed a more severe response of the FVC to dust exposure than miners without these symptoms. Among these ex-miners with chronic bronchitis a small group of men who had taken other jobs showed a much more severe effect of dust exposure on their lung function than the average...

Grain elevator workers show work-related pulmonary function changes and dose-effect relationships with dust exposure.

Corey, P; Hutcheon, M; Broder, I; Mintz, S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1982 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
427.38875%
The purpose of this study was to determine whether grain handlers underwent work-related changes in their pulmonary function and, if so, to examine the dose-effect relationships with dust exposure. The pulmonary function of grain handlers was measured at the beginning and end of work shifts over a period of one week, during which their exposure to dust was measured daily. The results showed changes indicative of a within-day obstructive change, in addition to a small restrictive defect occurring over the course of a week. Civic outside labourers who were examined as a control group showed a similar within-week obstructive change without any associated restriction of lung volume. The data on the grain handlers were also used to examine the dose-effect relationships of dust exposure, both on baseline pulmonary function and on within-day changes in these measurements. The baseline flow rates of workers who did not wear a mask were found to vary inversely with their average exposure to respirable dust. In addition, the flow rates underwent a within-day decrease that varied directly with their corresponding exposure to respirable dust and was unrelated to mask wearing. The median of the slopes for this relationship indicated that 50% of the subjects had a decrease of at least 923 ml/s in the value of their Vmax50%VC for each 1 mg/m3 increase in the concentration of respirable dust. Non-respirable dust did not have a measurable effect either on the baseline or the within-day changes in pulmonary function. The acute changes were unaffected by age...

Volatile organic compounds, respirable dust, and personal factors related to prevalence and incidence of sick building syndrome in primary schools.

Norbäck, D; Torgén, M; Edling, C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1990 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
512.76754%
Possible relations between incidence and prevalence of sick building syndrome (SBS), indoor exposures, and personal factors were studied in a four year longitudinal study among personnel (n = 129) in six primary schools. The mean concentration of carbon dioxide was above the recommended value of 0.08 microliter/l (800 ppm) in all schools, indicating a poor outdoor air supply. Indoor concentration of volatile hydrocarbon (VOC) was enhanced at high room temperatures. Respirable dust, but not concentration of VOC was enhanced at lower ventilation rates and high air humidity. Chronic SBS was related to VOC, previous wall to wall carpeting in the schools, hyper-reactivity, and psychosocial factors. Incidence of new SBS was related to concentration of respirable dust, current smoking, and the psychosocial climate. Remission of hyperreactivity, decrease in sick leave owing to airway illness, removal of carpeting in the schools, and moving from new to old dwellings resulted in a decrease in SBS score. It is concluded that SBS is of multifactorial origin, related to a variety of factors and exposures. The total concentration of hydrocarbons is a simple and convenient measure of exposure, which also seems to be a predictor of chronic symptoms. Further investigations on the effect of temperature...

Ventilatory function after exposure to various respirable hazards in a population of former coal miners.

Calvert, G M; Moore, M; Hessl, S M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1991 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
431.81684%
The ventilatory function of 406 male former coal miners who had presented at the Cook County Hospital occupational medicine clinic between January 1976 and April 1987 was studied to determine whether subsequent exposure to respiratory hazards after leaving the coal mines adversely affected lung function. The miners were divided into five exposure groups based on their exposure to respirable hazards. These were coal dust only, coal dust plus asbestos dust, coal dust plus silica dust, coal dust plus another respirable hazard and coal dust plus two other respirable dust exposures. Duration of employment in coal mines, race, smoking history, and mean age were not significantly different between the various exposure groups. No significant difference was found in the per cent of predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), per cent of predicted forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC when the coal dust only group was compared with each of the other four exposure groups using ANOVA. Among former coal miners who present for a respiratory disability determination, therefore, exposure to respirable hazards subsequent to employment in coal mines is not associated with a statistically significant deterioration in ventilatory function.

Assessment of the permissible exposure level to manganese in workers exposed to manganese dioxide dust.

Roels, H A; Ghyselen, P; Buchet, J P; Ceulemans, E; Lauwerys, R R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1992 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
427.38875%
The prevalence of neuropsychological and respiratory symptoms, lung ventilatory parameters, neurofunctional performances (visual reaction time, eye-hand coordination, hand steadiness, audioverbal short term memory), and several biological parameters (calcium, iron, luteinising hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and prolactin concentrations in serum, blood counts, manganese (Mn) concentration in blood and in urine) were examined in a group of workers (n = 92) exposed to MnO2 dust in a dry alkaline battery factory and a matched control group (n = 101). In the battery plant, the current exposure of the workers to airborne Mn was measured with personal samplers and amounted on average (geometric mean) to 215 and 948 micrograms Mn/m3 for respirable and total dust respectively. For each worker, the lifetime integrated exposure to respirable and total airborne Mn dust was also assessed. The geometric means of the Mn concentrations in blood (MnB) and in urine (MnU) were significantly higher in the Mn exposed group than in the control group (MnB 0.81 v 0.68 microgram/100 ml; MnU 0.84 v 0.09 microgram/g creatinine). On an individual basis, MnU and MnB were not related to various external exposure parameters (duration of exposure...

Relation between exposure to respirable silica dust and silicosis in a tungsten mine in China.

Pang, D; Fu, S C; Yang, G C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1992 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
439.18324%
To estimate the quantitative relation between exposure to respirable silica dust and risk of an attack of silicosis, 1151 workers exposed to silica dust and employed from 1958 to 1987 in a tungsten mine in China were investigated. The results showed that the ratio of respirable silica dust concentration to total silica dust concentration was 0.529. Then, the total silica dust concentration in historical surveillance and monitoring data was converted to respirable silica dust concentration. The free silica content in respirable dust determined by x ray diffraction averaged 24.7%. Multiple logistic regression was used for the dichotomous dependent variables (presence or absence of silicosis). The independent variables in the multiple logistic regression with presence of silicosis as the dependent variable were age when first exposed, tuberculosis (presence or absence), and cumulative exposure to respirable silica dust. The partial regression coefficient of individual cumulative exposure was estimated as 0.079. It implied a positive association between exposure to respirable silica dust and risk of an attack of silicosis. The exposure limit for respirable silica dust was estimated as 0.24 mg/m3 under given conditions.

Dust exposure and impairment of lung function at a small iron foundry in a rapidly developing country

Gomes, J; Lloyd, O; Norman, N; Pahwa, P
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
422.72883%
OBJECTIVES—A cross sectional prospective study was carried out among iron foundry workers (exposed) and soft drink bottling and supply company workers (unexposed) to assess their occupational exposure to ambient respiratory dust in their work environment and its effect on their lung function profile.
PARTICIPANTS—Lung function was measured in 81 exposed and 113 unexposed workers. Personal respirable dust concentrations were measured for all the exposed and the unexposed workers. Information on respiratory signs and symptoms was also collected from the participants.
RESULTS—Among the exposed workers, midexpiratory flow (FEF25-75), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), FEV1/FVC, and FEV1/VC ratios were significantly lower whereas the vital capacity (VC) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were non-significantly higher. Job at the iron foundry was a significant predictor of lung function. Exposure to high concentration of respirable dust at the iron foundry was also a significant predictor. Workers working in high exposure areas (general works, furnace, continuous casting areas, and fabrication workshop) had lower lung function values than workers in medium and low exposure areas. Smoking did not enhance the effects of exposure to dust on lung function.
CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to respirable dust was higher among the iron foundry workers; and among these...

Cumulative exposure to dust causes accelerated decline in lung function in tunnel workers

Ulvestad, B; Bakke, B; Eduard, W; Kongerud, J; Lund, M
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
439.18324%
OBJECTIVES—To examine whether underground construction workers exposed to tunnelling pollutants over a follow up period of 8 years have an increased risk of decline in lung function and respiratory symptoms compared with reference subjects working outside the tunnel atmosphere, and relate the findings to job groups and cumulative exposure to dust and gases.
METHODS—96 Tunnel workers and a reference group of 249 other heavy construction workers were examined in 1991 and re-examined in 1999. Exposure measurements were carried out to estimate personal cumulative exposure to total dust, respirable dust, α-quartz, oil mist, and nitrogen dioxide. The subjects answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and smoking habits, performed spirometry, and had chest radiographs taken. Radiological signs of silicosis were evaluated (International Labour Organisation (ILO) classification). Atopy was determined by a multiple radioallergosorbent test (RAST).
RESULTS—The mean exposure to respirable dust and α-quartz in tunnel workers varied from 1.2-3.6 mg/m3 (respirable dust) and 0.019-0.044 mg/m3 (α-quartz) depending on job task performed. Decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was associated with cumulative exposure to respirable dust (p<0.001) and α-quartz (p=0.02). The multiple regression model predicted that in a worker 40 years of age...

Performance of High Flow Rate Samplers for Respirable Particle Collection

Lee, Taekhee; Kim, Seung Won; Chisholm, William P.; Slaven, James; Harper, Martin
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
429.96883%
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial hygienists (ACGIH) lowered the threshold limit value (TLV) for respirable crystalline silica (RCS) exposure from 0.05 to 0.025 mg m−3 in 2006. For a working environment with an airborne dust concentration near this lowered TLV, the sample collected with current standard respirable aerosol samplers might not provide enough RCS for quantitative analysis. Adopting high flow rate sampling devices for respirable dust containing silica may provide a sufficient amount of RCS to be above the limit of quantification even for samples collected for less than full shift. The performances of three high flow rate respirable samplers (CIP10-R, GK2.69, and FSP10) have been evaluated in this study. Eleven different sizes of monodisperse aerosols of ammonium fluorescein were generated with a vibrating orifice aerosol generator in a calm air chamber in order to determine the sampling efficiency of each sampler. Aluminum oxide particles generated by a fluidized bed aerosol generator were used to test (i) the uniformity of a modified calm air chamber, (ii) the effect of loading on the sampling efficiency, and (iii) the performance of dust collection compared to lower flow rate cyclones in common use in the USA (10-mm nylon and Higgins–Dewell cyclones). The coefficient of variation for eight simultaneous samples in the modified calm air chamber ranged from 1.9 to 6.1% for triplicate measures of three different aerosols. The 50% cutoff size (50dae) of the high flow rate samplers operated at the flow rates recommended by manufacturers were determined as 4.7...

Collection Efficiencies of High Flow Rate Personal Respirable Samplers When Measuring Arizona Road Dust and Analysis of Quartz by X-ray Diffraction

Stacey, Peter; Lee, Taekhee; Thorpe, Andrew; Roberts, Paul; Frost, Gillian; Harper, Martin
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
421.44195%
Prolonged exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) causes silicosis and is also considered a cause of cancer. To meet emerging needs for precise measurements of RCS, from shorter sampling periods (<4h) and lower air concentrations, collaborative work was done to assess the differences between personal respirable samplers at higher flow rates. The performance of FSP10, GK2.69, and CIP 10 R samplers were compared with that of the Safety In Mines Personal Dust Sampler (SIMPEDS) sampler as a reference, which is commonly used in the UK for the measurement of RCS. In addition, the performance of the FSP10 and GK 2.69 samplers were compared; at the nominal flow rates recommended by the manufacturers of 10 and 4.2 l · min−1 and with flow rates proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of 11.2 and 4.4 l · min−1. Samplers were exposed to aerosols of ultrafine and medium grades of Arizona road dust (ARD) generated in a calm air chamber. All analyses for RCS in this study were performed at the Health and Safety Laboratory. The difference in flow rates for the GK2.69 is small and does not result in a substantial difference in collection efficiency for the dusts tested, while the performance of the FSP10 at 11.2 l · min−1 was more comparable with samples from the SIMPEDS. Conversely...

Effects of MERV 16 filters and routine work practices on enclosed cabs for reducing respirable dust and DPM exposures in an underground limestone mine

Noll, J.D.; Cecala, A.B.; J.A.Organiscak, ; Rider, J.P.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
521.44195%
An effective technique to minimize miners’ respirable dust and diesel exposure on mobile mining equipment is to place mine operators in enclosed cabs with designed filtration and pressurization systems. Many factors affect the performance of these enclosed cab systems, and one of the most significant factors is the effectiveness of the filtration system. High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-type filters are typically used because they are highly efficient at capturing all types and sizes of particles, including those in the submicron range such as diesel particulate matter (DPM). However, in laboratory tests, minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) 16 filters have proven to be highly efficient for capturing DPM and respirable dust. Also, MERV 16 filters can be less restrictive to cab airflow and less expensive than HEPA filters. To verify their effectiveness in the field, MERV 16 filters were used in the enclosed cab filtration system on a face drill and roof bolting mining machine and tested at an underground limestone mine. Test results showed that DPM and respirable dust concentrations were reduced by more than 90% when the cabs were properly sealed. However, when the cab door was opened periodically throughout the shift, the reduction efficiency of the MERV 16 filters was reduced to 80% on average.

An Evaluation of Sharp Cut Cyclones for Sampling Diesel Particulate Matter Aerosol in the Presence of Respirable Dust

Cauda, Emanuele; Sheehan, Maura; Gussman, Robert; Kenny, Lee; Volkwein, Jon
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
419.82344%
Two prototype cyclones were the subjects of a comparative research campaign with a diesel particulate matter sampler (DPMS) that consists of a respirable cyclone combined with a downstream impactor. The DPMS is currently used in mining environments to separate dust from the diesel particulate matter and to avoid interferences in the analysis of integrated samples and direct-reading monitoring in occupational environments. The sampling characteristics of all three devices were compared using ammonium fluorescein, diesel, and coal dust aerosols. With solid spherical test aerosols at low particle loadings, the aerodynamic size-selection characteristics of all three devices were found to be similar, with 50% penetration efficiencies (d50) close to the design value of 0.8 µm, as required by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration for monitoring occupational exposure to diesel particulate matter in US mining operations. The prototype cyclones were shown to have ‘sharp cut’ size-selection characteristics that equaled or exceeded the sharpness of the DPMS. The penetration of diesel aerosols was optimal for all three samplers, while the results of the tests with coal dust induced the exclusion of one of the prototypes from subsequent testing. The sampling characteristics of the remaining prototype sharp cut cyclone (SCC) and the DPMS were tested with different loading of coal dust. While the characteristics of the SCC remained constant...

An Evaluation of an Aftermarket Local Exhaust Ventilation Device for Suppressing Respirable Dust and Respirable Crystalline Silica Dust from Powered Saws

Garcia, Alberto; Jones, Erica; Echt, Alan S.; Hall, Ronald M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
533.56625%
The objective of this study was to quantify the respirable dust and respirable silica exposures of roofing workers using an electric powered circular saw with an aftermarket local exhaust ventilation attachment to cut concrete roofing tiles. The study was conducted to determine whether the local exhaust ventilation attachment was able to control respirable dust and respirable silica exposure below occupational exposure limits. Time-integrated filter samples and direct reading respirable dust concentrations were evaluated. The local exhaust ventilation consisted of a shroud attached to the cutting plane of the saw; the shroud was then connected to a small electric axial fan, which is intended to collect dust at the point of generation. All sampling was conducted with the control in use.

Helmet-Cam: tool for assessing miners’ respirable dust exposure

Cecala, A.B.; Reed, W.R.; Joy, G.J.; Westmoreland, S.C.; O’Brien, A.D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
512.22414%
Video technology coupled with datalogging exposure monitors have been used to evaluate worker exposure to different types of contaminants. However, previous application of this technology used a stationary video camera to record the worker’s activity while the worker wore some type of contaminant monitor. These techniques are not applicable to mobile workers in the mining industry because of their need to move around the operation while performing their duties. The Helmet-Cam is a recently developed exposure assessment tool that integrates a person-wearable video recorder with a datalogging dust monitor. These are worn by the miner in a backpack, safety belt or safety vest to identify areas or job tasks of elevated exposure. After a miner performs his or her job while wearing the unit, the video and dust exposure data files are downloaded to a computer and then merged together through a NIOSH-developed computer software program called Enhanced Video Analysis of Dust Exposure (EVADE). By providing synchronized playback of the merged video footage and dust exposure data, the EVADE software allows for the assessment and identification of key work areas and processes, as well as work tasks that significantly impact a worker’s personal respirable dust exposure. The Helmet-Cam technology has been tested at a number of metal/nonmetal mining operations and has proven to be a valuable assessment tool. Mining companies wishing to use this technique can purchase a commercially available video camera and an instantaneous dust monitor to obtain the necessary data...

Avaliação da poeira de sílica: um estudo de caso em uma pedreira na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. ; Silica dust assessment: a case study in a quarry in São Paulo´s Metropolitan Area.

Gruenzner, Gerrit
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/08/2003 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
419.82344%
As empresas produtoras de pedra britada têm uma atribuição fundamental para o desenvolvimento socioeconômico da população que é a produção de material básico para construção civil. A pedra britada está entre as cinco primeiras substâncias minerais com maior valor de produção, e mesmo assim, os dados de consumo per capita indicam que no país existe uma demanda latente de agregados para construção civil, representada por um alto índice de falta de moradias e por uma infra-estrutura sanitária deficiente. A crescente demanda da produção de bens minerais associada à falta de controle dos riscos ocupacionais, acentuam os problemas de saúde e segurança do trabalho na mineração. A presente dissertação aborda a avaliação da concentração de poeira contendo sílica cristalina no ambiente de trabalho em uma empresa de mineração a céu aberto produtora de brita na região metropolitana de São Paulo. Com o objetivo de estimar os riscos da exposição ocupacional à poeira de sílica cristalina foram obtidas doze amostras de poeira na fração respirável em cinco atividades realizadas na lavra de brita. As amostras de poeira respirável foram coletadas junto aos trabalhadores, utilizando-se bombas de amostragem de uso individual...

Exposición acumulada de polvo respirable como predictor de enfermedad respiratoria

Polo Alvarado, Bertha Eugenia
Fonte: Universidad del Rosario. Escuela de Medicina Publicador: Universidad del Rosario. Escuela de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2013 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
416.0241%
En la minería de carbón se presenta exposición prolongada a polvo de carbón y a polvo de sílice en diferentes porcentajes, encontrándose una asociación con las alteraciones obstructivas, bronquitis crónica, Neumoconiosis de los trabajadores de carbón y Silicosis. Se han establecido varias formas de estimar el riesgo de desarrollar dichas enfermedades respiratorias no malignas secundarias a la exposición a estos polvos (carbón y sílice) en el ámbito ocupacional, siendo el cálculo de la exposición acumulada, la que ha demostrado mayor utilidad. Con el fin de establecer el riesgo de desarrollar alteraciones funcionales, a partir de la exposición acumulada de polvo respirable - y en los trabajadores de una empresa de minería a cielo abierto en Colombia, se estructuró este estudio de cohorte. Se contó con el registro de 566 trabajadores distribuidos en 29 Grupos de Exposición Similar (GES). El cálculo de la dosis acumulada se realizó considerando las medianas de exposición para cada GES y el tiempo de exposición de cada trabajador. Y posteriormente se estimó el riesgo empleando una regresión de poisson con varianza robusta. Los resultados más importantes del estudio muestran la exposición acumulada en niveles inferiores a los reportados en la literatura...

Quantitative relations between exposure to respirable coalmine dust and coalworkers' simple pneumoconiosis in men who have worked as miners but have left the coal industry.

Soutar, C A; Maclaren, W M; Annis, R; Melville, A W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1986 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
418.23016%
Present estimates of the quantitative relations between exposure to mixed respirable coalmine dust and risk of developing coalworkes' simple pneumoconiosis are based on studies of working miners. These studies did not include men who had been miners but had left the coal industry, and it was not known whether the estimates of risk were also appropriate for these men. The results are reported of a study in which the dust/disease relations in men who have been miners but have left the industry have been compared with those in men who have remained in it. A sample of 17738 men who were first examined when working in 24 British collieries in the 1950s has been followed up about 22 years later. It was possible to examine 61% of the survivors, 44% of the original sample. Simple pneumoconiosis was more frequent among men (particularly older men) who had left the industry than among those who had stayed in it. A detailed analysis did not show any systematic or statistically significant difference between men who stayed and men who left in the quantitative relations between dust exposure and simple pneumoconiosis. Present estimates of risk of simple pneumoconiosis in relation to exposure to mixed respirable dust in working miners adequately describe the relation found in men who have been miners but have left the industry.

Potential air contaminants and noise levels generated by the Kodak Nexpress 2500 Digital Production Color press: A Study of its emissions of respirable dust, ultrafine particulates, volatile organic compounds, ozone, and occupational noise exposure

Leal, Federico
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
487.15594%
The printing industry is beginning to get acquainted with the environmental impact of digital printing technologies. This study addressed issues related to the electrophotographic dry toner printing technology used in the Kodak NexPress 2500 Digital Production Color Press. The importance of these topics will grow as high-speed variable data printing becomes pervasive, because these printed products will become widespread, and a greater number of operators will be exposed to these technologies. Indoor air quality and noise levels generated by the NexPress under normal operating conditions were studied: ventilation, dust, volatile organic compounds, ozone, and noise. The results of this study were then compared to a previous study that examined the environmental impacts of HP Indigo 3000 versus the Heidelberg Speedmaster 74. All the test results were below the permissible exposure limits of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The NexPress proved environmentally friendlier than the HP Indigo 3000 and the Heidelberg Speedmaster 74 in all aspects under scrutiny except for average noise exposure. The results also show that the NexPress emitted similar gas, aerosol, and noise levels regardless of print run length. This study highlights the need to develop regulations for ultrafine particulates...