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Meduloblastoma: correlação entre ressonância magnética convencional, difusão e espectroscopia de prótons; Medulloblastoma: correlation among findings of conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

FONTE, Mariana Vieira de Melo da; AMARAL, Raquel Portugal Guimarães; COSTA, Maria Olívia Rodrigues; OTADUY, Maria Concepción Garcia; LUCATO, Leandro Tavares; REED, Umbertina Conti; ROSEMBERG, Sergio; LEITE, Claudia da Costa
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnóstico por Imagem Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnóstico por Imagem
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
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OBJETIVO: Correlacionar os achados de ressonância magnética convencional, difusão e espectroscopia de prótons nos meduloblastomas, e compará-los aos dados da literatura. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva de exames de ressonância magnética pré-operatórios de nove pacientes na faixa pediátrica com diagnóstico histológico de meduloblastoma (oito desmoplásicos e um de células gigantes). Foram considerados dados demográficos e características do tumor como localização, característica morfológica, intensidade de sinal, realce, disseminação e achados na difusão e espectroscopia. RESULTADOS: Na maioria dos casos os tumores apresentaram epicentro no vermis cerebelar (77,8%), sendo predominantemente sólido (88,9%), com hipossinal nas seqüências ponderadas em T1 e iso/hipersinal nas seqüências ponderadas em T2 e FLAIR, realce heterogêneo (100%), sinais de disseminação/extensão tumoral (77,8%) e restrição à movimentação das moléculas de água (100%). A espectroscopia de prótons pela técnica STEAM (n = 6) demonstrou redução da relação Naa/Cr (83,3%) e aumento de Co/Cr (100%) e mI/Cr (66,7%), e pela técnica PRESS (n = 7) evidenciou pico de lactato (57,1%). CONCLUSÃO: O conjunto dos achados macroscópicos obtidos pela ressonância magnética...

Clinically low-risk prostate cancer: evaluation with transrectal doppler ultrasound and functional magnetic resonance imaging

NOVIS, Maria Inês; BARONI, Ronaldo Hueb; CERRI, Luciana Mendes de Oliveira; MATTEDI, Romulo Loss; BUCHPIGUEL, Carlos Alberto
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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OBJECTIVES: To evaluate transrectal ultrasound, amplitude Doppler ultrasound, conventional T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, spectroscopy and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in localizing and locally staging low-risk prostate cancer. INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer has been diagnosed at earlier stages and the most accepted classification for low-risk prostate cancer is based on clinical stage T1c or T2a, Gleason score <6, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <10 ng/ml. METHODS: From 2005 to 2006, magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 42 patients, and transrectal ultrasound in 26 of these patients. Seven patients were excluded from the study. Mean patient age was 64.94 years and mean serum PSA was 6.05 ng/ml. The examinations were analyzed for tumor identification and location in prostate sextants, detection of extracapsular extension, and seminal vesicle invasion, using surgical pathology findings as the gold standard. RESULTS: Sixteen patients (45.7%) had pathologically proven organ-confined disease, 11 (31.4%) had positive surgical margin, 8 (28.9%) had extracapsular extension, and 3 (8.6%) presented with extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV)...

Correlação entre a ressonância magnética e a ultra-sonografia com duplex scan colorido no diagnóstico da trombose venosa profunda dos membros inferiores; Correlation between magnetic resonance and duplex color sonography in diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis in lower limbs

Andrade Neto, Flávio Mendes de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/05/2007 PT
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A trombose venosa profunda é uma doença que acomete o sistema venoso profundo, com formação de trombos dentro de uma veia e conseqüente reação inflamatória do vaso. O trombo pode determinar a obstrução parcial ou total do vaso. Ocorre em maior número nos membros inferiores e pelve. O quadro normalmente é agudo, mas pode se tornar crônico, com recidivas. Na maior parte dos casos, acomete os membros de forma unilateral. No presente estudo, foram utilizados dois métodos de diagnóstico por imagem na detecção de trombose venosa profunda, que foram a ultra-sonografia em escala de cinza (modo B) associada ao Duplex Scan colorido, e a ressonância magnética. Neste último, foi utilizado meio de contraste paramagnético (Gadolínio) através de administração venosa pediosa. Foram estudados um total de 26 pacientes, 47 membros inferiores e 141 segmentos corporais. A comparação entre os métodos de imagem foi feita por segmento venoso e por segmento corporal. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a concordância diagnóstica entre os métodos e a confiabilidade interobservadores nos exames de ressonância magnética, bem como avaliar a sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia do Duplex Scan colorido em relação à ressonância magnética por segmentos venosos e corporais. Como conclusões do estudo...

Estudo de perfusão e viabilidade miocárdicas por ressonância magnética em pacientes com doença renal crônica candidatos a transplante renal; Assessment of myocardial perfusion and viability using cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with end-stage renal disease

Andrade, Joalbo Matos de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/08/2006 PT
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INTRODUÇÃO: A incidência de doença arterial coronária em candidatos a transplante renal é alta, sendo a principal causa de mortes neste grupo de pacientes. Os resultados obtidos com exames não invasivos usados na detecção de doença arterial coronariana destes pacientes têm-se mostrado variados e, de modo geral, insatisfatórios para uma condição clínica considerada grave. A ressonância magnética cardiovascular é utilizada cada vez mais no estudo de doença arterial coronária na população geral, apresentando bons resultados na identificação de isquemia e de fibrose miocárdica. Entretanto, este método, até o momento, não foi avaliado neste grupo de pacientes. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a capacidade da ressonância magnética cardíaca em detectar doença arterial coronária em candidatos a transplante renal sob dois diferentes aspectos: diagnóstico de lesão coronariana significativa (redução do diâmetro luminal maior ou igual a 70%), avaliada pela alteração da perfusão miocárdica, comparando os resultados com a cintilografia e tendo a angiografia coronária como padrão de referência; e detecção de infarto miocárdico silencioso, comparando com a eletrocardiografia e cintilografia, tendo a ressonância magnética cardiovascular com a técnica de realce tardio como padrão de referência. MÉTODOS: Durante o período de janeiro de 2002 e janeiro de 2004 foram estudados 80 candidatos a transplante renal que apresentavam ao menos um dos seguintes critérios de inclusão: 1. idade igual ou acima de 50 anos; 2. diabete melito; 3. história ou evidência clínica de doença cardiovascular. Todos os pacientes foram encaminhados para serem submetidos a exames de eletrocardiografia...

Magnetic resonance study of the crystallization behavior of InF3-based glasses doped with Cu2+, Mn2+ and Gd3+

Franco, R. W A; Lima, J. F.; Magon, C. J.; Donoso, J. P.; Messaddeq, Y.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 3414-3422
ENG
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The crystallization of fluoroindate glasses doped with Gd3+, Mn2+ and Cu2+ heat treated at different temperatures, ranging from the glass transition temperature (Tg) to the crystallization temperature (Tc), are investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The EPR spectra indicate that the Cu2+ ions in the glass are located in axially distorted octahedral sites. In the crystallized glass, the g-values agreed with those reported for Ba2ZnF6, which correspond to Cu2+ in a tetragonal compressed F- octahedron and to Cu2+ on interstitial sites with a square-planar F- co-ordination. The EPR spectra of the Mn2+ doped glasses exhibit a sextet structure due to the Mn2+ hyperfine interaction. These spectra suggest a highly ordered environment for the Mn2+ ions (close to octahedral symmetry) in the glass. The EPR spectra of the recrystallized sample exhibit resonances at the same position, suggesting that the Mn2+ ions are located in sites of highly symmetric crystalline field. The increase of the line intensity of the sextet and the decrease of the background line in the thermal treated samples suggest that the Mn2+ ions move to the highly ordered sites which contribute to the sextet structure. The EPR spectra of the Gd3+ doped glasses exhibit the typical U-spectrum of a s-state ion in a low symmetry site in disordered systems. The EPR of the crystallized glasses...

Prostate Cancer: The Role of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Lopes Dias, J; Magalhães Pina, J; João, R; Fialho, J; Carmo, S; Leal, C; Bilhim, T; Mateus Marques, R; Campos Pinheiro, L
Fonte: Centro Editor e Livreiro da Ordem dos Médicos Publicador: Centro Editor e Livreiro da Ordem dos Médicos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 ENG
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Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging has been increasingly used for detection, localization and staging of prostate cancer over the last years. It combines high-resolution T2 Weighted-Imaging and at least two functional techniques, which include Dynamic Contrast–Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Diffusion-Weighted Imaging, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Spectroscopy. Although the combined use of a pelvic phased-array and an Endorectal Coil is considered the state-of-the-art for Magnetic Resonance Imaging evaluation of prostate cancer, Endorectal Coil is only absolute mandatory for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Spectroscopy at 1.5 T. Sensitivity and specificity levels in cancer detection and localization have been improving with functional technique implementation, compared to T2 Weighted-Imaging alone. It has been particularly useful to evaluate patients with abnormal PSA and negative biopsy. Moreover, the information added by the functional techniques may correlate to cancer aggressiveness and therefore be useful to select patients for focal radiotherapy, prostate sparing surgery, focal ablative therapy and active surveillance. However, more studies are needed to compare the functional techniques and understand the advantages and disadvantages of each one. This article reviews the basic principles of prostatic mp-Magnetic Resonance Imaging...

Prostate Cancer: The Role of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Lopes Dias, J; Magalhães Pina, J; João, R; Fialho, J; Carmo, S; Leal, C; Bilhim, T; Mateus Marques, R; Campos Pinheiro, L
Fonte: Centro Editor e Livreiro da Ordem dos Médicos Publicador: Centro Editor e Livreiro da Ordem dos Médicos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.306504%
Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging has been increasingly used for detection, localization and staging of prostate cancer over the last years. It combines high-resolution T2 Weighted-Imaging and at least two functional techniques, which include Dynamic Contrast–Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Diffusion-Weighted Imaging, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Spectroscopy. Although the combined use of a pelvic phased-array and an Endorectal Coil is considered the state-of-the-art for Magnetic Resonance Imaging evaluation of prostate cancer, Endorectal Coil is only absolute mandatory for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Spectroscopy at 1.5 T. Sensitivity and specificity levels in cancer detection and localization have been improving with functional technique implementation, compared to T2 Weighted-Imaging alone. It has been particularly useful to evaluate patients with abnormal PSA and negative biopsy. Moreover, the information added by the functional techniques may correlate to cancer aggressiveness and therefore be useful to select patients for focal radiotherapy, prostate sparing surgery, focal ablative therapy and active surveillance. However, more studies are needed to compare the functional techniques and understand the advantages and disadvantages of each one. This article reviews the basic principles of prostatic mp-Magnetic Resonance Imaging...

Prospective study of ultrasound with perflutrene contrast compared to magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas

Schmillevitch,Joel; Szutan,Luiz Arnaldo; Ferreira,Fábio Gonçalves; Santos,Maria de Fátima; Mincis,Ricardo; Gorski,Ana
Fonte: Instituto Brasileiro de Estudos e Pesquisas de Gastroenterologia - IBEPEGE ; Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgia Digestiva - CBCD ; Sociedade Brasileira de Motilidade Digestiva - SBMD ; Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia - FBG; Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia - SBH; Sociedade Brasileira de Endoscopia Digestiva - SOBED Publicador: Instituto Brasileiro de Estudos e Pesquisas de Gastroenterologia - IBEPEGE ; Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgia Digestiva - CBCD ; Sociedade Brasileira de Motilidade Digestiva - SBMD ; Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia - FBG; Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia - SBH; Sociedade Brasileira de Endoscopia Digestiva - SOBED
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 EN
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CONTEXT:The incidence of hepatic hemangiomas ranges from 0.4% to 20% in the general population. Conventional ultrasound is usually the first diagnostic method to identify these hemangiomas, typically as an incidental finding. Ultrasonography with second generation contrast materials is being used in various areas of hepatology, yielding similar results to those obtained with computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the agreement between ultrasound with perflutrene contrast and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas. METHODS: A total of 37 patients were prospectively examined between January 2006 and August 2008. A total of 57 hepatic nodules were documented in this group as incidental findings on routine ultrasound exams. The 37 patients were administered perflutrene contrast without adverse reactions, and were all submitted to magnetic resonance exams. RESULTS: Conventional ultrasound identified 15 patients with nodules typical of hemangiomas and 22 patients with other nodules. In 35 patients, the contrast characteristics were consistent with hepatic hemangiomas. CONCLUSION: Agreement between the data obtained from ultrasound with contrast and magnetic resonance was 94.5%. In discordant cases...

Evaluation of the rupture of silicone breast implants by mammography, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in asymptomatic patients: correlation with surgical findings

Scaranelo,Anabel Medeiros; Marques,Américo Ferreira; Smialowski,Elizabeth Brenda; Lederman,Henriquel Manoel
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2004 EN
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CONTEXT: Different imaging methods can identify the integrity of breast implants and also the extent of possible silicone leakage. Mammography, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are often used to evaluate the integrity of breast implants, usually in patients that are symptomatic for rupture. A group of clinically asymptomatic patients was taken as a sample. These patients wanted to remove or change their breast implants for psychological or cosmetic reasons. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of mammography, sonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of breast implant rupture in an asymptomatic population. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective study. SETTING: Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: The participants were 44 asymptomatic patients who subsequently had implants surgically removed. Eighty-three implants were evaluated by both film-screen mammography and high-resolution sonography and 77 implants were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. The sensitivity and specificity of mammography, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging were assessed using predetermined diagnostic criteria for implant rupture. All radiological signs were discussed and false positives and false negatives were retrospectively evaluated to identify the pitfalls in the investigations. RESULTS: The respective sensitivity and specificity of mammography were 20% and 89%; sonography...

Vorticity shedding and acoustic resonance in tube bundles

Ziada,Samir
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas - ABCM Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas - ABCM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2006 EN
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This paper describes the vorticity shedding excitation in tube bundles and its relation to the acoustic resonance mechanism. These phenomena are investigated by means of velocity and pressure measurements, as well as with the aid of extensive visualization of the unsteady flow structure at the presence and absence of acoustic resonance. Vorticity shedding excitation is shown to be generated by either jet, wake, or shear layer instabilities. The tube layout pattern (in-line or staggered), the spacing ratio, and Reynolds number determine which instability mechanism will prevail, and thereby the relevant Strouhal number for design against vorticity shedding and acoustic resonance excitations. Strouhal number design charts for vortex shedding in tube bundles are presented for a wide range of tube patterns and spacing ratios. Regarding the acoustic resonance mechanism, it is shown that the natural vorticity shedding, which prevails before the onset of resonance, is not always the source exciting acoustic resonance. This is especially the case for in-line tube bundles. Therefore, separate "acoustic" Strouhal number charts must be used when appropriate to design against acoustic resonances. To this end, the most recently developed charts of acoustic Strouhal numbers are provided.

Parametric resonance in concrete beam-columns

Sharma,Mamta R.; Singh,Arbind K.; Benipal,Gurmail S.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Ciências Mecânicas Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Ciências Mecânicas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2014 EN
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A dynamic instability, called parametric resonance, is exhibited by undampedelastic beam-columns when under the action of pulsating axial force. The scope of the existing theory of parametric resonance is restricted to physically linear beam-columns undergoing finite lateral displacements. In this Paper, the dynamic behaviour of physically nonlinear elastic cracked concrete beam-columns under pulsating axial force and constant lateral force is investigated. The constitutive equations derived earlier by Authors in the form of force-displacement relations are employed here to formulate equations of motion of the SDOF cantilever with mass lumped at its free end. The expected phenomenon of parametric resonance is exhibited in the form of regular subharmonic resonance at about the frequency ratio of two. Resonance peaks broaden with increase in pulsating force. Like damping, physical nonlinearity is also predicted to stabilize the dynamic response at resonance frequencies. In some particular statically unstable conditions, the loss of dynamic stability is shown to occur by divergence. Unexpectedly, similar phenomenon of parametric resonance is exhibited by these physically nonlinear beam-columns undergoing even small lateral displacements. The contribution made to the theory of parametric resonance and the potential relevance of the proposed theory to design of concrete beam-columns is discussed.

Clinically low-risk prostate cancer: evaluation with transrectal doppler ultrasound and functional magnetic resonance imaging

Novis,Maria Inês; Baroni,Ronaldo Hueb; Cerri,Luciana Mendes de Oliveira; Mattedi,Romulo Loss; Buchpiguel,Carlos Alberto
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
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OBJECTIVES: To evaluate transrectal ultrasound, amplitude Doppler ultrasound, conventional T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, spectroscopy and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in localizing and locally staging low-risk prostate cancer. INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer has been diagnosed at earlier stages and the most accepted classification for low-risk prostate cancer is based on clinical stage T1c or T2a, Gleason score <6, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <10 ng/ml. METHODS: From 2005 to 2006, magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 42 patients, and transrectal ultrasound in 26 of these patients. Seven patients were excluded from the study. Mean patient age was 64.94 years and mean serum PSA was 6.05 ng/ml. The examinations were analyzed for tumor identification and location in prostate sextants, detection of extracapsular extension, and seminal vesicle invasion, using surgical pathology findings as the gold standard. RESULTS: Sixteen patients (45.7%) had pathologically proven organ-confined disease, 11 (31.4%) had positive surgical margin, 8 (28.9%) had extracapsular extension, and 3 (8.6%) presented with extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV)...

Ressonância estocástica induzida por ruído não gaussiano em um modelo para a dinâmica do neurônio; Stochastic resonance driven by non-gaussian noise in a model for neuron dynamics

Duarte, José Ricardo Rodrigues
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Física geral; Física teórica e computacional; Mecânica estatística; Ótica; Ótica não linear; Proprie; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Física da Matéria Condensada; UFAL Publicador: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Física geral; Física teórica e computacional; Mecânica estatística; Ótica; Ótica não linear; Proprie; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Física da Matéria Condensada; UFAL
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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Non linear dynamical systems can present a diversity of unconventional features when perturbed by an external noise, such as an enhancing of transport properties, stabilization of spatial patterns and noise induced phase transitions. In particular, the external noise can improve the system s response to weak external periodic pulses, a phenomenon termed as stochastic resonance due to its similarity with the resonance phenomena displayed by deterministic dynamical systems. Stochastic resonance ideas have been widely applied to better understand the behavior of many physical, chemical and biological systems, such as optical, electronic and magnetic systems, chemical reactions, as well as several features regarding neuro-physiological aspects of sensory systems. In this work, we study the stochastic resonance phenomenon in the integrate-fire model for the neuronal response by a sub-threshold periodic signal. In the traditional approach the threshold level is reached by superposing a gaussian noise to the periodic drive. As non gaussian noises have been shown to be quite overspread in natural systems, we investigate the sensitivity of the stochastic resonance condition upon the noise s probability distribution function. To generate a power-law distributed noise...

Étude de l’oxydoréduction de monocouches électroactives de ferrocénylalcanethiolates par spectroscopie à résonance des plasmons de surface

Chen, Ching-I
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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L’oxydoréduction de monocouches auto-assemblées (SAMs) de ferrocénylalcanethiolates à la surface d’or (FcRSAu) a été étudiée en temps réel par la spectroscopie de résonance de plasmons de surface couplée avec l’électrochimie (E-SPR). La sensibilité de cette technique permet de déterminer des changements d’épaisseur de couche l’ordre de quelques angström résultant d’un changement de structure de la SAM. Plusieurs études antérieures ont proposé que l’oxydation électrochimique d’une SAM de FcRSAu induit une réorientation moléculaire. L’E-SPR est utilisé pour identifier l’origine de ce changement structurel. D’abord, une calibration du réfractomètre SPR utilisé a été effectuée afin de trouver une équation de conversion du signal SPR obtenu en pixel en angle d’incidence pour que l’on puisse calculer le changement d’épaisseur de monocouche à partir du changement d’angle de résonance avec le modèle de Fresnel. Par la suite, une caractérisation approfondie des SAMs de FcCnSAu (où n = 6, 8, 12, 14) en contact avec du NaClO4 acidifié a été réalisée par électrochimie, éllipsométrie, spectroscopie infrarouge et microscopie à force atomique. Les résultats obtenus montrent que l’augmentation de la longueur des chaînes alkyles donne des SAMs de ferrocènes plus épaisses et moins désordonnées. L’analyse par l’E-SPR de ces SAMs pures montre que le changement d’épaisseur induit par l’électro-oxydation dépend linéairement du nombre de méthylènes sur la chaîne alkyle. En appliquant la déconvolution mathématique aux voltampérogrammes cycliques enregistrés pour les SAM mixtes (FcC12SAu/C11SAu) de différentes compositions...

Développement du cartilage articulaire équin du fœtus à l’adulte : imagerie par résonance magnétique et microscopie en lumière polarisée

Cluzel, Caroline
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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La structure du cartilage articulaire adulte est caractérisée par la présence de couches créées par l’orientation des fibres de collagène (Benninghoff, 1925). Avant de présenter la structure adulte classique en arcades “de Benninghoff”, le cartilage subit une série de changements au cours de sa maturation (Julkunen et al., 2010; Lecocq et al., 2008). Toutefois, un faible nombre d’études s’est intéressé à la structure du collagène du cartilage articulaire in utero. Notre objectif était d’étudier la maturation de la surface articulaire de l’épiphyse fémorale distale chez le cheval, en employant à la fois l’imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) et la microscopie en lumière polarisée après coloration au rouge picrosirius, au niveau de sites utilisés dans les études de réparation tissulaire et de sites prédisposés à l’ostéochondrose (OC). Le but était de décrire le développement normal du réseau de collagène et la relation entre les images IRM et la structure histologique. Des sections provenant de cinq sites de l’épiphyse fémorale distale de 14 fœtus et 10 poulains et adultes ont été colorées au rouge picrosirius, après que le grasset ait été imagé par IRM, dans l’optique de visualiser l’agencement des fibres de collagène de type II. Les deux modalités utilisées...

MR-tomographische und pathohistologische Differenzierung der reperfundierten und nichtreperfundierten Myokardischämie; Differentiation of reperfused and non reperfused myocardial ischemia by magnetic resonance tomography and pathohistological examination

Hiller-Böhm, Renate
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
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Während den letzten Jahren hat sich die Kernspintomographie als eine geeignete Methode bewährt, um die Effekte von Ischämie und Reperfusion von Herzen zu bestimmen.Mit den T2-gewichteten Turbo-Spin-Echo Sequenzen wurden in reperfundierten und nicht reperfundierten ischämischen Herzen die Kernspintomographie durchgeführt, um die Schäden am Myokard mit den histopathologischen Ursachen zu erforschen. Fünfunddreißig Schweineherzen wurden aus geschlachteten Tieren entfernt. Nach der kalten ischämischen Phase wurden elf Herzen zunächst mit einer kalten Kardioplegielösung, anschließend mit Blut am Langendorff Model reperfundiert. Fünf Herzen wurden direkt nach der Entfernung an den geschlachteten Schweinen mit Blut reperfundiert. Vier Herzen wurden weder kardioplegiert, noch reperfundiert und dienten als Kontrollherzen. Die Herzen vom in-situ Modell wurden zunächst mit kalter Kardioplegielösung in-situ reperfundiert. Nach der Explantation aus den Schweinen wurden die Herzen ex-situ zuerst mit Kardioplegielösung und anschließend mit Blut am Langendoff Model reperfundiert. Während der Reperfusion mit Blut wurden Funktionsparameter, wie der linksventrikuläre systolische Ventrikeldruck und die arterielle Blutflussrate gemessen. Nur die Kontrollherzen wurden unmittelbar nach der Entfernung aus den Schlachthofschweinen ausschließlich kernspintomographisch untersucht. Die histologische Untersuchung der Herzen erfolgte nach der Kernspintomographie. Die Herzen wurden...

Prostate Cancer: The Role of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Cancro da Próstata: O Papel da Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica

Lopes Dias, João; Departamento de Radiologia. Hospital de São José. Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Central. Lisboa. Portugal.; Magalhães Pina, João; Departamento de Urologia. Hospital de São José. Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Central. Lisboa. Portugal.; Joã
Fonte: Ordem dos Médicos Publicador: Ordem dos Médicos
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; review; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/05/2015 ENG
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Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging has been increasingly used for detection, localization and staging of prostate cancer over the last years. It combines high-resolution T2 Weighted-Imaging and at least two functional techniques, which include Dynamic Contrast–Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Diffusion-Weighted Imaging, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Spectroscopy. Although the combined use of a pelvic phased-array and an Endorectal Coil is considered the state-of-the-art for Magnetic Resonance Imaging evaluation of prostate cancer, Endorectal Coil is only absolute mandatory for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Spectroscopy at 1.5 T. Sensitivity and specificity levels in cancer detection and localization have been improving with functional technique implementation, compared to T2 Weighted-Imaging alone. It has been particularly useful to evaluate patients with abnormal PSA and negative biopsy. Moreover, the information added by the functional techniques may correlate to cancer aggressiveness and therefore be useful to select patients for focal radiotherapy, prostate sparing surgery, focal ablative therapy and active surveillance. However, more studies are needed to compare the functional techniques and understand the advantages and disadvantages of each one. This article reviews the basic principles of prostatic mp-Magnetic Resonance Imaging...

Resonance behavior of internal conversion coefficients at low γ-ray energy

Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.; Kibedi, Tibor; Nikulin, V. K.
Fonte: American Physical Society Publicador: American Physical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 11 pages
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36.287568%
A resonance-like structure of internal conversion coefficients (ICCs) at low γ -ray energy ( <100 keV) is studied. Our calculations revealed new, previously unknown resonance minima in the energy dependence of ICCs for the ns shells at E2–E5 transitions. The resonances are the most defined for ICCs in light and medium elements with Z < 50. It is shown that ICCs may have up to four resonances for outer shells while it has been assumed so far that only one resonance exists. Well-pronounced resonances in ICCs at E1 transition were discovered for the ns shells with n > 2 as well as for the np shells with n > 3 and the nd shells with n > 4 of all elements up to superheavy ones. Simple expressions for approximate values of the E1 resonance energy were obtained which are of importance for determination of the resonance energy range where the interpolation of ICCs taken from tables or databases may give significant errors. The occurrence of resonances in ICCs is explained by vanishing conversion matrix elements under changes of sign. The peculiarities of the behavior of the matrix elements and electron wave functions at the resonance energy are considered. Available experimental ICCs for electric transitions with energies near the expected position of resonances satisfactory agree with our calculations.; This work was funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project No. 09-02-00352)...

Développement et validation de méthodes visant une utilisation optimale d'antennes réceptrices en imagerie par résonance magnétique

Gilbert, Guillaume
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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36.322058%
Différentes méthodes ayant pour objectif une utilisation optimale d'antennes radio-fréquences spécialisées en imagerie par résonance magnétique sont développées et validées. Dans un premier temps, il est démontré qu'une méthode alternative de combinaison des signaux provenant des différents canaux de réception d'un réseau d'antennes mène à une réduction significative du biais causé par la présence de bruit dans des images de diffusion, en comparaison avec la méthode de la somme-des-carrés généralement utilisée. Cette réduction du biais engendré par le bruit permet une amélioration de l'exactitude de l'estimation de différents paramètres de diffusion et de diffusion tensorielle. De plus, il est démontré que cette méthode peut être utilisée conjointement avec une acquisition régulière sans accélération, mais également en présence d'imagerie parallèle. Dans une seconde perspective, les bénéfices engendrés par l'utilisation d'une antenne d'imagerie intravasculaire sont étudiés. Suite à une étude sur fantôme, il est démontré que l'imagerie par résonance magnétique intravasculaire offre le potentiel d'améliorer significativement l'exactitude géométrique lors de mesures morphologiques vasculaires...

Classification of trabecular structure in magnetic resonance images based on morphological granulometries.

Chen, Yidong; Dougherty, Edward; Totterman, Saara; Hornak, Joseph
Fonte: Wiley: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Publicador: Wiley: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Tipo: Abstract Formato: 26196 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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A new method of detecting structured changes in trabecular bone, such as those associated with osteoporosis, was evaluated on magnetic resonance images of the wrist. The method was based on gray-scale morphological granulometries which classify image texture by iteratively filtering an image and measuring the rate of change of structural diminution in a filtered-image sequence. A classification scheme capable of distinguishing structural changes in trabecular bone starting from normal trabeculae through sclerotic, cystic, and grossly porotic bone is presented. Results of the application of this technique to the evaluation of high resolution magnetic resonance images of the wrist are presented.