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Avaliação da eficiência fotodinâmica de fotossensibilizadores com aplicação em terapia fotodinâmica; Assessing photodynamic efficiency of photosensitizers applicated in Photodynamic therapy

Silva, Renato Cavalcante da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/09/2007 PT
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Fotossensibilizadores são moléculas capazes de interagir com a luz de modo a gerar espécies altamente reativas de oxigênio como o oxigênio singlete e outras formas radicalares. Esta propriedade pode ser utilizada para o tratamento de câncer, remoção de contaminantes ambientais, inativação de agentes patogênicos no sangue e hemoderivados, bem como na esterilização alimentos. A técnica que utiliza o efeito fotodinâmico para o tratamento de câncer recebe o de nome Terapia Fotodinâmica (do termo em inglês: Photodynamic Therapy - PDT).Photofrin®, Photogem® e Photosan® são fármacos de primeira geração, derivados da hematoporfirina, que constituem o principal grupo de medicamentos com aplicação clínica em PDT. Photodithazine® é um fármaco de 2ª geração, derivado de clorina-e-6, que encontra-se em fase de testes clínicos e apresenta resultados promissores como fotossensibilizador (FS). Este trabalho tem o objetivo de investigar a eficiência fotodinâmica destes fármacos através de experimentos que envolvem a utilização da albumina de soro bovino (BSA) e o ácido úrico (AU) como dosímetros químicos; eritrócitos como modelo de membrana celular e a determinação do coeficiente de partição (P ou Log P) para se investigar lipofilicidade e a interação dos FS com as membranas celulares. Soluções contendo BSA e FS...

Influência do pH na interação do Photofrin®, Photogem® e Photosan® com DMPC e lipoproteína de baixa densidade; Influence of the pH in the interaction of Photofrin®, Photogem® and Photosan® with DMPC and low density lipoprotein

Natal, Aline Martins Duboc
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/09/2007 PT
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O efeito do fotossensibilizador na estrutura biológica não é apenas influenciado por suas propriedades fotofísicas, mas também por sua interação específica com biosistemas.Além disso, a localização do fotossensibilizador no tecido tumoral é um importante fator que resulta em diferentes mecanismos de destruição do tumor. Muitos fotossensibilizadores, após administração sistêmica, se ligam às proteínas plasmáticas e com isso são distribuídos em diferentes sítios no organismo. Os fotossensibilizadores hidrofílicos são largamente transportados por albuminas e globilinas e se acumulam preferencialmente no estroma vascular dos tumores. Entretanto, fotossensibilizadores mais hidrofóbicos se ligam às lipoproteínas, principalmente LDL, que promove a entrada do FS na célula através de endocitose mediado por receptor. Sendo assim, a localização do FS depende de sua ligação com as deferentes proteínas plasmáticas, sua farmacocinética e também é influenciada pela diferença entre o tecido normal e tumoral. O tecido tumoral tem pH mais baixo e maior expressão de receptores de LDL do que os tecidos normais, aumentando a seletividade dos FSs as células tumorais. A incorporação de FS hidrofóbicos em lipossomas para a administração sistêmica pode realçar ao transporte deste pelas lipoproteínas. No presente trabalho estudou-se a influência do pH na interação de fotossensibilizadores com lipossomas de DMPC e LDL. Os fotossensibilizadores utilizados nesse estudo foram Photofrin®...

Susceptibility of Candida Species to Photodynamic Effects of Photofrin

Bliss, Joseph M.; Bigelow, Chad E.; Foster, Thomas H.; Haidaris, Constantine G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2004 EN
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The in vitro susceptibility of pathogenic Candida species to the photodynamic effects of the clinically approved photosensitizing agent Photofrin was examined. Internalization of Photofrin by Candida was confirmed by confocal fluorescence microscopy, and the degree of uptake was dependent on incubation concentration. Uptake of Photofrin by Candida and subsequent sensitivity to irradiation was influenced by culture conditions. Photofrin uptake was poor in C. albicans blastoconidia grown in nutrient broth. However, conversion of blastoconidia to filamentous forms by incubation in defined tissue culture medium resulted in substantial Photofrin uptake. Under conditions where Photofrin was effectively taken up by Candida, irradiated organisms were damaged in a drug dose- and light-dependent manner. Uptake of Photofrin was not inhibited by azide, indicating that the mechanism of uptake was not dependent on energy provided via electron transport. Fungal damage induced by Photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) was determined by evaluation of metabolic activity after irradiation. A strain of C. glabrata took up Photofrin poorly and was resistant to killing after irradiation. In contrast, two different strains of C. albicans displayed comparable levels of sensitivity to PDT. Furthermore...

Sensitivity of Candida albicans Germ Tubes and Biofilms to Photofrin-Mediated Phototoxicity

Chabrier-Roselló, Yeissa; Foster, Thomas H.; Pérez-Nazario, Nelissa; Mitra, Soumya; Haidaris, Constantine G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2005 EN
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Treatment of mucocutaneous and cutaneous Candida albicans infections with photosensitizing agents and light, termed photodynamic therapy (PDT), offers an alternative to conventional treatments. Initial studies using the clinically approved photosensitizer Photofrin demonstrated the susceptibility of C. albicans to its photodynamic effects. In the present study, we have further refined parameters for Photofrin-mediated photodynamic action against C. albicans and examined whether mechanisms commonly used by microorganisms to subvert either antimicrobial oxidative defenses or antimicrobial therapy, including biofilm formation, were operative. In buffer and defined medium, germ tubes preloaded with Photofrin retained their photosensitivity for up to 2 hours, indicating the absence of degradation or export of Photofrin by the organism. The addition of serum resulted in a gradual loss of photosensitivity over 2 hours. In contrast to an adaptive response by germ tubes to oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide, there was no adaptive response to singlet oxygen-mediated stress by photodynamic action. C. albicans biofilms were sensitive to Photofrin-mediated phototoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, the metabolic activity of C. albicans biofilms following photodynamic insult was significantly lower than that of biofilms treated with amphotericin B for the same time period. These results demonstrate that several of the mechanisms microorganisms use to subvert either antimicrobial oxidative defenses or antimicrobial therapy are apparently not operative during Photofrin-mediated photodynamic treatment of C. albicans. These observations provide support and rationale for the continued investigation of PDT as an adjunctive...

Tumour localisation kinetics of photofrin and three synthetic porphyrinoids in an amelanotic melanoma of the hamster.

Leunig, M.; Richert, C.; Gamarra, F.; Lumper, W.; Vogel, E.; Jocham, D.; Goetz, A. E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1993 EN
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In this study the localisation of porphyrinoid photosensitizers in tumours was investigated. To determine if tumour selectivity results from a preferential uptake or prolonged retention of photosensitizers, intravital fluorescence microscopy and chemical extraction were used. Amelanotic melanoma (A-Mel-3) were implanted in a skin fold chamber in Syrian Golden hamsters. Distribution of the porphyrin mixture Photofrin and three porphycenes, pure porphyrinoid model compounds, was studied quantitatively by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Extraction of tissue and blood samples was performed to verify and supplement intravital microscopic results. Photofrin accumulated in melanomas reaching a maximum tumour:skin tissue ratio of 1.7:1. Localisation of the different porphycenes was found to be highly tumour selective (3.2:1), anti-tumour selective (0.2:1), and non-selective (1:1) with increasing polarity of the porphycenes. The two non-tumour selective porphycenes had distinctly accelerated serum and tissue kinetics; serum halflife times being as short as 1 min. The specific localisation of the slowly distributed, tumour selective photosensitizers, occurred exclusively during the distribution from serum and uptake into tissues. For the most selective porphycene...

Increased efficacy of photodynamic therapy of R3230AC mammary adenocarcinoma by intratumoral injection of Photofrin II.

Gibson, S. L.; van der Meid, K. R.; Murant, R. S.; Hilf, R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1990 EN
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Photodynamic therapy consists of the systemic administration of a derivative of haematoporphyrin (Photofrin II) followed 24-72 h later by exposure of malignant lesions to photoradiation. We investigated the efficacy of this treatment after direct intratumoral injection of Photofrin II. This direct treatment regimen resulted in higher rates of inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (5.13% J-1 cm-2 x 10(-1) and succinate dehydrogenase (3.14% J-1 cm-2 x 10(-1] in vitro at 2 h after intratumoral injection compared to rates of inhibition obtained after intraperitoneal drug administration: 0.51 and 0.42% J-1 cm-2 x 10(-1), respectively. A significant delay in tumour growth in vivo was observed in animals that received intratumoral injections 2 h before photoradiation compared to animals injected intraperitoneally at either 2 or 24 h before photoradiation. The treatment protocols were compared with control groups, consisting of Photofrin II administration intratumorally or intraperitoneally without photoradiation, or photoradiation in the absence of Photofrin II. These data indicate that the intratumoral injection regimen with Photofrin II enhanced the efficacy of photodynamic therapy. The greater delay in tumour growth observed after intratumoral administration of Photofrin II suggests a mechanism favouring direct cell damage.

Induction of immune cell infiltration into murine SCCVII tumour by photofrin-based photodynamic therapy.

Krosl, G.; Korbelik, M.; Dougherty, G. J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1995 EN
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Cellular populations in the squamous cell carcinoma SCCVII, growing in C3H/HeN mice given Photofrin, were examined at various time intervals during the photodynamic light treatment and up to 8 h later. Cell populations present within excised tumours were identified by monoclonal antibodies directed against cell type-specific membrane markers using a combination of the indirect immunoperoxidase and Wright staining or by flow cytometry. Photofrin-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) induced dramatic changes in the level of different cellular populations contained in the treated tumour. The most pronounced was a rapid increase in the content of neutrophils, which increased 200-fold within 5 min after the initiation of light treatment. This was followed immediately by an increase in the levels of mast cells, while another type of myeloid cells, most likely monocytes, invaded the tumour between 0 and 2 h after PDT. The examination of cytolysis of in vitro cultured SCCVII tumour cells mediated by macrophages harvested from the SCCVII tumour revealed a pronounced increase in the tumoricidal activity of tumour-associated macrophages isolated at 2 h post PDT. It seems, therefore, that the PDT-induced acute inflammatory infiltration of myeloid cells into the treated tumour is associated with functional activation of immune cells.

Photofrin accumulation in malignant and host cell populations of various tumours.

Korbelik, M.; Krosl, G.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1996 EN
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Photofrin accumulation in malignant and host cell populations of various tumours was studied by flow cytometry analysis of cells dissociated from the tumour tissue. The transplantable mouse tumour models included in this analysis were sarcomas EMT6, RIF, KHT and FsaN, Lewis lung carcinoma, SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and slowly growing moderately differentiated AT17 SCC. An example of spontaneous mouse adenocarcinoma was also examined. Staining with specific monoclonal antibodies was used to identify the various cell populations present in these tumours. The main characteristic of Photofrin cellular accumulation was a very high photosensitiser content found exclusively in a subpopulation of tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs). Photosensitiser levels similar to or lower than in malignant cells were observed in the remaining TAMs and other tumour-infiltrating host cells. Photofrin accumulation in malignant cells was not equal in all tumour models, but may have been affected by tumour blood perfusion/vascularisation. Results consistent with the above findings were obtained with SCC of buccal mucosa induced by 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene in Syrian hamsters. The TAM subpopulation that accumulates by far the highest cellular Photofrin levels in tumours is suggested to be responsible for the tumour-localised photosensitiser fluorescence.

In vitro photosensitization of tumour cell enzymes by photofrin II administered in vivo.

Gibson, S. L.; Murant, R. S.; Chazen, M. D.; Kelly, M. E.; Hilf, R.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1989 EN
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The ability of injected Photofrin II, a preparation enriched in hydrophobic dihaematoporphyrin ethers and esters, to photosensitize selected mitochondrial and cytosolic enzymes during illumination in vitro was examined. Preparations of R3230AC mammary tumours, obtained at designated times after a single dose of Photofrin II, displayed a time-dependent photosensitivity. Maximum inhibition of mitochondrial enzymes occurred at 24 hours post-treatment, whereas no inhibition of the cytosolic enzyme, pyruvate kinase, was observed over the 168 hour time course. At the selected 24 hour time point, mitochondrial enzyme photosensitisation was found to be drug dose (5.25 mg kg-1 Photofrin II) and light dose dependent, the rank order of inhibition being cytochrome c oxidase greater than F0F1 ATPase greater than succinate dehydrogenase greater than NADH dehydrogenase. We conclude that porphyrin species contained in Photofrin II accumulate in mitochondria of tumour cells in vivo and produce maximum photosensitisation at 24-72 hours after administration to tumour-bearing animals. The time course observed here with Photofrin II is similar to that seen previously with the more heterogenous haematoporphyrin derivative preparation in this in vivo-in vitro model.

Short- and long-term normal tissue damage with photodynamic therapy in pig trachea: a fluence-response pilot study comparing Photofrin and mTHPC

Murrer, L H P; Hebeda, K M; Marijnissen, J P A; Star, W M
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1999 EN
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The damage to normal pig bronchial mucosa caused by photodynamic therapy (PDT) using mTHPC and Photofrin as photosensitizers was evaluated. An endobronchial applicator was used to deliver the light with a linear diffuser and to measure the light fluence in situ. The applied fluences were varied, based on existing clinical protocols. A fluence finding experiment with short-term (1–2 days) response as an end point showed considerable damage to the mucosa with the use of Photofrin (fluences 50–275 J cm−2, drug dose 2 mg kg−1) with oedema and blood vessel damage as most important features. In the short-term mTHPC experiment the damage found was slight (fluences 12.5–50 J cm−2, drug dose 0.15 mg kg−1). For both sensitizers, atrophy and acute inflammation of the epithelium and the submucosal glands was observed. The damage was confined to the mucosa and submucosa leaving the cartilage intact. A long-term response experiment showed that fluences of 50 J cm−2 for mTHPC and 65 J cm−2 for Photofrin-treated animals caused damage that recovered within 14 days, with sporadic slight fibrosis and occasional inflammation of the submucosal glands. Limited data on the pharmacokinetics of mTHPC show that drug levels in the trachea are similar at 6 and 20 days post injection...

Photodynamic Therapy of Lung Cancer With Bronchial Artery Infusion of Photofrin

Okunaka, Tetsuya; Kato, Harubumi; Konaka, Chimori; Furukawa, Kinya; Harada, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Yutaka
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1996 EN
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizing Photofrin is proving to be effective for the treatment of early stage lung cancer. However, wider clinical applications of Photofrin as a photosensitizer for various cancers are hampered by potentially serious and prolonged skin photosensitivity. To prevent these side effects and reduce the hospitalization period, we recently gave reduced doses of Photofrin by bronchial arterial infusion. Five patients with endoscopically evaluated minimally invasive carcinoma of the lung were given 0.7 mg/kg of Photofrin by bronchial arterial infusion 48 hr before PDT. Complete remission was obtained in all 5 cases and no case showed skin photosensitivity when exposed to sunlight under careful surveillance at one week after PDT.

Potentiation of the anti-tumour effects of Photofrin®-based photodynamic therapy by localized treatment with G-CSF

Golab, J; Wilczynski, G; Zagozdzon, R; Stoklosa, T; Dabrowska, A; Rybczynska, J; Wasik, M; Machaj, E; Oldak, T; Kozar, K; Kaminski, R; Giermasz, A; Czajka, A; Lasek, W; Feleszko, W; Jakobisiak, M
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Photofrin®-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) has recently been approved for palliative and curative purposes in cancer patients. It has been demonstrated that neutrophils are indispensable for its anti-tumour effectiveness. We decided to evaluate the extent of the anti-tumour effectiveness of PDT combined with administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) as well as the influence of Photofrin®and G-CSF on the myelopoiesis and functional activity of neutrophils in mice. An intensive treatment with G-CSF significantly potentiated anti-tumour effectiveness of Photofrin®-based PDT resulting in a reduction of tumour growth and prolongation of the survival time of mice bearing two different tumours: colon-26 and Lewis lung carcinoma. Moreover, 33% of C-26-bearing mice were completely cured of their tumours after combined therapy and developed a specific and long-lasting immunity. The tumours treated with both agents contained more infiltrating neutrophils and apoptotic cells then tumours treated with either G-CSF or PDT only. Importantly, simultaneous administration of Photofrin®and G-CSF stimulated bone marrow and spleen myelopoiesis that resulted in an increased number of neutrophils demonstrating functional characteristics of activation. Potentiated anti-tumour effects of Photofrin®-based PDT combined with G-CSF observed in two murine tumour models suggest that clinical trials using this tumour therapy protocol would be worth pursuing. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign

Increased tumour dihydroceramide production after Photofrin-PDT alone and improved tumour response after the combination with the ceramide analogue LCL29. Evidence from mouse squamous cell carcinomas

Separovic, D; Bielawski, J; Pierce, J S; Merchant, S; Tarca, A L; Ogretmen, B; Korbelik, M
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been proven effective for treatment of several types of cancer. Photodynamic therapy alone, however, attains limited cures with some tumours and there is need for its improved efficacy in such cases. Sphingolipid (SL) analogues can promote tumour response in combination with anticancer drugs. In this study, we used mouse SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma tumours to determine the impact of Photofrin-PDT on the in vivo SL profile and the effect of LCL29, a C6-pyridinium ceramide, on PDT tumour response. Following PDT, the levels of dihydroceramides (DHceramides), in particular C20-DHceramide, were elevated in tumours. Similarly, increases in DHceramides, in addition to C20:1-ceramide, were found in PDT-treated SCCVII cells. These findings indicate the importance of the de novo ceramide pathway in Photofrin-PDT response not only in cells but also in vivo. Notably, co-exposure of SCCVII tumours to Photofrin-PDT and LCL29 led to enhanced tumour response compared with PDT alone. Thus, we show for the first time that Photofrin-PDT has a distinct signature effect on the SL profile in vitro and in vivo, and that the combined treatment advances PDT therapeutic gain, implying translational significance of the combination.

Fluence Rate-Dependent Intratumor Heterogeneity in Physiologic and Cytotoxic Responses to Photofrin Photodynamic Therapy

Busch, Theresa M.; Xing, Xiaoman; Yu, Guoqiang; Yodh, Arjun; Wileyto, E. Paul; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Durduran, Turgut; Zhu, Timothy C.; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can lead to the creation of heterogeneous, response-limiting hypoxia during illumination, which may be controlled in part through illumination fluence rate. In the present report we consider 1) regional differences in hypoxia, vascular response, and cell kill as a function of tumor depth and 2) the role of fluence rate as a mediator of depth-dependent regional intratumor heterogeneity. Intradermal RIF murine tumors were treated with Photofrin-PDT using surface illumination at an irradiance of 75 or 38 mW/cm2. Regional heterogeneity in tumor response was examined through comparison of effects in the surface vs. base of tumors, i.e. along a plane parallel to the skin surface and perpendicular to the incident illumination. 75 mW/cm2-PDT created significantly greater hypoxia in tumor bases relative to their surfaces. Increased hypoxia in the tumor base could not be attributed to regional differences in Photofrin concentration nor effects of fluence rate distribution on photochemical oxygen consumption, but significant depth-dependent heterogeneity in vascular responses and cytotoxic response were detected. At a lower fluence rate of 38 mW/cm2, no detectable regional differences in hypoxia or cytotoxic responses were apparent...

Photofrin binds to procaspase-3 and mediates photodynamic treatment-triggered methionine oxidation and inactivation of procaspase-3

Hsieh, Y-J; Chien, K-Y; Lin, S-Y; Sabu, S; Hsu, R-M; Chi, L-M; Lyu, P-C; Yu, J-S
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Diverse death phenotypes of cancer cells can be induced by Photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT), which has a decisive role in eliciting a tumor-specific immunity for long-term tumor control. However, the mechanism(s) underlying this diversity remain elusive. Caspase-3 is a critical factor in determining cell death phenotypes in many physiological settings. Here, we report that Photofrin-PDT can modify and inactivate procaspase-3 in cancer cells. In cells exposed to an external apoptotic trigger, high-dose Photofrin-PDT pretreatment blocked the proteolytic activation of procaspase-3 by its upstream caspase. We generated and purified recombinant procaspase-3-D3A (a mutant without autolysis/autoactivation activity) to explore the underlying mechanism(s). Photofrin could bind directly to procaspase-3-D3A, and Photofrin-PDT-triggered inactivation and modification of procaspase-3-D3A was seen in vitro. Mass spectrometry-based quantitative analysis for post-translational modifications using both 16O/18O- and 14N/15N-labeling strategies revealed that Photofrin-PDT triggered a significant oxidation of procaspase-3-D3A (mainly on Met-27, -39 and -44) in a Photofrin dose-dependent manner, whereas the active site Cys-163 remained largely unmodified. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments further showed that Met-44 has an important role in procaspase-3 activation. Collectively...

Porfimer-sodium (Photofrin-II) in combination with ionizing radiation inhibits tumor-initiating cell proliferation and improves glioblastoma treatment efficacy

Benayoun, Liat; Schaffer, Moshe; Bril, Rotem; Gingis-Velitski, Svetlana; Segal, Ehud; Nevelsky, Alexsander; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit; Shaked, Yuval
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
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Tumor relapse and tumor cell repopulation has been explained partially by the drug-free break period between successive conventional treatments. Strategies to overcome tumor relapse have been proposed, such as the use of chemotherapeutic drugs or radiation in small, frequent fractionated doses without an extended break period between treatment intervals. Yet, tumors usually acquire resistance and eventually escape the therapy. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the resistance of tumors to therapy, one of which involves the cancer stem cell or tumor-initiating cell (TIC) concept. TICs are believed to resist many conventional therapies, in part due to their slow proliferation and self-renewal capacities. Therefore, emerging efforts to eradicate TICs are being undertaken. Here we show that treatment with Photofrin II, among the most frequently used photosensitizers, sensitized a TIC-enriched U-87MG human glioblastoma cell to radiation, and improve treatment outcome when used in combination with radiotherapy. A U-87MG tumor cell population enriched with radiation-resistant TICs becomes radio-sensitive, and an inhibition of cell proliferation and an increase in apoptosis are found in the presence of Photofrin II. Furthermore...

Photofrin Based Photodynamic Therapy and miR-99a Transfection Inhibited FGFR3 and PI3K/Akt Signaling Mechanisms to Control Growth of Human Glioblastoma In Vitro and In Vivo

Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Banik, Naren L.; Ray, Swapan K.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/02/2013 EN
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Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in humans. We explored the molecular mechanisms how the efficacy of photofrin based photodynamic therapy (PDT) was enhanced by miR-99a transfection in human glioblastoma cells. Our results showed almost similar uptake of photofrin after 24 h in different glioblastoma cells, but p53 wild-type cells were more sensitive to radiation and photofrin doses than p53 mutant cells. Photofrin based PDT induced apoptosis, inhibited cell invasion, prevented angiogenic network formation, and promoted DNA fragmentation and laddering in U87MG and U118MG cells harvoring p53 wild-type. Western blotting showed that photofrin based PDT was efficient to block the angiogenesis and cell survival pathways. Further, photofrin based PDT followed by miR-99a transfection dramatically increased miR-99a expression and also increased apoptosis in glioblastoma cell cultures and drastically reduced tumor growth in athymic nude mice, due to down regulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and PI3K/Akt signaling mechanisms leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of molecular mechanisms of apoptosis. Therefore, our results indicated that the anti-tumor effects of photofrin based PDT was strongly augmented by miR-99a overexpression and this novel combination therapeutic strategy could be used for controlling growth of human p53 wild-type glioblastomas both in vitro and in vivo.

Electric Field-Assisted Delivery of Photofrin to Human Breast Carcinoma Cells

Wezgowiec, Joanna; Derylo, Maria B.; Teissie, Justin; Orio, Julie; Rols, Marie-Pierre; Kulbacka, Julita; Saczko, Jolanta; Kotulska, Malgorzata
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The influence of electroporation on the Photofrin uptake and distribution was evaluated in the breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7) and normal Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) lacking voltage-dependent channels in vitro. Photofrin was used at a concentration of 5 and 25 μM. The uptake of Photofrin was assessed using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy methods. Cells viability was evaluated with crystal violet assay. Our results indicated that electropermeabilization of cells, in the presence of Photofrin, increased the uptake of the photosensitizer. Even at the lowest electric field intensity (700 V/cm) Photofrin transport was enhanced. Flow cytometry results for MCF-7 cells revealed ~1.7 times stronger fluorescence emission intensity for cells exposed to Photofrin and electric field of 700 V/cm than cells treated with Photofrin alone. Photofrin was effective only when irradiated with blue light. Our studies on combination of photodynamic reaction with electroporation suggested improved effectiveness of the treatment and showed intracellular distribution of Photofrin. This approach may be attractive for cancer treatment as enhanced cellular uptake of Photofrin in MCF-7 cells can help to reduce effective dose of the photosensitizer and exposure time in this type of cancer...

Effect of 630-NM pulsed laser irradiation on the proliferation of HeLa cells in Photofrin®-mediated photodynamic therapy

Miyamoto, Yuichi; Nishikiori, Daisuke; Hagino, Fumika; Wakita, Masayoshi; Tanabe, Ichiro; Toida, Masahiro
Fonte: Japan Medical Laser Laboratory Publicador: Japan Medical Laser Laboratory
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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Background and Aims: Red laser light of wavelength 630 nm is usually used for Photofrin®-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT). The 630-nm light employed in PDT corresponds to the region of the wavelength used in low-level laser therapy (LLLT) may influence on the photodynamic effect required for killing cancer cells. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the changes in cell viability and degree of cell proliferation after Photofrin®-mediated PDT using 630-nm pulsed laser irradiation (10 Hz repetition rate and 7–9 ns pulse width), which was clinically found to induce no remarkable cell injury.

Distribution of Photofrin between tumour cells and tumour associated macrophages.

Korbelik, M.; Krosl, G.; Olive, P. L.; Chaplin, D. J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1991 EN
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Photofrin levels in cells derived from SCCVII tumours, excised from mice that previously received the drug, were measured using a fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS). Concomitantly, in the same cells the FACS was used to measure fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) fluorescence that originated from FITC-conjugated antimouse IgG added to the cell suspension before sorting. This later measurement enabled discrimination between IgG negative tumour malignant cells and IgG positive host cells (primarily macrophages). In addition, cellular Photofrin content in 'tumour' and 'host' cells sorted by FACS was determined by chemical extraction. The measurements were performed for the time intervals 1-96 h post Photofrin administration. The data showed consistently higher Photofrin levels in the 'host cells', i.e., tumour associated macrophages (TAM), than in 'tumour' cells. On a per cell basis, at any time point studied there was a minimum of 1.7 times more Photofrin in 'host' than in 'tumour cells', while at 4-12 h postadministration, ratios of up to 3.0 times were observed. This corresponds to ratio values greater than 9, when based on Photofrin content per micrograms cell protein.