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Asymmetric phase-transfer catalytic sulfanylation of some 2-methylsulfinyl cyclanones. Modeling of the stereochemical course of the aldol reaction of (SS,2S)-2-methylsulfinyl-2-methylsulfanylcyclohexanone

RODRIGUES, Alessandro; WLADISLAW, Blanka; VITTA, Claudio Di; CARDOSO FILHO, Jose Eduardo Pandini; MARZORATI, Liliana; BUENO, Mauro Alves; OLIVATO, Paulo Roberto
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Increased diastereoisomeric excesses are obtained for the sulfanylation reactions of some 2-methylsulfinyl cyclanones under phase-transfer catalysis using the chiral catalyst QUIBEC instead of TEBA. The optically pure (SS,2S)-2-methylsulfinyl-2-methylsulfanylcyclohexanone thus prepared reacts with ethyl acetate lithium enolate affording, after hydrolysis, (R)-2-[(ethoxycarbonyl)methyl]-2-hydroxycyclohexanone in 60% ee. Density functional theory calculations (at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level) can successfully explain the origin of this result as the kinetically favored axial attack of the nucleophile to the carbonyl group of the most stable conformer of the cyclanone, in which the CH(3)SO and CH(3)S groups are at the equatorial and axial positions, respectively. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); CNPq; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); FAPESP

New insights on reaction pathway selectivity promoted by crown ether phase-transfer catalysis: Model ab initio calculations of nucleophilic fluorination

Pliego, Josefredo R., Jr.; Riveros, Jose M.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV; AMSTERDAM Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV; AMSTERDAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Crown ethers have the ability of solubilizing inorganic salts in apolar solvents and to promote chemical reactions by phase-transfer catalysis. However, details on how crown ethers catalyze ionic S(N)2 reactions and control selectivity are not well understood. In this work, we have used high level theoretical calculations to shed light on the details of phase-transfer catalysis mechanism of KF reaction with alkyl halides promoted by 18-crown-6. A complete analysis of the of the model reaction between KF(18-crown-6) and ethyl bromide reveals that the calculations can accurately predict the product ratio and the overall kinetics. Our results point out the importance of the K* ion and of the crown ether ring in determining product selectivity. While the K* ion favors the S(N)2 over the E2 anti pathway, the crown ether ring favors the S(N)2 over E2 syn route. The combination effects lead to a predicted 94% for the S(N)2 pathway in excellent agreement with the experimental value of 92%. A detailed analysis of the overall mechanism of the reaction under phase-transfer conditions also reveals that the KBr product generated in the nucleophilic fluorination acts as an inhibitor of the 18-crown-6 catalyst and it is responsible for the observed slow reaction rate. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.; Brazilian Research Council (CNPq); Brazilian Research Council (CNPq); Brazilian Office of Higher Education (CAPES); Brazilian Office of Higher Education (CAPES); Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG); Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG); Institute for Science and Technology of Materials (INOMAT); Institute for Science and Technology of Materials (INOMAT)

Aplicação da catálise de trasnferência de fase na avaliação de rotas alternativas para obtenção industrial da dicicloverina caramifeno e amiodarona; The use of phase transfer catalysis, in the development of alternative routes for industrial production of dicycloverine, caramiphen and amiodarone

Polakiewicz, Bronislaw
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/12/1994 PT
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O emprego da catálise de transferência de fase substituindo uma ou mais etapas da síntese de um fármaco, pode ser um recurso vantajoso sob o ponto de vista tecnológico. Empregado na síntese de importantes fármacos que são a dicicloverina, caramifeno eamiodarona, a catálise de transferência de fase revelou-se muito vantajosa na síntese dos dois primeiros. A dicicloverina e o caramifeno tiveram as suas rotas de obtenção verticalizadas, com bons resultados e custos bem mais baixos quando comparados com os atualmente adquiridos no exterior. Ficou evidente que a catálise de transferência de fase pode ser aplicada com sucesso na produção destes e outros fármacos em associação com técnicas já conhecidas com ótimos resultados.; The phase transfer catalysis application replacing one or more steps in the drug synthesis, can be of advantage in the technologycal approach. Applied to the synthesis of important drugs such as diciclomine, caramiphen,and amiodarone, the phase transfer catalysis resulted in a very advantageous method in the first two drugs. The diciclomine and the caramiphen, gets their obtention routes from raw materiaIs wi th good resul ts and low coasts, when compared wi th the drugs presently purchassed in foreign countries. It is clear that the phase transfer catalysis...

Estudo de uma nova rota sintética para o fármaco (R)-baclofen; Investigation of a New Synthetic Route to (R)-Baclofen

Barazzone, Giovana Cappio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/12/2007 PT
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O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi a investigação da viabilidade de uma nova rota sintética para a obtenção do fármaco Baclofen em sua forma enantiopura. A etapa principal da rota sintética por nós proposta consiste na síntese de uma aziridina de estereoquímica cis, utilizando uma nova metodologia, desenvolvida em nosso laboratório pelo emprego da catálise de transferência de fase (CTF). Para a obtenção da aziridina apropriada, tornou-se necessário preparar de maneira estereosseletiva, a (2S, 3R)-(4-clorofenil)-serina. Este precursor seria adequado, uma vez que, em estudos preliminares, verificamos que o fechamento do aziridínico ocorre sem racemização dos estereocentros presentes na molécula. Inicialmente, tentamos obter o β-hidróxi-α-aminoácido desejado pela reação de adição aldólica de uma imina do éster terc-butílico da glicina com o 4-clorobenzaldeído, em condições de catálise de transferência de fase assimétrica. Tais reações não apresentaram estereosseletividade. Porém, apesar de gerarem dois produtos diastereoméricos racêmicos, estes são de interesse, uma vez que um deles é uma oxazolidina cis inédita. Para a obtenção da (2S, 3R)-(4-clorofenil)-serina...

Estudo de reações de Michael visando a síntese do fármaco (R)-baclofen; Study on a new synthetic route to (R) Baclofen

Ramos, Eduardo da Costa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/03/2008 PT
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Para a síntese de um dos quatro possíveis estereoisômeros do ácido 3-(4- clorofenil)piroglutâmico, precursor da forma mais ativa do fármaco Baclofen, foram investigadas duas metodologias alternativas, cujas etapas principais eram, respectivamente, (i) a reação de Michael entre o N-acetamidomalonato de dietila ou de dibenzila com o 4-clorotiocinamato de metila ou fenila, na ausência de solvente e na presença de catalisadores de transferência de fase enantioméricamente puros, e (ii) a reação de Michael entre complexos de níquel (quirais ou aquirais), derivados da glicina, com a (5S)-N-(E-4-clorocinamoil)-5-metoxicarbonil-2-pirrolidinona. A primeira destas metodologias não conduziu a bons resultados, mas a investigação das causas da baixa estereosseletividade, observada para reações empregando tanto tiolésteres como chalcona, permitiu a proposição de um novo modelo de interação catalisador/doador/aceptor, em que o doador é o N-acetamidomalonato de dibenzila e o aceptor é a chalcona. Quanto às adições de Michael dos complexos de níquel, empregados como equivalentes nucleofílicos da glicina, as reações foram bem sucedidas. O par aceptor/doador que se mostrou mais adequado foi aquele composto pelo complexo de níquel...

Estudos da diastereosseletividade da adição de nucleófilos ao grupo carbonila de β-cetossulfóxidos sulfanilados derivados da 1-indanona e 1-tetralona; On the diastereoselectivity of the addition of nucleophiles to 1- indanone and 1- tetralone sulfanylated β-ketosulfoxides

Paiva, Derisvaldo Rosa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/06/2011 PT
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Neste trabalho, foi proposta a preparação e redução, seguida de hidrólise oxidativa, de alguns derivados imínicos da 2-metilsulfinil-2-metilsufanil-1-tetralona e da 2-metilsulfinil-2-metilsulfanil-1-indanona. A 2-metilsulfinil-O-metil-oxima da 1-tetralona foi preparada pela oxidação da 2-metilsulfanil-O-metil-oxima. O sulfóxido assim obtido pôde ser sulfanilado empregando-se terc-butil lítio e metanotiolsulfonato de metila, resultando um único diastereoisômero que se mostrou inerte na reação de redução da função imínica com NaBH4. Tentativas de preparar a N-tosil-imina da 2-metilsulfinil-1-tetralona, por oxidação do sulfeto correspondente, não conduziram ao produto esperado, mas sim à enamina. Buscando uma rota alternativa para a preparação de derivados imínicos de sulfinil ciclanonas sulfaniladas, foram preparados β-cetossulfóxidos derivados da 1-tetralona e da 1-indanona que, após serem sulfanilados, seriam submetidos às reações com aminas aromáticas ou alifáticas. As reações de sulfanilação da 2-metilsulfinil-1-indanona e da 2-metilsulfinil-1-tetralona foram efetuadas em condições de transferência de fase, na presença dos catalisadores TEBAC ou QUIBEC. Para ambos os casos, os rendimentos de produto foram cerca de 80 %. Enquanto os dois catalisadores conduziram a resultados estereoquímicos similares para a sulfanilação da 2-metilsulfinil-1-indanona...

Síntese de sais de piridínio novos catalisadores de transferência de fase; Synthesis of pyridinium salts - new catalysts phase transfer

Lucchese, Angélica Maria
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/09/1997 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Neste trabalho foi preparada uma série de sais de piridínio, com subsequente investigação da sua atividade catalítica e indução assimétrica em reações de adição de Michael e alquilações de metilenas ativas. Os sais de piridínio foram preparados pela reação de tetrafluorborato de 2,4,6-trifenilpirílio e 2,4,6-trimetilpirílio com aminas, aminoálcoois e/ou aminoácidos. As reações em que se efetuou o teste catalítico destes sais foram: a) adição de cianoacetato de etila, N-acetamidomalonato de dietila e nitrometano à chalcona e de tiofenol à 2-ciclohexenona; b) alquilação de cianoacetato de etila e de fenilcianoacetato de etila com cloreto de benzila. Os sais de piridínio testados atuaram como catalisadores nas alquilações de metilenas ativas e nas adições de Michael, com exceção da reação de N-acetamidomalonato de dietila com chalcona. No que tange à eficiência como indutores de assimetria, foram feitas reações comparativas entre os sais de piridínio quirais, o brometo de N-benzil-N-metilefedrínio ou o cloreto de N-benzilquinínio, sendo que os catalisadores por nós sintetizados se mostraram menos eficientes. A conformação preferencial de três sais de piridínio, em que a cadeia alquílica ligada ao átomo de nitrogênio possue um substituinte aromático...

Sulfenilação de β-ceto sulfóxidos pelo emprego do método de fase homogênea e de catálise de transferência de fase. Influência do impedimento estérico na estereosseletividade; Sulfenylation of β-keto sulfoxides by employing the homogeneous phase method and phase transfer catalysis. Influence of steric hindrance in the stereoselectivity

Bjorklund, Marcelo Bizarro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/06/2001 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A presente tese trata das reações de sulfenilação de uma série de β-ceto sulfóxidos, em continuidade aos estudos preliminares realizados anteriormente no nosso laboratório pelo grupo de B.Wladislaw. A apresentação e discussão dos resultados das reações de sulfenilação dos β-ceto sulfóxidos é precedida por uma revisão bibliográfica versando sobre β-ceto sulfóxidos e α-sulfinil ésteres, sua obtenção e reatividade. As investigações das reações de sulfenilação dos β-ceto sulfóxidos foram realizadas utilizando-se o método de Fase Homogênea e de Catálise de Transferência de Fase, empregando inicialmente o catalisador não-quirálico (TEBAC) e, posteriormente, o catalisador quirálico cloreto de benzilquinínio (QUIBEC). Todos os três métodos levaram à formação dos compostos monossulfenilados. o Esquema abaixo indica as reações em Fase Homogênea e em Catálise de Transferência de Fase empregando TEBAC (ver arquivo). É digno de nota que no caso do β-ceto sulfóxido terc-butílico (Y=H, R=t-C4H9), o composto sulfenilado correspondente mostrou um alto excesso diastereomérico tanto pelo emprego do método de Fase Homogênea como de Catálise de Transferência de Fase com catalisador não-quirálico (TEBAC). Foi possível compreender esta estereosseletividade através da determinação da configuração do enolato intermediário. Foi considerado como modelo do enolato o enol éter i-propílico (I) correspondente ao β-ceto sulfóxido t-butílico por nós sintetizado...

Catálise de transferência de fase

Lucchese,Angélica Maria; Marzorati,Liliana
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2000 PT
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Since its discovery, phase transfer catalysis (PTC) has grown considerably and nowadays is one of the most versatile preparative methods. The search for new catalysts, their use in PTC asymmetric synthesis and the attempts to understand their mechanistic role are modern and exciting topics of investigation. A review on main achievements in the last two decades is presented.

Phase-boundary catalysts for acid-catalyzed reactions: the role of bimodal amphiphilic structure and location of active sites

Nur,Hadi; Ikeda,Shigeru; Ohtani,Bunsho
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.50745%
The catalytic potential of phase-boundary catalyst for acid-catalyzed reactions has been demonstrated by NaY zeolite loaded with alkylsilane-covered niobic acid in the liquid phase hydration of 1,2-epoxyoctane with water. The catalyst was prepared by impregnation of niobic acid on the external surface of NaY and followed by a partial modification of the external surface of NaY with alkylsilyl groups. When the particles were added to a mixture of water and 1,2-epoxyoctane, they were feasibly located just at the liquid-liquid phase boundary and efficiently catalyzed hydration of the epoxide even without stirring. In order to investigate the effect of the location of the active sites, alkylsilylated HZSM-5 and sulfonic acid functionalized NaY in which the active sites are located dominantly on the internal surface of zeolites were prepared. In that case, mechanical stirring was needed to increase the reaction rate. It was suggested that alkylsilylation on the external surface of zeolite, when the active site is mainly inside the pore, could not change the mode of the catalytic action; it is still necessary to stir the reaction mixture to drive the mass transfer of substrates and reagents.

A study of the sequential Michael addition-ring closure reaction of ethyl acetoacetate with chalcone: influence of quaternary ammonium cations as phase transfer catalysts

Lopes,Regina C. V.; Oliveira,Maria da Conceição F. de; Lemos,Telma L. G. de; Mattos,Marcos C. de
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2005 EN
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88.13508%
The Michael addition of ethyl acetoacetate 1 to chalcone 2 under Solid/Liquid Phase Transfer Catalysis (SL-PTC), solvent free, afforded Michael adduct 3 and an annulated compound 4 in good yield. The cyclic compound 4 was obtained in the majority via an annulation process of the Michael adduct 3. The proportion of 4 in the ratio of 3/4 was dependant on the structure of the quaternary ammonium cation. The results were interpreted on the basis of the organophilicity and accessibility of the catalysts as well as by invoking a 6-membered ring transition state for the formation of 4 due to the chelation level with Q+.

Enantioselective syntheses and biological studies of aeruginosin 298-A and its analogs: Application of catalytic asymmetric phase-transfer reaction

Fukuta, Yuhei; Ohshima, Takashi; Gnanadesikan, Vijay; Shibuguchi, Tomoyuki; Nemoto, Tetsuhiro; Kisugi, Takaya; Okino, Tatsufumi; Shibasaki, Masakatsu
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Aeruginosin 298-A was isolated from the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (NIES-298) and is an equipotent thrombin and trypsin inhibitor. A variety of analogs were synthesized to gain insight into the structure–activity relations. We developed a versatile synthetic process for aeruginosin 298-A as well as several attractive analogs, in which all stereocenters were controlled by catalytic asymmetric phase-transfer reaction promoted by two-center asymmetric catalysts and catalytic asymmetric epoxidation promoted by a lanthanide–BINOL complex. Furthermore, serine protease inhibitory activities of aeruginosin 298-A and its analogs were examined.

A Systematic Investigation of Quaternary Ammonium Ions as Asymmetric Phase Transfer Catalysts. Application of Quantitative Structure Activity/Selectivity Relationships

Denmark, Scott E.; Gould, Nathan D.; Wolf, Larry M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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While the synthetic utility of asymmetric phase transfer catalysis continues to expand, the number of proven catalyst types and design criteria remains limited. At the origin of this scarcity is a lack in understanding of how catalyst structural features affect the rate and enantioselectivity of phase transfer catalyzed reactions. Described in this paper is the development of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) and -selectivity relationships (QSSR) for the alkylation of a protected glycine imine with libraries of quaternary ammonium ion catalysts. Catalyst descriptors including ammonium ion accessibility, interfacial adsorption affinity, and partition coefficient were found to correlate meaningfully with catalyst activity. The physical nature of the descriptors was rationalized through differing contributions of the interfacial and extraction mechanisms to the reaction under study. The variation in the observed enantioselectivity was rationalized employing a comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) using both the steric and electrostatic fields of the catalysts. A qualitative analysis of the developed model reveals preferred regions for catalyst binding to afford both configurations of the alkylated product.

A Systematic Investigation of Quaternary Ammonium Ions as Asymmetric Phase Transfer Catalysts. Synthesis of Catalyst Libraries and Evaluation of Catalyst Activity

Denmark, Scott E.; Gould, Nathan D.; Wolf, Larry M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Despite over three decades of research into asymmetric phase transfer catalysis (APTC), a fundamental understanding of the factors that affect the rate and stereoselectivity of this important process are still obscure. This paper describes the initial stages of a long-term program aimed at elucidating the physical organic foundations of APTC employing a chemoinformatic analysis of the alkylation of a protected glycine imine with a libraries of enantiomerically enriched quaternary ammonium ions. The synthesis of the quaternary ammonium ions follows a diversity oriented approach wherein the tandem inter[4+2]/intra[3+2] cycloaddition of nitroalkenes serves as the key transformation. A two part synthetic strategy comprised of: (1) preparation of enantioenriched scaffolds and (2) development of parallel synthesis procedures is described. The strategy allows for the facile introduction of four variable groups in the vicinity of a stereogenic quaternary ammonium ion. The quaternary ammonium ions exhibited a wide range of activity and to a lesser degree enantioselectivity. Catalyst activity and selectivity are rationalized in a qualitative way based on the effective positive potential of the ammonium ion.

A combination of directing groups and chiral anion phase-transfer catalysis for enantioselective fluorination of alkenes

Wu, Jeffrey; Wang, Yi-Ming; Drljevic, Amela; Rauniyar, Vivek; Phipps, Robert J.; Toste, F. Dean
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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We report a catalytic enantioselective electrophilic fluorination of alkenes to form tertiary and quaternary C(sp3)-F bonds and generate β-amino- and β-aryl-allylic fluorides. The reaction takes advantage of the ability of chiral phosphate anions to serve as solid–liquid phase transfer catalysts and hydrogen bond with directing groups on the substrate. A variety of heterocyclic, carbocyclic, and acyclic alkenes react with good to excellent yields and high enantioselectivities. Further, we demonstrate a one-pot, tandem dihalogenation–cyclization reaction, using the same catalytic system twice in series, with an analogous electrophilic brominating reagent in the second step.

A DFT Guided/Experimental Approach to Asymmetric Allylation and Phase-Transfer Catalysis

Mirabdolbaghi, Roya
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
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The Dudding group is interested in the application of Density Functional Theory (DFT) in developing asymmetric methodologies, and thus the focus of this dissertation will be on the integration of these approaches. Several interrelated subsets of computer aided design and implementation in catalysis have been addressed during the course of these studies. The first of the aims rested upon the advancement of methodologies for the synthesis of biological active C(1)-chiral 3-methylene-indan-1-ols, which in practice lead to the use of a sequential asymmetric Yamamoto-Sakurai-Hosomi allylation/Mizoroki Heck reaction sequence. An important aspect of this work was the utilization of ortho-substituted arylaldehyde reagents which are known to be a problematic class of substrates for existing asymmetric allylation approaches. The second phase of my research program lead to the further development of asymmetric allylation methods using o-arylaldehyde substrates for synthesis of chiral C(3)-substituted phthalides. Apart from the de novo design of these chemistries in silico, which notably utilized water-tolerant, inexpensive, and relatively environmental benign indium metal, this work represented the first computational study of a stereoselective indium-mediated process. Following from these discoveries was the advent of a related...

Synthesis and biological evaluation of new potential co-adjuvants for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and a new catalytic, asymmetric approach to the synthesis of fused heterocycles of biological interest.

D'ASCENZIO, MELISSA
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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57.545425%
Medicinal chemistry and pure organic chemistry were merged in this thesis as two faces of the same coin. In the first part, more than a hundred hydrazothiazole derivatives were synthesized and tested as human monoamine oxidase B selective inhibitors in order to define accurate structure activity relationships. Our knowledge on human MAO-B inhibition was then applied to the synthesis of purine derivatives as potential dual human MAO-B inhibitors and adenosine A2A receptor antagonists. In the second part, the search for a new catalytic, asymmetric route to the synthesis of poly(hetero)cyclic compounds of biological interest led to the development of a new enantioselective approach to the phase transfer catalyzed cyclization of pyrrole derived substrates.

Direct functionalization of heterocyclic and non-heterocyclic arenes

Mousseau, James J.
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
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L’application des métaux de transition à la fonctionnalisation directe a ouvert la voie à une nouvelle classe de réactions pour la formation de liens carbone-carbone. De par l'omniprésence des liaisons C–H, l’introduction de nouvelles fonctionnalités chimiques par voie directe et pré-activation minimale s’impose comme une stratégie de synthèse très attrayante. Ainsi, il est envisageable de préparer de manière rapide et efficace des supports complexes menant à des molécules complexes, qui pourraient être utiles dans divers domaines de la chimie. L'objectif principal de la présente thèse vise la fonctionnalisation directe des arènes hétérocycliques et non hétérocycliques et, plus précisément, les techniques d’arylation. Dans un premier temps, nous allons aborder le thème de l’arylation directe tout en mettant l’accent sur les pyridines (Chapitre 1). Ces molécules sont à la base d'une multitude de composés biologiquement actifs et jouent un rôle important dans le domaine des sciences des matériaux, de l’agrochimie et de la synthèse des produits naturels. Dans un deuxième temps, nous discuterons de nos travaux sur l’arylation directe catalysé par un complex de palladium sur des ylures de N-iminopyridinium en soulignant la dérivatisation du sel de pyridinium après une phénylation sp2 (Chapitre 2). L’étude de ce procédé nous a permis de mettre en lumière plusieurs découvertes importantes...

Technical optimization of the synthesis of flavours

Wehling, Djamila Marlit Salena
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /10/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The goal of this thesis is the investigation and optimization of the synthesis of potential fragrances. This work is projected as collaboration between the University of Applied Sciences in Merseburg and the company Miltitz Aromatics GmbH in Bitterfeld‐Wolfen (Germany). Flavoured compounds can be synthesized in different ways and by various methods. In this work, methods like the phase transfer catalysis and the Cope‐rearrangement were investigated and applied, for getting a high yield and quantity of the desired substances and without any by‐products or side reactions. This involved the study of syntheses with different process parameters such as temperature, solvent, pressure and reaction time. The main focus was on Cope‐rearrangement, which is a common method in the synthesis of new potential fragrance compounds. The substances synthesized in this work have a hepta‐1,5‐diene‐structure and that is why they can easily undergo this [3,3]‐sigma tropic rearrangement. The lead compound of all research was 2,5‐dimethyl‐2‐vinyl‐4‐hexenenitrile (Neronil). Neronil is synthesized by an alkylation of 2‐methyl‐3‐butenenitrile with prenylchloride under basic conditions in a phase‐transfer system. In this work the yield of isolated Neronil is improved from about 35% to 46% by according to the execution conditions of the reaction. Additionally the amount of side product was decreased. This synthesized hexenenitrile involved not only the aforementioned 1...

Phase-Transfer and Other Types of Catalysis with Cyclopropenium Ions

Bandar, Jeffrey S.; Tanaset, Anont; Lambert, Tristan H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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This work establishes the cyclopropenium ion as a viable platform for efficient phase transfer catalysis of a diverse range of organic transformations. The amenability of these catalysts to large-scale synthesis and structural modification is demonstrated. Evaluation of the molecular structure of an optimal catalyst reveals some unique structural features of these systems. Finally a discussion of electronic charge distribution underscores an important consideration for catalyst design.