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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum biomarkers in Sao Sebastiao Channel, Brazil: Assessment of petroleum contamination

SILVA, Denis A. M. da; BICEGO, Marcia C.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.119624%
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and non-aromatic hydrocarbons (NAHs), including n-alkanes, isoprenoids and petroleum biomarkers (terpanes, hopanes, steranes and diasteranes), were quantified by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometer detectors in sediment samples collected from the Sao Sebastiao Channel (SSC), Brazil, where the largest Brazilian maritime petroleum terminal is located The concentrations of total PAHs. total n-alkanes and petroleum biomarkers ranged from below the detection limits to 370 ng g(-1,) 28 mu g g(-1), 2200 ng g(-1) (dry weight), respectively. The analysis of PAN distribution suggested combustion sources of PAHs as the main input for these compounds with smaller amount from petroleum contamination The distribution of petroleum biomarkers undoubtedly demonstrated petroleum as a source of anthropogenic contamination throughout the region. The assessment of petrogenic sources of contamination in marine sediment is more challenging if only PAH analysis were carried out, which demonstrates that more stable hydrocarbons such as petroleum biomarkers are useful for investigating potential presence of petroleum (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; Fundacao de Amparo a Pequisa do Estado de So Paulo - FAPESP[02/00022-0]; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); ""Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior"" (CAPES)

Explorando a espectrometria de absorção atômica com atomização eletrotérmica para a determinação simultânea de As, Co e Se em produtos petrolíferos; Simultaneous determination of As, Co and Se in gasoline, petroleum and lubricating oil by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

Nascimento, Angerson Nogueira do
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/06/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05728%
Neste trabalho foram desenvolvidos métodos analíticos para a determinação simultânea de As, Co e Se em petróleo, gasolina e óleo lubrificante por espectrometria de absorção atômica com atomização eletrotérmica. As estratégias de preparo das amostras foram baseadas em emulsão de gasolina e petróleo e digestão ácida assistida por microondas para o óleo lubrificante. Os programas de aquecimento foram otimizados pela obtenção de curvas de pirólise e atomização de soluções analíticas de referência, emulsões e digeridos das amostras, na presença e ausência do modificador químico Pd + Mg. As emulsões de gasolina foram preparadas em tubos de vidro (Pirex®) com adição de Triton X-100, ácido nítrico e água Milli-Q. Na preparação das emulsões de petróleo foi necessário realizar a diluição da amostra com hexano, seguida da adição de Triton X-100, ácido nítrico e água Milli-Q. As emulsões foram sonicadas por 2 min. As melhores condições para a preparação das emulsões foram encontradas avaliando-se as intensidades dos sinais de absorbância de cada elemento em função da variação da quantidade das amostras, surfactante, teor ácido e solvente. As amostras de óleo lubrificante foram digeridas com ácido nítrico e peróxido de hidrogênio e analisadas após a diluição com água Milli-Q. As curvas analíticas de calibração foram preparadas em 2% (v/v) de HNO3 + 6% (v/v) de Triton X-100...

Aplicação da espectroscopia de infravermelho próximo na caracterização de petróleo: simulação de uma unidade de destilação atmosférica.; Application of near infrared spectroscopy in the characterization of crude petroleum: simulation of an atmospheric distillation unit.

Falla Sotelo, Francisco
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/10/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05728%
A contínua mudança na qualidade da carga de alimentação das unidades de destilação atmosférica introduz incertezas na operação do processo de refino. A caracterização precisa do petróleo bruto, cuja composição varia devido à sua natureza intrínseca e às condições de transporte e armazenamento nas refinarias, poderia auxiliar na redução destas incertezas. O processo clássico de caracterização, baseado nas curvas de destilação TBP (True Boiling Point, Ponto de Ebulição Verdadeiro), ainda não permite detectar essas mudanças de modo mais dinâmico, o que reduz a precisão da simulação do processo e, portanto, uma menor confiabilidade nas condições de operação determinadas a partir dela. No Brasil, petróleo pesado é produzido de forma predominante, que é misturado freqüentemente com petróleo leve importado antes do refino. Como conseqüência, nas refinarias brasileiras as características do petróleo mudam em média, a cada três dias, sendo esta taxa de variação incompatível com a determinação das curvas de destilação TBP. A análise SimDis (Simulated Distillation, Destilação Simulada) é atualmente a técnica de laboratório alternativa para aproximar as curvas de destilação. Porém...

Sintese de materiais carbonosos ativados a partir de coque de petroleo; Synthesis of activaded carbon materials from petroleum coke

Manoel Orlando Alvarez Mendez
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/03/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.081772%
Materiais Carbonosos Ativados (MCA), tais como Carvões Ativados (CA) e Peneiras Moleculares de Carbono (PMC), são caracterizados por apresentar elevada área superficial específica e um grande volume de poros em sua matriz carbonosa, sendo sua principal propriedade a de adsorver moléculas tanto na fase líquida quanto na gasosa. O Brasil importa em sua totalidade peneiras moleculares produzidas a partir de precursores carbonosos, empregando-os nas mais diversas áreas de ciência e tecnologia e em vários segmentos industriais. O coque de petróleo é um resíduo com alto teor de carbono fixo e baixo teor de cinzas, e em decorrência de sua estrutura praticamente amorfa, é um material de pouco valor comercial, sendo considerado um resíduo problemático, tanto em termos ambientais quanto comerciais. Desta forma, a utilização de coque de petróleo para a produção de CAs e de PMCs torna-se atrativa para a utilização deste resíduo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a síntese de carvões ativados através das ativações física e química de coque de petróleo proveniente da unidade de coqueamento retardado da REPLAN - PETROBRÁS, buscando avaliar as influências dos parâmetros de processo na qualidade dos CAs...

Atividades enzimaticas e de biodegração de microorganismos do petroleo da Bacia de Campos (Pampo Sul); Enzymatic and biodegrader activities of petroleum microorganisms from Campos Basin (Pampo Sul)

Suzan Pantaroto de Vasconcellos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/10/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05728%
Amostras de águas de formação de petróleo e óleos foram coletadas na Formação Pampo, situada na Bacia de Campos, através das quais, aplicando-se diferentes condições de cultivo, foram recuperadas 92 linhagens de bactérias aeróbias. Dentre os isolados, obtidos, 29 foram identificados por técnicas moleculares baseadas em DNAr 16S, observando-se a predominância de bactérias do gênero Bacillus.. De forma a constatar sobre a produção microbiana de metabólitos secundários com atividade inibitória ao desenvolvimento de outras espécies no reservatório de petróleo investigado, realizou-se análises de antibiogramas e Concentrações Inibitórias Mínimas (MIC), constatando Bacillus possuíam tal atividade. Sob condições anaeróbias foram obtidos consórcios microbianos, os quais foram caracterizados por técnicas independentes-de-cultivo, identificando-se bactérias do gênero Petrotoga como constituintes majoritários das comunidades presentes nos poços de petróleo amostrados. Duas espécies distintas de arquéias metanogênicas, Methanohalophilus sp. e Methanomethylovorans sp., também foram identificadas. Foram realizadas análises para a detecção da atividade biodegradadora da microbiota anaeróbia sobre biomarcadores do petróleo...

Avaliação do indicador do meio ambiente para selecionar um sistema marítimo de produção de petróleo; Selection of an offshore petroleum production system by evaluating an environmental impact index

Maiara Moreira Gonçalves
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/08/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05728%
O desenvolvimento de um sistema marítimo de produção de petróleo corresponde a um conjunto de equipamentos para viabilizar a extração de petróleo e gás, a partir de um reservatório de petróleo. Para uma melhor compreensão do processo, a definição deste sistema de produção pode ser dividida em fases. Fase I corresponde à seleção do número de poços e tipo do poço. Então, seguindo trabalhos anteriores (FRANCO, 2003), na Fase II, o arranjo de poços e a Unidade Estacionária de Produção (UEP) são selecionados. E, na Fase III, a alternativa para o armazenamento e escoamento de óleo e gás produzidos é escolhida. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo identificar os impactos ambientais associados com cada componente de um sistema marítimo de produção de óleo e gás, e quantificar cada um deles por meio de índices. É esperado que esta ferramenta irá apoiar os tomadores de decisão ao selecionarem o sistema que melhor se ajuste a um determinado campo marítimo de petróleo. A crescente necessidade de petróleo na matriz energética do Brasil, concomitante com a preocupação da sociedade em manter o meio ambiente limpo, torna a inclusão de um índice relacionado com o meio ambiente uma importante contribuição para melhorar o processo de seleção e decisão sobre o sistema marítimo de produção e sua inclusão...

Petroleum Product Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa : Comparative Efficiency Analysis of 12 Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19961%
Petroleum products are used across the entire economy in every country. Gasoline and diesel are the primary fuels used in road transport. Oil is used in power generation, accounting for eleven percent of total electricity generated in Africa in 2007. Adequate and reliable supply of transport services and electricity in turn are essential for economic development. Households use a variety of petroleum products: kerosene is used for lighting, cooking, and heating; liquefied petroleum gas for cooking and heating; and gasoline and diesel for private vehicles as well as captive power generation. Prices users pay for these petroleum products have macroeconomic and microeconomic consequences. At the macroeconomic level, oil price levels can affect the balance of payments, gross domestic product (GDP), and, where fuel prices are subsidized, government budgets, contingent liabilities, or both. At the microeconomic level, higher oil prices lower effective household income in three ways. First, households pay more for petroleum products they consume directly. Seventy percent of Sub-Saharan Africans are not yet connected to electricity; most without access rely on kerosene for lighting. Second...

Changes in End-User Petroleum Product Prices : A Comparison of 48 Countries

Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.102249%
This paper presents retail prices of the petroleum products in August 2008 in up to 56 countries, and examines the degree of pass through to consumers of increases in world gasoline and diesel prices since January 2004 in 48 countries. This is the second paper in a series summarizing work undertaken to assess the implications of higher oil prices on fuel use, the downstream petroleum sector, and household fuel consumption in the developing world. It follows a recent publication on a decomposition analysis of vulnerability to oil price increases, where vulnerability is defined as the percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) spent on net imports of crude oil and petroleum products (Bacon and Kojima 2008). This paper focuses on the extent to which international petroleum product price increases have been passed on to consumers.

Improvements to the Indiana Geological Survey’s Petroleum Database Management System

Zuppann, C. W.; Daniels, M.I.S.; Rohwer, P.; Jacob, D.; Proffitt, T. A.
Fonte: Universidade de Indiana Publicador: Universidade de Indiana
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05728%
This poster was presented at the 2011 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Eastern Section, in Arlington, Virginia, in September 2011.; The Indiana Geological Survey’s Petroleum Database Management System (PDMS) is a web application that provides online access to petroleum-related geological information. Since its debut in 2004, the application has been widely used by the petroleum industry, academia, government agencies, and the general public. On June 6, 2011, a significantly enhanced version of the PDMS went online. New features include a robust search menu that permits elaborate queries of more than 74,000 petroleum wells, rapid and convenient online viewing and downloading of PDF-file well reports and both PDF- and TIFF-file geophysical and other well logs, and streamlined menus for easily accessing extensive well data. An interactive, context-driven web help explains every concept or term used. The PDMS is organized in three main sections. The Well Tables Section includes such information as well location descriptions, completion zones, logs, operators, lease names, tests, reports, hydrocarbon shows, samples, cores, geologic formations and tops, and directional survey data. The Map Viewer Section contains many user-selectable layer options for showing well locations...

Rwanda Petroleum Exploration Capacity Building Project

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Mining/Oil and Gas; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22872%
The petroleum sector is not very well developed at the present time in Rwanda. The only petroleum related activity at this time in Rwanda is the extraction of dissolved methane from the waters of Lake Kivu. This report is the result of a short term consulting contract with the World Bank Group and FJG energy advisors concluded on September 1st 2009. This report is a result of a mission to Rwanda September 12th-25th, 2009. It is not intended as an in depth analysis of the capacity needs for the petroleum sector in Rwanda, as this was completed in March 2009 by bridge consult AS, but rather as an evaluation of the 'practical and operational' perspectives in developing a local petroleum industry focused on exploration. Further advice in dealing with potential interested companies was also offered in the context of an overarching petroleum policy. The main objectives of the assignment were to: enhance the familiarity on the part of key government officials with the main technical and economic concepts of the petroleum exploration and production industry; develop understanding within Government of Rwanda of the potential impacts (positive and negative) of an active petroleum exploration and production industry in a developing country; familiarize government officials with the fundamental policy issues they will face as petroleum exploration and development activities unfold in Rwanda with an emphasis on those up-front policy decisions needed at the earliest phases of activity; and prepare key officials to take a front line role in policy formulation and negotiation with private investors.

Petroleum Exploration and Production Rights : Allocation Strategies and Design Issues

Tordo, Silvana; Johnston, David; Johnston, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.21597%
Petroleum has become an integral part of today's global economy and a key component of many national economies. Hence, the presence of petroleum in meaningful quantities can have important economic, developmental, and strategic consequences for a country. While a country's petroleum resource base is a gift of nature, translating this resource into saleable crude oil requires investment and effort. Whether governments choose to invest directly or allow private investors to do so, their primary concern should be to maximize the social benefits derived from the exploitation of the resource base. In practice, however, defining what constitutes maximum social welfare is essentially a political question, which helps explain the variety of objectives pursued by governments over time. In order to exploit their natural resources efficiently, many governments rely on private oil companies. Governments have a challenging task in deciding which companies should be awarded the exclusive rights to explore, develop, and produce their resources...

Political Economy of the Petroleum Sector in Nigeria

Gboyega, Alex; Soreide, Tina; Le, Tuan Minh; Shukla, G. P.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.193076%
The relatively slow pace of Nigeria's development has often been attributed to the phenomenon of the resource curse whereby the nature of the state as a "rentier" dilutes accountability for development and political actors are able to manipulate institutions to sustain poor governance. The impact of the political elite's resource-control and allocation of revenues on core democratic mechanisms is central to understand the obstacles to development and governance failure. Given that problems of petroleum sector governance are extremely entrenched in Nigeria, the key question is whether and how it is possible to get out of a poor equilibrium after fifty years of oil production. This paper uses a political economy perspective to analyze the governance weaknesses along the petroleum sector value chain and attempts to establish the links between challenges in sector regulation and the following major political and economic attributes: (i) strong executive control on petroleum governance in a political environment of weak checks and balances; (ii) regulatory and operating roles bundled into one institution...

Rockets and Feathers : Asymmetric Petroleum Product Pricing in Developing Countries

Bacon, Robert; Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.102249%
This paper aims to provide those working in developing countries with a review of the issues that can help address the four questions: 1) are petroleum product margins excessively high at certain times?; 2) Does asymmetry of price responses to cost changes exist and, if so, what are the possible reasons that could account for it?; 3) If there is asymmetry of petroleum product price responsiveness, how large is the cost to consumers compared with symmetric pricing?; And 4) what policies can combat excessive petroleum product margins? The discussion focuses mainly on liberalized markets, because, in markets subject to price control, the pattern of responses of prices to cost changes will be determined partially or largely by the Government. Chapter one describes asymmetric pricing and the structure of the oil market, focusing in particular on the links between the retail sector and the rest of the chain of supply. The chapter next briefly reviews types of legislation that exist in liberalized markets to protect consumers from monopolistic or collusive behavior in petroleum products pricing. Chapter two describes different types of firms' pricing behavior...

Petroleum Fiscal Issues and Policies for Fluctuating Oil Prices in Vietnam

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.147512%
The 1998 lowest level of international oil prices, triggered Viet Nam's request for technical assistance, to not only evaluate the petroleum fiscal system in comparison to other countries' competitiveness in international oil contracts' best practice, but also to evaluate options for flexible gas production contracts, including fiscal incentives for oil, and gas development of economically marginal fields. Since this report was prepared, in early 1999, oil prices have risen, and, the Petroleum Law was amended by mid 2000, hence, a later report will discuss revisions, and evaluate the total fiscal package. Nonetheless, the analyses reveal Viet Nam's contractual terms, concluding the country deals effectively with variations in economic conditions resulting from water depths; but ineffectively in dealing with field sizes, essentially creating the situation for small fields to remain uneconomic; moreover, it does not deal specifically with variations in economic conditions: actually it strongly discourages the development of fields with low-well productivity...

Undeveloped Oil and Gas Fields in the Industrializing World : A Description of Potential International Investment Projects for the Petroleum Industry

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.168916%
Intensive exploration for oil, and gas, led to considering many discovered fields as non-commercial, which have since, not been developed. Yet, if developed, these fields could have significant economic impacts on a number of the Bank's borrowing countries. The study examines the undeveloped fields, the commercial potential, and contractual conditions under which these fields were discovered, and, in partnership with PetroConsultants, and Robertson Research, evaluates the likelihood for commercial viability. The study provides country-specific proposed changes, that if implemented, would ensure the commercial development of these otherwise marginal fields. Obviously, the private sector-oil companies would undertake commercial development, thus the study aims to assure the economic, and technical feasibility of those fields, and allow reconsideration by the industry, for development investment. Comparative data was obtained from the Study of World Wide Petroleum Contract Terms, the Africa Gas Initiative, the Gas Flare Reduction Project...

Petroleum Product Pricing and Complementary Policies : Experience of 65 Developing Countries Since 2009

Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.13455%
Unable to cope fully with steadily climbing world oil prices since mid-2009, many of the 65 countries reviewed in this paper have progressed slowly or even reversed course in reforming pricing of petroleum products. End-user prices in July 2012 varied by two orders of magnitude across the countries. More than two-fifths, including some that had only recently adopted automatic pricing mechanisms, froze the prices of gasoline, diesel, or both for months or even years on end during the study period. When the prices were finally adjusted, the increases were sometimes substantial, leading to large-scale protests, partial or full reversals of price adjustments, or softening of pricing reform policy. Governments' attempts to keep domestic prices artificially low -- through price control, export or quantity restrictions, or political pressure put on oil companies -- have helped curb inflation in the short term, but frequently with serious negative consequences: flourishing black markets, smuggling, fuel adulteration, illegal diversion of subsidy funds...

Vietnam's Petroleum Sector : Technical Assistance for the Revision of the Existing Legal and Regulatory Framework

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.168916%
The oil and gas potential of Vietnam's continental shelf remains relatively unexplored compared with that of its neighbors, including China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. A number of factors affect the decision to undertake petroleum investments: geology, geography, geopolitics, and investment climate. Host governments cannot control the first three factors. However, they do control the investment climate, and the legal and contractual framework and the petroleum fiscal system are key factors to be considered in the competition among governments for access to investment capital. Despite intense efforts to attract international oil companies to explore the country's sedimentary basins, including incentive terms contained in a 1998 decision of the prime minister, drilling activity has remained modest in recent years. The government requested technical assistance from ESMAP for revision of its petroleum legal regime so that it might become a modern legal and regulatory framework for the petroleum sector and attract foreign investment to develop its hydrocarbon reserves. The project team evaluated and identified international best practice in the areas of petroleum regimes to develop its recommendations to Vietnam. They recommended strengthening of the legal...

Petroleum Prices in Bangladesh : A Need for Regular and Appropriate Adjustments

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.13455%
Under-pricing of diesel and kerosene continues to cause major financial problems for Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation (BPC), which is losing over Tk 2 billion monthly. Global forecasts suggest that oil prices will continue to be over $US 50 per barrel for the next couple of years. Bangladesh's Household Income and Expenditure Survey data for 2005 indicate that both diesel and kerosene form a very small part of the budget of the poor. One option, therefore, is to raise the price of diesel and kerosene from current Tk 33 to 41 per liter and make BPC breakeven on its trading costs. BPC's trading cost is roughly 70 percent of its total current costs; the latter includes an ever increasing interest bill, currently at Tk 4.7 billion. If the one step increase is considered difficult, a second option would be to phase the increase over a six-month period with each increase of Tk 4 per liter, possibly in sync with the 'boro' rice planting season. A major communication campaign should be launched to inform the public the rationale of the price increase. Future adjustments should be based on a formula that automatically adjusts prices-both upwards and downwards...

Energizing Economic Growth in Ghana : Making the Power and Petroleum Sectors Rise to the Challenge

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy-Environment Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.081772%
The main objective of this report is to provide the new Government of Ghana with recommendations on the actions needed to improve the performance of Ghana's energy sector. The report focuses on the power and petroleum sectors, taking account of the interdependence between the sectors, and providing recommendations for how they can, together, drive future economic growth. This report aims to highlight the centrality of fixing the problems in the power sector as a path to ensuring that Ghana's economic growth ambitions are not stymied by a lack of electricity. The problems and their solutions are well known; what has been lacking is decisive and timely decision making to break the tendency to adopt reactive measures that often come too late when proactive measures will have led to better outcomes. Demand for gas in the power sector is set to expand rapidly, as new thermal generation capacity is built to meet rapidly growing power demand. However, to ensure successful development of its gas sector, Ghana will need to address a number of important challenges. The paper is organized as follows: chapter one gives introduction; chapter two deals with electricity demand and supply; chapter three deals with resolving generation and transmission bottlenecks; chapter four gives reforms urgently needed in power distribution; chapter five focuses on natural gas sector; and chapter six focuses on upstream oil and gas sector.

Deleterious effects of water-soluble fraction of petroleum, diesel and gasoline on marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae

Rodrigues, Ricardo Vieira; Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos; Gusmão, Emeline Pereira; Moreira, Cauê Bonucci; Romano, Luis Alberto; Sampaio, Luís André Nassr de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.102249%
Accidental discharges and oil spills are frequent around the world. Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are considered one of the main pollutants of aquatic ecosystem. The importance of petroleum and refined fuels is notorious because today's society depends on them. Researches related to the toxic water-soluble fraction(WSF) of petroleum and derivatives to aquatic biota are scarce. For this reason, deleterious effects of WSF of Brazilian petroleum, automotive diesel and unleaded gasoline to marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis larvae were studied employing toxicity tests and histopathological examination. Each WSF was generated in a laboratory by mixing four parts of seawater with one part of pollutant by approximately 22 h. Larvae were exposed during 96 h to different concentrations of WSF of petroleum, diesel, and gasoline, plus a control. After 96 h of exposure to the different WSFs, three larvae were sampled for histopathological studies. The median lethal concentration after 96 h (LC50) of exposure for WSF of petroleum was equal to 70.68%, it was significantly higher (Pb0.05) than the values for WSF of diesel and gasoline, which were 13.46% and 5.48%, respectively. The histological examination of pejerrey larvae exposed to WSF of petroleum...