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Comparative study of porosity and pores morphology of unalloyed iron sintered in furnace and plasma reactor

Pavanati,Henrique Cezar; Maliska,Ana Maria; Klein,Aloisio Nelmo; Muzart,Joel Louis René
Fonte: ABM, ABC, ABPol Publicador: ABM, ABC, ABPol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2007 EN
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356.35918%
Samples of unalloyed iron were sintered in the presence of an abnormal glow discharge using a confined anode-cathode configuration. The samples were placed on a holder acting as the discharge anode inside an AISI 1020 steel hollow cathode. Heating of the outer cathode was obtained by the bombardment of ions and energetic neutral particles. As a consequence of the confined geometry, the sample was efficiently heated mainly by radiation from the cathode. In order to evaluate the results of the sintering process by plasma, samples of unalloyed iron were also sintered in a resistive furnace using the same thermal cycle. The porosity, dimension and morphology of the pores were characterized by means of four basic parameters: area fraction, mean diameter, shape factor and elongation factor. The results show that the shape factor depends on the pore size, a characteristic that was not observed for elongation factor. For samples sintered in plasma reactor or conventional furnace, no significant difference in the porosity or in the pores morphology was observed.

Ultrastructural aspects in perithecia hyphae septal pores of Glomerella cingulata F. SP. Phaseoli

Roca M.,María Gabriela; Ongarelli,Maria das Graças; Davide,Lisete Chamma; Mendes-Costa,Maria Cristina
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2000 EN
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356.35918%
Glomerella cingulata (Stonem.) Spauld. & Schrenk f. sp. phaseoli, better known in its anamorphic state Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn.) Briosi & Cav., is a causal agent of anthracnose in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Ultrastructural aspects of the perithecial hyphae of this pathogen were studied. The perithecia hyphae septal pores were found either plugged by a vesicle or unplugged. Some perithecia hyphae septa presented no pore. The Woronin bodies, close to the septal pores, appeared as globose structures which were more electron dense than the occlusions plugging the septal pore.

Flickering fusion pores comparable with initial exocytotic pores occur in protein-free phospholipid bilayers

Chanturiya, Alexandr; Chernomordik, Leonid V.; Zimmerberg, Joshua
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/12/1997 EN
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For the act of membrane fusion, there are two competing, mutually exclusive molecular models that differ in the structure of the initial pore, the pathway for ionic continuity between formerly separated volumes. Because biological “fusion pores” can be as small as ionic channels or gap junctions, one model posits a proteinaceous initial fusion pore. Because biological fusion pore conductance varies widely, another model proposes a lipidic initial pore. We have found pore opening and flickering during the fusion of protein-free phospholipid vesicles with planar phospholipid bilayers. Fusion pore formation appears to follow the coalescence of contacting monolayers to create a zone of hemifusion where continuity between the two adherent membranes is lipidic, but not aqueous. Hypotonic stress, causing tension in the vesicle membrane, promotes complete fusion. Pores closed soon after opening (flickering), and the distribution of fusion pore conductance appears similar to the distribution of initial fusion pores in biological fusion. Because small flickering pores can form in the absence of protein, the existence of small pores in biological fusion cannot be an argument in support of models based on proteinaceous pores. Rather, these results support the model of a lipidic fusion pore developing within a hemifused contact site.

Voltage-induced nonconductive pre-pores and metastable single pores in unmodified planar lipid bilayer.

Melikov, K C; Frolov, V A; Shcherbakov, A; Samsonov, A V; Chizmadzhev, Y A; Chernomordik, L V
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2001 EN
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265.41691%
Electric fields promote pore formation in both biological and model membranes. We clamped unmodified planar bilayers at 150-550 mV to monitor transient single pores for a long period of time. We observed fast transitions between different conductance levels reflecting opening and closing of metastable lipid pores. Although mean lifetime of the pores was 3 +/- 0.8 ms (250 mV), some pores remained open for up to approximately 1 s. The mean amplitude of conductance fluctuations (approximately 500 pS) was independent of voltage and close for bilayers of different area (40,000 and 10 microm(2)), indicating the local nature of the conductive defects. The distribution of pore conductance was rather broad (dispersion of approximately 250 pS). Based on the conductance value and its dependence of the ion size, the radius of the average pore was estimated as approximately 1 nm. Short bursts of conductance spikes (opening and closing of pores) were often separated by periods of background conductance. Within the same burst the conductance between spikes was indistinguishable from the background. The mean time interval between spikes in the burst was much smaller than that between adjacent bursts. These data indicate that opening and closing of lipidic pores proceed through some electrically invisible (silent) pre-pores. Similar pre-pore defects and metastable conductive pores might be involved in remodeling of cell membranes in different biologically relevant processes.

Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Hydrophilic Pores in Lipid Bilayers

Leontiadou, Hari; Mark, Alan E.; Marrink, Siewert J.
Fonte: Biophysical Society Publicador: Biophysical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2004 EN
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Hydrophilic pores are formed in peptide free lipid bilayers under mechanical stress. It has been proposed that the transport of ionic species across such membranes is largely determined by the existence of such meta-stable hydrophilic pores. To study the properties of these structures and understand the mechanism by which pore expansion leads to membrane rupture, a series of molecular dynamics simulations of a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer have been conducted. The system was simulated in two different states; first, as a bilayer containing a meta-stable pore and second, as an equilibrated bilayer without a pore. Surface tension in both cases was applied to study the formation and stability of hydrophilic pores inside the bilayers. It is observed that below a critical threshold tension of ∼38 mN/m the pores are stabilized. The minimum radius at which a pore can be stabilized is 0.7 nm. Based on the critical threshold tension the line tension of the bilayer was estimated to be ∼3 × 10−11 N, in good agreement with experimental measurements. The flux of water molecules through these stabilized pores was analyzed, and the structure and size of the pores characterized. When the lateral pressure exceeds the threshold tension...

Basement Membrane Pores in Human Bronchial Epithelium : A Conduit for Infiltrating Cells?

Howat, William J.; Holmes, James A.; Holgate, Stephen T.; Lackie, Peter M.
Fonte: American Society for Investigative Pathology Publicador: American Society for Investigative Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2001 EN
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263.7104%
This study reports the presence of oval-shaped pores in the basement membrane of the human bronchial airway that may be used as conduits for immune cells to traffic between the epithelial and mesenchymal compartments. Human bronchial mucosa collected after surgery was stripped of epithelial cells without damaging the basement membrane. Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed oval-shaped pores 0.75 to 3.85 μm in diameter in the bronchial basement membrane at a density of 863 pores/mm2. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the pores spanned the full depth of the basement membrane, with a concentration of collagen-like fibers at the lateral edges of the pore. Infiltrating cells apparently moved through the pores, both in the presence and absence of the epithelium. Taken together, these results suggest that immune cells use basement membrane pores as predefined routes to move between the epithelial and mesenchymal compartments without disruption of the basement membrane. As a persistent feature of the basement membrane, pores could facilitate inflammatory cell access to the epithelium and greatly increase the frequency of intercellular contact between trafficking cells.

Translocation of RNA-coated gold particles through the nuclear pores of oocytes

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/1988 EN
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265.41691%
In the present study, various sized gold particles coated with tRNA, 5S RNA, or poly(A) were used to localize and characterize the pathways for RNA translocation to the cytoplasm. RNA-coated gold particles were microinjected into the nucleus of Xenopus oocytes. The cells were fixed after 15, 60 min, or 6 h, and the particle distribution was later observed by electron microscopy. Similar results were obtained with all classes of RNA used. After nuclear injection, particles ranging from 20- 230 A in diameter were observed within central channels of the nuclear pores and in the cytoplasm immediately adjacent to the pores. Particles of this size would not be expected to diffuse through the pores, suggesting that some form of mediated transport occurred. In addition, it was found that the translocation process is saturable. At least 97% of the pores analyzed appeared to be involved in the translocation process. Gold coated with nonphysiological polynucleotides (poly[I] or poly[dA]) were also translocated. When nuclei were injected with either BSA-, ovalbumin-, polyglutamic acid-, or PVP-coated gold, the particles were essentially excluded from the pores. These results indicate that the accumulation of RNA-gold within the pores and adjacent cytoplasm was not due to non-specific effects. We conclude that the translocation sites for gold particles coated with different classes of RNA are located in the centers of the nuclear pores and that particles at least 230 A in diameter can cross the envelope. Tracer particles injected into the cytoplasm were observed within the nuclear pores in areas near the site of injection. However...

Pores Formed by Baxα5 Relax to a Smaller Size and Keep at Equilibrium

Fuertes, Gustavo; García-Sáez, Ana J.; Esteban-Martín, Santi; Giménez, Diana; Sánchez-Muñoz, Orlando L.; Schwille, Petra; Salgado, Jesús
Fonte: The Biophysical Society Publicador: The Biophysical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/11/2010 EN
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Pores made by amphipathic cationic peptides (e.g., antimicrobials and fragments of pore-forming proteins) are typically studied by examining the kinetics of vesicle leakage after peptide addition or obtaining structural measurements in reconstituted peptide-lipid systems. In the first case, the pores have been considered transient phenomena that allow the relaxation of the peptide-membrane system. In the second, they correspond to equilibrium structures at minimum free energy. Here we reconcile both approaches by investigating the pore activity of the α5 fragment from the proapoptotic protein Bax (Baxα5) before and after equilibrium of peptide/vesicle complexes. Quenching assays on suspensions of large unilamellar vesicles suggest that in the presence of Baxα5, the vesicles maintain a leaky state for hours under equilibrium conditions. We proved and analyzed stable pores on single giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) in detail by monitoring the entrance of dyes added at different times after incubation with the peptide. When the GUVs came in contact with Baxα5, leakage started stochastically, was delayed for various periods of time, and in the majority of cases proceeded rapidly to completion. After hours in the presence of the peptide...

The Role of Pores in Acellular Dermal Matrix Substitute

Xiao, S.-C.; Xia, Z.-F.; Ben, D.-F.; Tang, H.-T.; Wang, G.-Q.; Zhu, S.-H.; Yu, W.-R.
Fonte: Mediterranean Council for Burns and Fire Disasters Publicador: Mediterranean Council for Burns and Fire Disasters
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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To promote the engraftment rate of autologous skin combined with acellular dermal matrix (ADM), ADM was punched to produce regular pores from 500 to 800 µm in diameter, separated by a distance of 3 to 5 mm. The porous ADM was then implanted beneath the flap and transplanted onto an open full-thickness defect wound combined with autografts about 0.2 mm thick in a rat model. The change in diameter of pores in ADM and the neovascularization of ADM matrix were evaluated, and the take rate of porous ADM combined with overlying autologous skin was compared with that of non-porous ADM. The results showed that when porous ADM was grafted onto the full-thickness skin excised wound, plasma penetrated from the wound bed to the surface of ADM through these pores, i.e. the pores punched on ADM were responsible for the imbibition function. Subdermal implantation of ADM indicated that one week post-operation the pores in ADM were still detectable, and some of them contained red blood cells. Two to three weeks after grafting the pores became smaller, partly because of newly synthesized collagen matrix deposition. In Sprague-Dawley rats the engraftment rate of autologous sheet skin graft placed over ADM with pores was 89.5%, which was significantly higher than ADM without pores (63.2%). It is concluded that porous ADM could serve as a good dermal substitute.

Propriétés électrophysiologiques des canaux ioniques formés par la toxine nématicide Cry5Ba du bacille de Thuringe dans les bicouches lipidiques planes

Karabrahimi, Valbona
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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264.6473%
Les toxines Cry sont des protéines synthétisées sous forme de cristaux par la bactérie bacille de Thuringe pendant la sporulation. Elles sont largement utilisées comme agents de lutte biologique, car elles sont toxiques envers plusieurs espèces d’invertébrées, y compris les nématodes. Les toxines Cry5B sont actives contre certaines espèces de nématodes parasites, y compris Ankylostoma ceylanicum un parasite qui infeste le système gastro-intestinal des humains. Jusqu’au présent, le mode d’action des toxines Cry nématicides reste grandement inconnu, sauf que leurs récepteurs spécifiques sont des glycolipides et qu’elles causent des dommages importants aux cellules intestinales. Dans cette étude, on démontre pour la première fois que la toxine nématicide Cry5Ba, membre de la famille des toxines à trois domaines et produite par la bactérie bacille de Thuringe, forme des pores dans les bicouches lipidiques planes en absence de récepteurs. Les pores formés par cette toxine sont de sélectivité cationique, à pH acide ou alcalin. Les conductances des pores formés sous conditions symétriques de 150 mM de KCl varient entre 17 et 330 pS, à pH 6.0 et 9.0. Les niveaux des conductances les plus fréquemment observés diffèrent les uns des autres par environ 17 à 18 pS...

Giant cuticular pores in Eidothea zoexylocarya (Proteaceae) leaves

Carpenter, R.; Jordan, G.; Leigh, A.; Brodribb, T.
Fonte: Botanical Soc Amer Inc Publicador: Botanical Soc Amer Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
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365.4169%
Ubiquitous, large diameter pores have not previously been adequately demonstrated to occur in leaf cuticles. Here we show conclusively that such structures occur in Eidothea zoexylocarya, a rainforest tree species of Proteaceae restricted to the Australian Wet Tropics. The pores are abundant, large-diameter apertures (1 µm), that extend perpendicularly most of the way through the cuticle from the inside. They occur on both sides of the leaf, but are absent from the cuticle associated with stomatal complexes on the abaxial side. No such pores were found in any other species, including the only other species of Eidothea, E. hardeniana from New South Wales, and other species that have previously been purported to possess cuticular pores. To determine whether these pores made the cuticles more leaky to water vapor, we measured astomatous cuticular conductances to water vapor for E. zoexylocarya and seven other Proteaceae species of the Wet Tropics. Cuticular conductance for E. zoexylocarya was relatively low, indicating that the prominent pores do not increase conductance. The function of the pores is currently obscure, but the presence of both pores and an adaxial hypodermis in E. zoexylocarya but not E. hardeniana suggests evolution in response to greater environmental stresses in the tropics.; Raymond J. Carpenter...

Developing functionalized dendrimer-like silica nanoparticles with hierarchical pores as advanced delivery nanocarriers

Du, X.; Shi, B.; Liang, J.; Bi, J.; Dai, S.; Qiao, S.
Fonte: Wiley-V C H Verlag GMBH Publicador: Wiley-V C H Verlag GMBH
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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352.33355%
Functionalized dendrimer-like hybrid silica nanoparticles with hierarchical pores are designed and synthesized. The unique structure, large surface area, and excellent biocompability render such materials attractive nanocarriers for the advanced delivery of various sized drugs and genes simultaneously.; Xin Du, Bingyang Shi, Ji Liang, Jingxu Bi, Sheng Dai, and Shi Zhang Qiao

Structure and mechanism of peptide-induced membrane pores

Qian, Shuo
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
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This thesis reports the studies of the structure and mechanism of peptide-induced membrane pores by antimicrobial peptide alamethicin and by a peptide named Baxalpha5, which is derived from Bax protein. Alamethicin is one of best known antimicrobial peptides, which are ubiquitous throughout the biological world. Bax-alpha5 peptide is the pore-forming domain of apoptosis regulator protein Bax, which activates pore formation on outer mitochondrial membrane to release cytochrome c to initiate programmed cell death. Both peptides as well as many other pore-forming peptides, induce pores in membrane, however the structure and mechanism of the pore formation were unknown. By utilizing grazing angle x-ray diffraction, I was able to reconstruct the electron density profile of the membrane pores induced by both peptides. The fully hydrated multiple bilayers of peptide-lipid mixture on solid substrate were prepared in the condition that pores were present, as established previously by neutron in-plane scattering and oriented circular dichroism. At dehydrated conditions, the inter bilayer distance of the sample shortened and the interactions between bilayers caused the membrane pores to become long-ranged correlated and formed a periodically ordered lattice of rhombohedral symmetry...

The alveolar pores of Kohn in young postnatal rat lungs and their relation with type II pneumocytes

Van Meir, Frans
Fonte: Murcia : F. Hernández Publicador: Murcia : F. Hernández
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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362.54496%
In order to obtain more information on the development, morphology and function of the pores of Kohn, the lungs of Wistar rats are studied during their early postnatal period, up to 3 weeks of age, by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The substantial development of the interalveolar pores on days 14 and 21 coincides with the period of septal rearrangement when secondary interalveolar septa become lengthened and thinner. The high frequency of transseptal type 11 pneumocytes from day 7 onwards, and their typical localization near the pores of Kohn at this period of lung development especially suggests that type 11 pneumocytes are engaged in the formation of the pores of Kohn. During early lung development, the pores of Kohn seem to serve as passageways for alveolar macrophages.

Comparison of transient and successful fusion pores connecting influenza hemagglutinin expressing cells to planar membranes

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/11/1995 EN
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266.06037%
Time-resolved admittance measurements were used to investigate the evolution of fusion pores formed between cells expressing influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and planar bilayer membranes. The majority of fusion pores opened in a stepwise fashion to semistable conductance levels of several nS. About 20% of the pores had measurable rise times to nS conductances; some of these opened to conductances of approximately 500 pS where they briefly lingered before opening further to semistable conductances. The fall times of closing were statistically similar to the rise times of opening. All fusion pores exhibited semistable values of conductance, varying from approximately 2-20 nS; they would then either close or fully open to conductances on the order of 1 microS. The majority of pores closed; approximately 10% fully opened. Once within the semistable stage, all fusion pores, even those that eventually closed, tended to grow. Statistically, however, before closing, transient fusion pores ceased to grow and reversed their conductance pattern: conductances decreased with a measurable time course until a final drop to closure. In contrast, pore enlargement to the fully open state tended to occur from the largest conductance values attained during a pore's semistable stage. This final enlargement was characterized by a stepwise increase in conductance. The density of HA on the cell surface did not strongly affect pore dynamics. But increased proteolytic treatment of cell surfaces did lead to faster growth within the semistable range. Transient pores and pores that fully opened had indistinguishable initial conductances and statistically identical time courses of early growth...

Patch-clamp detection of macromolecular translocation along nuclear pores

Bustamante,J.O.; Varanda,W.A.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/1998 EN
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363.7104%
The present paper reviews the application of patch-clamp principles to the detection and measurement of macromolecular translocation along the nuclear pores. We demonstrate that the tight-seal 'gigaseal' between the pipette tip and the nuclear membrane is possible in the presence of fully operational nuclear pores. We show that the ability to form a gigaseal in nucleus-attached configurations does not mean that only the activity of channels from the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope can be detected. Instead, we show that, in the presence of fully operational nuclear pores, it is likely that the large-conductance ion channel activity recorded derives from the nuclear pores. We conclude the technical section with the suggestion that the best way to demonstrate that the nuclear pores are responsible for ion channel activity is by showing with fluorescence microscopy the nuclear translocation of ions and small molecules and the exclusion of the same from the cisterna enclosed by the two membranes of the envelope. Since transcription factors and mRNAs, two major groups of nuclear macromolecules, use nuclear pores to enter and exit the nucleus and play essential roles in the control of gene activity and expression, this review should be useful to cell and molecular biologists interested in understanding how patch-clamp can be used to quantitate the translocation of such macromolecules into and out of the nucleus

Spatial variability of pores in oxidic latosol under a conservation management system with different gypsium doses

Carducci,Carla Eloize; Oliveira,Geraldo César; Curi,Nilton; Rossoni,Diogo Francisco; Costa,Alisson Lucrécio; Heck,Richard Jonh
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Federal de Lavras Publicador: Editora da Universidade Federal de Lavras
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2014 EN
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362.54496%
Soil structure is modify when subjected to the agricultural process, i.e., a new spatial organization of the pores system is formed, with relation to the physical quality of it. Thus the aim of this work was to visualize and quantify, through X-ray CT scan, the pores distribution in an oxidic Latosol submitted to a conservation management system with different gypsum doses. Three random trenches were dug lengthwise along the plant row in a very clayey gibbsitic dystrophic Red Latosol, subjected to the following gypsum levels: G0: absence of gypsum; G7: 7 Mg ha-1 and G28: 28 Mg ha-1 of additional gypsum, applied to the surface of the plant row. Undisturbed soil samples were collected in plexiglass tubes at depths of 0.20-0.34, 0.80-0.94 and 1.50-1.64 m after six years of coffee cultivation for quantification of 3D pores obtained by X-ray CT scan. The spatial variability of the soil structure was evaluated by semivariograms generated by 3D images in grayscale. Distribution of the detectable pore diameter was conducted by data mining. Statistical analyzes employed packages 'geoR' to semivariogram and 'randomForest' for data mining in R language. A greater spatial continuity of the pores occurred in the G7 at the three depths. The combined effects of the management system promoted a greater spatial variability of the soil structure in the G28 treatment. Based on geostatistical analyses...

Giant cuticular pores in Eidothea zoexylocarya (Proteaceae) leaves

Carpenter, Raymond J.; Jordan, Gregory J.; Leigh, Andrea; Brodribb, Timothy J.
Fonte: Botanical Society of America Publicador: Botanical Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
352.33355%
Ubiquitous, large diameter pores have not previously been adequately demonstrated to occur in leaf cuticles. Here we show conclusively that such structures occur in Eidothea zoexylocarya, a rainforest tree species of Proteaceae restricted to the Australia

Horizontal flow fields observed in Hinode G-band images IV. Statistical properties of the dynamical environment around pores

Verma, Meetu; Denker, Carsten
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/01/2014
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266.60633%
The extensive database of high-resolution G-band images observed with the Hinode/SOT is a unique resource to derive statistical properties of pores using advanced digital image processing techniques. The study is based on two data sets: (1) Photometric and morphological properties inferred from single G-band images cover almost seven years from 2006 October 25 to 2013 August 31. (2) Horizontal flow fields have been derived from 356 one-hour sequences of G-band images using LCT for a shorter period of time from 2006 November 3 to 2008 January 6 comprising 13 active regions. A total of 7643/2863 (single/time-averaged) pores builds the foundation of the statistical analysis. Pores are preferentially observed at low latitudes in the southern hemisphere during the deep minimum of solar cycle No. 23. This imbalance reverses during the rise of cycle No. 24, when the pores migrate from high to low latitudes. Pores are rarely encountered in quiet-Sun G-band images, and only about 10% of pores exists in isolation. In general, pores do not exhibit a circular shape. Typical aspect ratios of the semi-major and -minor axes are 3:2 when ellipses are fitted to pores. Smaller pores (more than two-thirds are smaller than 5~Mm^2) tend to be more circular...

The Acceleration of the Diffusion-Limited Pump-and-Treat Aquifer Remediation with Pulsed Pumping that Generates Deep Sweeps and Vortex Ejections in Dead-End Pores

Kahler, David Murray
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2011
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Clean water is a critical natural resource. We do not have much available: only 2.5% of water on Earth is freshwater and of that only 31% is in liquid form. 96% of the liquid fresh water is groundwater. Unfortunately that resource is subject to contamination by hazardous materials accidentally or illicitly spilled, leaked, or deposited in or on the ground. Among the methods to remediate these disasters, pump-and-treat (P&T) is the most common. The vertical circulation well (VCW) is a P&T configuration with extraction and injection sites within the same well. It can be adapted to many remediation techniques and has been gaining popularity since the 1990s and is often a better alternative to conventional P&T. Conventional P&T and VCWs are typically run with steady flow.

The major bottleneck to steady flow remediation is that contaminants become trapped in dead-end pores. In an aquifer there are two types of pores: pass-through pores and dead-end pores. The flow in former completely sweeps through the pore space while the flow does not enter the later; however, the flow through the pass-through pore induces a vortex in the dead-end pore. Under steady flow the only mechanism for contaminants to escape the dead-end pores is molecular diffusion.

A similar problem is encountered in the removal of surfactants in the manufacture of semiconductor and the removal of oil residue build-up in small ducts. Manufacturers discovered that pulsed flow would accelerate the mass transfer between the cavities and grooves on these surfaces and the external flow. This was because the unsteady ramp-up in flow rate initiated a deep sweep of the cavities. The unsteady ramp-down in flow rate initiated a vortex ejection where the sequestered vortex is no longer constrained and protrudes from the cavity.

We hypothesized that just as pulsed flow improves cleaning of grooved surfaces in several manufacturing procedures...