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Monte Carlo model of a low-energy neutron interrogation system for detecting fissile material

Johnson, Erik D., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 101 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
886.8048%
(cont.) Further MCNP simulations of the neutron source impinging on cargo containers suggest that this technique can respond, as expected, qualitatively differently to containers containing SNM from containers that do not. Containers that contain small amounts of fissile isotopes as in the case of a few grams of uranium-235 in a kilogram of depleted uranium will also respond to this method but much more weakly. The system as proposed is viable and further simulation and experimental work will elucidate the behavior of this system under a wide range of cargo environments.; The undeniable threat of nuclear terrorism presents an opportunity for innovation in developing active interrogation technology. The proposed system aims to detect the smuggling of special nuclear material (SNM) in maritime containers. Identifying the importation of SNM will be instrumental in protecting the American public from a nuclear terrorist attack made possible by the construction of a weapon with fissile material from abroad. The proposed system uses a directionally-biased beam of low-energy neutrons (60 - 100 keV) generated from a 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction run near threshold. These neutrons are directed towards a cargo container of unknown composition. If SNM is present in the container and the neutrons can reach it...

Canister design for deep borehole disposal of nuclear waste

Hoag, Christopher Ian
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 125 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
884.1838%
The objective of this thesis was to design a canister for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level waste in deep borehole repositories using currently available and proven oil, gas, and geothermal drilling technology. The canister is suitable for disposal of various waste forms, such as fuel assemblies and vitrified waste. The design addresses real and perceived hazards of transporting and placing high-level waste, in the form of spent reactor fuel, into a deep igneous rock environment with particular emphasis on thermal performance. The proposed boreholes are 3 to 5 km deep, in igneous rock such as granite. The rock must be in a geologically stable area from a volcanic and tectonic standpoint, and it should have low permeability, as shown in recent data taken from a Russian deep borehole. Although deep granite should remain dry, water in flooded boreholes is expected to be reducing, but potentially corrosive to steel. However, the granite and plug are the containment barrier, not the canister itself. The canisters use standard oil drilling casings. The inner diameter is 315.32mm in order to accommodate a PWR assembly with a width of 214mm. At five meters tall, each canister holds one PWR assembly. The canister thickness is 12.19mm...

Pool boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids

Kim, Sung Joong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 83 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
882.7055%
Nanofluids are engineered colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles in water, and exhibit a very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the boiling Critical Heat Flux (CHF) at modest nanoparticle concentrations (50.1% by volume). Since CHF is the upper limit of nucleate boiling, such enhancement offers the potential for major performance improvement in many practical applications that use nucleate boiling as their prevalent heat transfer mode. The nuclear applications considered are main reactor coolant for PWR, coolant for the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) of both PWR and BWR, and coolant for in-vessel retention of the molten core during severe accidents in high-power-density LWR. To implement such applications it is necessary to understand the fundamental boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids. The nanofluids considered in this study are dilute dispersions of alumina, zirconia, and silica nanoparticles in water. Several key parameters affecting heat transfer (i.e., boiling point, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and surface tension) were measured and, consistently with other nanofluid studies, were found to be similar to those of pure water. However, pool boiling experiments showed significant enhancements of CHF in the nanofluids. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) analyses revealed that buildup of a porous layer of nanoparticles on the heater surface occurred during nucleate boiling. This layer significantly improves the surface wettability...

Sensitivity of economic performance of the nuclear fuel cycle to simulation modeling assumptions

Bonnet, Nicéphore
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 130 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
885.2516%
Comparing different nuclear fuel cycles and assessing their implications require a fuel cycle simulation model as complete and realistic as possible. In this thesis, methodological implications of modeling choices are discussed in connection with development of the MIT fuel cycle simulation code CAFCA. The CAFCA code is meant to find the recycling facilities deployment rate that minimizes the time by which spent fuel in storage today is used up in order to lead to a nuclear fuel cycle with minimum inventory of transuranic elements. The deployment is constrained by the recycling plants construction capacity and also by the economic requirement that the recycling plants loading factor never drops below a certain level. First, through a simplified fuel cycle model, it is analytically proven that an optimum solution is to build recycling plants at full speed up to a certain point in time b, then to suspend construction until interim storage gets completely depleted. The shape of the optimum solution, parameterized by b, is injected into an algorithm based on a complete model of the fuel cycle. An iterative process yields the value of b assuring depletion and satisfactory loading factors. Besides providing rigorous optimization,this analytical solution underpinning the CAFCA algorithm is expected to reduce considerably the vulnerability of the results to numerical discontinuities. Degradation of fuel quality with time in interim storage occurs due to the decay of Pu241 into Am241. While an obvious approach to track such effects is to couple the fuel cycle code with a neutronics/decay code (ORIGEN for example)...

An assessment of carbon sources for the production of synthetic fuels from nuclear hydrogen

Leung, MinWah
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 51 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
882.9587%
In the transportation sector, the current dependence on petroleum to satisfy large transportation fuel demand in the US is unsustainable. Oil resources are finite, and causing heavy US reliance on oil imports. Therefore, the development of alternative transportation fuels that do not depend on oil is becoming increasingly necessary. Our research investigates the feasibility of producing gasoline synthetically from nuclear hydrogen and two carbon sources: carbon dioxide emissions and municipal solid waste. These synthetic fuels have the potential to satisfy the large demand for gasoline, while reducing CO2 emissions. The nuclear hydrogen is produced through High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and electricity provided by a supercritical CO2 cooled gas fast reactor. Through this study, we determine the suitable components for gasoline production from CO2 emissions and MSW. The feasibility of these methods of gasoline production was assessed by performing material and energy balances for the involved processes, determining preliminary cost estimates, and evaluating production scale and environmental impact. The material balances were compatible with our gasoline production scheme. By-product oxygen from the HTSE was especially beneficial for both production schemes...

Human error contribution to nuclear materials-handling events

Sutton, Bradley (Bradley Jordan)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 41 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
882.9587%
This thesis analyzes a sample of 15 fuel-handling events from the past ten years at commercial nuclear reactors with significant human error contributions in order to detail the contribution of human error to fuel-handling activities, emphasizing how latent conditions can directly contribute to events. In particular, procedural inaccuracies often create conditions that lead to the development of errors related to maintenance work practices. This would be of significant concern for a pre-closure safety assessment for a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, where many fuel-handling work activities would be performed. Specific emphasis is placed on fuel movement activities and control of ventilation systems, which could significantly impact worker and public health and safety in the case of a fuel-handling accident.; by Bradley Sutton.; Thesis (S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 2007.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 40-41).

Analyzing the proliferation resistance of advanced nuclear fuel cycles : in search of an assessment methodology for use in fuel cycle simulations

Pierpoint, Lara Marie
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 126 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
889.3427%
A methodology to assess proliferation resistance of advanced nuclear energy systems is investigated. The framework, based on Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT), is envisioned for use within early-stage fuel cycle simulations. Method assumptions and structure are explained, and reference technology cases are presented to test the model. Eleven metrics are presented to evaluate the proliferation resistance of once-through, COmbined Non-Fertile and Uranium (CONFU), Mixed-Oxide (MOX), and Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) fuel cycles. The metrics are roughly categorized in three groups: material characteristics, material handling characteristics, and "inherent" facility characteristics. Each metric is associated with its own utility function, and is weighted according to the proliferation threat of interest. Results suggest that transportation steps are less proliferation-resistant than stationary facilities, and that the ABR fuel cycle employing reactors with low conversion ratios are particularly safe. Nearly all steps of the fuel cycles analyzed are more proliferation resistant to a terrorist threat than to a host nation threat (which has more resources to devote toward proliferation activities). The open light water reactor (LWR) and MOX cycles appear to be the most vulnerable of all cycles analyzed. CONFU proliferation resistance is similar to that of the ABR with conversion ratios 0.5 and 1.0; these are all approximately in between the values ascribed to LWR/MOX (at the low end) and ABR with conversion ratio zero (with the highest proliferation resistance). Preliminary studies were conducted to determine the sensitivity of the results to weighting function structure and values. Several different weighting functions were applied to the utility values calculated for the once-through and CONFU fuel cycles. The tests showed very little change in the ultimate trends and conclusions drawn from each fuel cycle calculation. These conclusions...

Power conversion system design for supercritical carbon dioxide cooled indirect cycle nuclear reactors

Gibbs, Jonathan Paul
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 207 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
882.9587%
The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO₂) cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples nicely to many Generation IV nuclear reactors. This work investigates the power conversion system design and proposes several "Third Generation" plant layouts for power ratings ranging between 20 and 1200 MWe for the recompression cycle. A 20 MWe simple cycle layout was also developed. The cycle designs are characterized by a dispersed component layout in which a single shaft turbomachinery train is coupled to parallel arrays of multiple printed circuit heat exchanger modules. This configuration has arrangement benefits in terms of modularity, inspectability, repairability and replaceability. Compared to the prior second generation dispersed layouts, its lower ductwork pressure drop confers approximately 2% higher thermal efficiency. Two alternative S-CO₂ cycle designs for medium power applications were developed using an in-house optimization computer code and Solid Edge software. The first design is a recompression cycle derived from the 300 MWe design developed at MIT for Generation IV reactors. The design employs one turbine, two compressors (main and recompression) working in parallel and two recuperators (high and low temperature) and maximizes cycle efficiency while striving for a small plant footprint. The second design is a simple S-CO₂ power cycle...

Coherent control of hyperfine-coupled electron and nuclear spins for quantum information processing

Yang, Jamie Chiaming
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 87 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
884.3977%
Coupled electron-nuclear spins are promising physical systems for quantum information processing: By combining the long coherence times of the nuclear spins with the ability to initialize, control, and measure the electron spin state, the favorable properties of each spin species are utilized. This thesis discusses a procedure to initialize these nuclear spin qubits, and presents a vision of how these systems could be used as the fundamental processing unit of a quantum computer. The focus of this thesis is on control of a system in which a single electron spin is coupled to N nuclear spins via resolvable anisotropic hyperfine (AHF) interactions. High-fidelity universal control of this le-Nn system is possible using only excitations on a single electron spin transition. This electron spin actuator control is implemented by using optimal control theory to find the modulation sequences that generate the desired unitary operations. Decoherence and the challenge of making useful qubits from these systems are also discussed. Experimental evidence of control using an electron spin actuator was acquired with a custom-built pulsed electron spin resonance spectrometer. Complex modulation sequences found by the GRadient Ascent Pulse Engineering (GRAPE) algorithm were used to perform electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) experiments and simple preparation-quantum operation-readout experiments on an ensemble of 1e-1n systems. The data provided evidence that we can generate any unitary operation on an AHF-coupled 1e-1n system while sitting on a single transmitter frequency. The data also guided design of the next iteration of these experiments...

Viability of an expanded United States nuclear power program and its effects on energy markets

Khan, Tanzeer S
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 52 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
885.3228%
The four biggest energy sources in the United States are coal, crude oil, natural gas, and nuclear power. While coal and nuclear power are produced domestically, more than 70% of crude oil and 20% of natural gas is imported. This places an unhealthy dependence on foreign products for our economy. Just as importantly, all of these energy sources, with the exception of nuclear power, produce large amounts of polluting emissions in the form of greenhouse gases which are responsible for environmental degradation. For these two reasons, we explore possible government policies to shift the US energy economy towards domestically-produced, environmentally-clean alternative energy sources, the most prevalent of which is nuclear power. Different forms of government support for investment in nuclear power is discussed, such as investment tax credits and production tax credits. As an instrument of public policy to affect energy imports and environmental impact, the possibility of a carbon tax (on the order of $150/tC) is considered. The effects of this carbon tax on the energy sector in the medium-term future (in the year 2020) are analyzed. Under the constraint of maintaining current natural gas demand the results show that there will be an increase in the use of nuclear power while lowering the dependence on crude oil and coal. To accomplish this...

An analysis of technical and policy drivers in Current U.S. nuclear weapons force structure

Baker, Amanda, S. B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 47 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
986.69055%
U.S. nuclear weapons force structure accounts for the number and types of strategic and nonstrategic weapon systems in various locations that comprise the nuclear arsenal. While exact numbers, locations, and detailed designs remain classified, motivations for the current and future of the nuclear arsenal is presented as a unique integration of logical technical and political information. The dynamic that results from military requirements, physical design limitations, and congressional response to balance deterrence with stockpile reductions has not produced the necessary level of change in the post-Cold War environment of the 21st century. As such, a stagnant position on nuclear weapons reductions diminishes the effect of U.S. global nonproliferation efforts.; by Amanda Baker.; Thesis (S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 2008.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 46-47).

Radiation exposure liability : the burden of responsibility and compensation in civilian and military nuclear ventures; Burden of responsibility and compensation in civilian and military nuclear ventures

Flores, Jessica (Jessica Alejandro)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 53 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
885.3228%
Since Enrico Fermi first discovered that neutrons could split atoms in 1934, peaceful and militaristic uses of nuclear energy have become prevalent in our society. Two case studies, Three Mile Island and the Nevada Test Site, allow for the examination of radiation injury liability in the context of existing radiation compensation systems. The Price-Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act, which governs civilian nuclear use, and the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, which governs compensation for military nuclear weapons tests, are compared to determine the most efficient compensation system. Issues such as determining compensable diseases, establishing rigid criteria, and a heavy burden of proof define the efficiency of each system. A compensation system combining elements of the existing civilian and military compensation systems is proposed, which can be applied to future nuclear ventures such as the Yucca Mountain Repository.; by Jeccisa Flores.; Thesis (S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 2008.; "June 2008."; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 51-53).

India's nuclear power program : a study of India's unique approach to nuclear energy

Murray, Caitlin Lenore
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 57 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
886.2219%
India is in the middle of the biggest expansion of nuclear power in its history, adding 20 GWe in the next 14 years in the form of pressure water reactors and fast breeder reactors. At the same time, the United States is overturning decades of policy in order to resume the export of nuclear materials to India, opening up the possibility of private investors in the Indian nuclear industry for the first time. This is a period of progress and turmoil in India's nuclear power program. This thesis seeks to describe and analyze India's nuclear prospects and to qualitatively assess the system's strengths and weaknesses. Using the inception of the country's nuclear power program as a starting point, this thesis will trace India's nuclear lineage to the present. In the process, it will evaluate what makes the Indian program unique, and why it may not be ideal for India that the United States is finally renewing its offers of a cooperative nuclear alliance.; by Caitlin Lenore Murray.; Thesis (S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 53-57).

Fuel cycle options for optimized recycling of nuclear fuel

Aquien, Alexandre
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 200 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
891.8026%
The accumulation of transuranic inventories in spent nuclear fuel depends on both deployment of advanced reactors that can be loaded with recycled transuranics (TRU), and on availability of the facilities that separate and reprocess spent fuel. Three recycling strategies are explored in this study: (1) Recycling in thermal Light 'Water Reactors (LWR) using CONFU technology (COmbined Non-Fertile and UO2 fuel), (2) recycling of TRU in fast cores of Actinide Burner Reactors (ABR), and (3) recycling of TRU with UO2 in self-sustaining Gas-cooled Fast Reactors (GFR). Choosing one fuel cycle strategy over the others involves trade-offs that need to be quantified. The CONFU, ABR, and GFR strategies differ from each other in terms of TRU loading in the reactor, net TRU incineration, capacities of recycling facilities needed, technology option availability, and flexibility. The CONFU and GFR are assumed to achieve zero net TRU incineration, while the ABR is a net consumer of TRU. The TRU loading is greatest in GFR and lowest in CONFU. While both CONFU and ABR require separation (of TRU from U) and reprocessing (recycling of TRUs from fertile-free fuel), the GFR is designed to, in equilibrium, recycle TRU+U after extraction of fission products only. It is assumed that thermal recycling is available in the short-term (2015)...

Benchmarking of the MIT High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor TRISO-coated particle fuel performance model; Benchmarking of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology HTGR TRISO-coated particle fuel performance model

Stawicki, Michael A
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 133 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
884.25875%
MIT has developed a Coated Particle Fuel Performance Model to study the behavior of TRISO nuclear fuels. The code, TIMCOAT, is designed to assess the mechanical and chemical condition of populations of coated particles and to determine the failure probability of each of the structural coating layers. With this, the code determines the overall particle failure rate. TIMCOAT represents a significant advancement over earlier codes as it includes a pyrocarbon crack induced particle failure mechanism, which applies probabilistic fracture mechanics. As part of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on coated particle fuel technology, a code benchmark has been developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The benchmark includes simple analytic studies and more complex simulations of TRISO particles from past and future experiments. For each study a large variety of particle parameters are specified. This thesis reports TIMCOAT's results from the benchmark study. As this was a blind benchmark, no other results are available for comparison. However, TIMCOAT is able to independently calculate several of the parameters specified by the benchmark, and comparisons are made between results obtained using IAEA parameters and TIMCOAT calculated parameters. The material properties which describe the effects of irradiation on pyrolytic carbon are the focus of the comparison. The rates of irradiation induced creep and swelling calculated by TIMCOAT and the rates provided in the benchmark differed by a factor of two to four in some cases and led to differences in particle failure rate by several orders of magnitude. In addition...

System dynamics modeling for human performance in nuclear power plant operation

Chu, Xinyuan
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 67 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
884.1838%
Perfect plant operation with high safety and economic performance is based on both good physical design and successful organization. However, in comparison with the affection that has been paid to technology research, the effort that has been exerted to enhance NPP management and organization, namely human performance, seems pale and insufficient. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that are predictive of plant safety and performance and to develop models and measures of these performance aspects that can be used for operation policy evaluation, problem diagnosis, and risk-informed regulation. The challenge of this research is that: an NPP is a system that is comprised of human and physics subsystems. Every human department includes different functional workers, supervisors, and managers; while every physical component can be in normal status, failure status, or a being-repaired status. Thus, an NPP's situation can be expressed as a time-dependent function of the interactions among a large number of system elements. The interactions between these components are often non-linear and coupled, sometime there are direct or indirect, negative or positive feedbacks, and hence a small interference input either can be suppressed or can be amplified and may result in a severe accident finally. This research expanded ORSIM (Nuclear Power Plant Operations and Risk Simulator) model...

The potential for a nuclear renaissance : the development of nuclear power under climate change mitigation policies

Osouf, Nicolas
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 115 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
893.2474%
Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are very likely to have already changed the Earth's climate, and will continue to change it for centuries if no action is taken. Nuclear power, a nearly carbon-free source of electricity, could contribute significantly to climate change mitigation by replacing conventional fossil-fueled electricity generation technologies. To examine the potential role of nuclear power, an advanced nuclear technology representing Generation III reactors is introduced into the Emissions Predictions and Policy Analysis economic model, which projects greenhouse gas and other air pollutant emissions as well as climate policy costs. The model is then used to study how the cost and availability of nuclear power affect the economy and the environment at the global scale. A literature review shows that estimates of nuclear power costs vary widely, because of differences in both calculation methods and cost parameters. Based on a sensitivity analysis, the most important parameters are the discount rate, the overnight cost, the capacity factor and the economic lifetime. The methodological differences affect not only the absolute power costs, but also the relative costs among electricity generation technologies.; (cont.) Acknowledging this uncertainty...

Integration of nuclear power with oil sands extraction projects in Canada

Finan, Ashley (Ashley E.)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 197 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
888.5147%
One of the largest oil reserves in the world is not in the Middle East or in Alaska, but in Canada. This fuel exists in the form of bitumen in Alberta's oil sands. While it takes a tremendous amount of energy to recover this bitumen and refine it into petroleum products, with oil prices nearing all time highs, it is profitable to do so. Oil sands recovery involves either strip mining the sands and extracting the oil, or pumping large quantities of steam into the ground in order to free the bitumen from the sand. Traditionally, the energy to produce the steam and hot water used in this process has come from natural gas. The use of natural gas for oil sands recovery presents a number of problems, among which are the environmental impact of the greenhouse gases and the price volatility of the natural gas market. This thesis explores the possibility of using nuclear energy to power oil sands recovery. Once operational, nuclear reactors produce no greenhouse gas emissions of carbon dioxide and offer relatively low and stable fuel and operation and maintenance costs. Uranium is not subject to the same market volatility as natural gas. There are, however, several trade-offs as well. This thesis compares the benefits and the drawbacks, and puts forth several complete scenarios for the introduction of nuclear technology into the oil sands recovery process. Nuclear energy used for steam production is found to be competitive with natural gas prices as low as $3.75/MMBtu (CAD).; (cont.) For electricity production...

Minimum carbon tax level needed to prompt a widespread shift to nuclear power

Thornton, Katherine C. (Katherine Claire)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 50 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
885.67164%
Carbon dioxide is suspected to be a major contributor to global warming. In the United States, nearly 70% of electricity is produced using coal or natural gas, both of which emit carbon dioxide into the environment. Nuclear power, which does not emit any carbon dioxide, produces 17% of the electricity consumed in the United States. In order to persuade utilities to switch from coal or natural gas to nuclear power and thus reduce carbon dioxide emissions, a carbon tax should be implemented. Depending on the cost of construction for new nuclear plants and the level of savings that will incentivize utilities to switch, the carbon tax needed to promote nuclear power will range between $20/tC and $200/tC. The full range of carbon tax scenarios are developed in this thesis, with the most likely carbon tax being $1 10/tC. This cost assumes a $1800/kw capital construction cost and a 10% risk perception premium on the bus bar cost of power to address the financial and industry community's somewhat negative perception of nuclear investments. From a policy perspective, this carbon tax will be more effective in causing utilities to move to nuclear power than a cap and trade policy. From a utility standpoint, switching to nuclear power under a carbon tax is less expensive than implementing a program of carbon capture and sequestration.; by Katherine C. Thornton.; Thesis (S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

The perception of risk : a summary of studies and how they pertain to the future of nuclear energy; Summary of studies and how they pertain to the future of nuclear energy

Waits, Christopher Russell
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 58 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
890.8056%
One of the most interesting aspects of nuclear power is the perceived risk that the public infers from its existence. This paper explores the public's response to risk in general and specifically to nuclear power by reviewing behavioral studies examining how risk is perceived. The paper also discusses important themes relevant to nuclear power and risk perception, including trust, stigma, the difference between experts and the public, and ways of informing and educating the public. The current political status of nuclear power is discussed by examining the roles and opinions of three groups dealing with nuclear energy: 1) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2) the nuclear energy industry, and 3) experts in the field of nuclear power and environmentalists who are concerned with the subject. Finally, conclusions are drawn based on the research into the public's perception of risk and the current status of nuclear energy in order to develop suggestions that may aide in the development of nuclear technology and a resurgence of nuclear power, while addressing the public's concerns and furthering the public's understanding of nuclear technology.; by Christopher Russell Waits.; Thesis (S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering...