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Auto-organização no desenvolvimento de sensores, biossensores e modelos de membrana para aplicação em nanomedicina; Self-organization in the development of sensors, biosensors and membrane models for application in nanomedicine

Bernardi, Juliana Cancino
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/10/2011 PT
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Essa tese de doutoramento utiliza a auto-organização dos filmes finos layer-by-layer (LbL), auto-organização por alcanotióis mistas (SAMmix) e monocamada de Langmuir no desenvolvimento de dispositivos e novas metodologias para aplicações em nanomedicina. Foram desenvolvidos e aplicados biossensores utilizando as técnicas de LbL e SAM. Dentre os biossensores construídos está o sensor para óxido nítrico (NO•), que é de grande importância no sistema fisiológico. O sensor foi construído por meio da modificação de ultramicroeletrodos de fibra de carbono pela técnica LbL. A caracterização do sensor foi realizada por voltametrias e espectroscopias de impedância eletroquímica. Os resultados revelaram que a difusão de NO• é dependente do número de bicamadas empregadas e da disposição das moléculas no filme. O sensor com arquitetura CF-(PAMAM/NiTsPc), fibra de carbono (CF), ftalocianina de níquel tetrasulfonada (NiTsPc) e dendrímero poliamidoamina (PAMAM), apresentou o melhor sinal analítico. Além disso, foi analisada a detecção de NO• com interferentes como nitrito, nitrato, peróxido de hidrogênio, ácido ascórbico, dopamina, epinefrina e a norepinefrina. Os resultados mostraram alta seletividade devido à utilização do dendrímero PAMAM. O segundo biossensor utilizou a enzima acetilcolinesterase imobilizada em monocamadas auto-organizadas mistas (SAMmix) de alcanotióis. A detecção eletroquímica mostrou-se altamente sensível...

Scientists’ perception of ethical issues in nanomedicine - a case study

Costa, Helena Silva; Sethe, Sebastian; Pêgo, Ana P.; Olsson, I. Anna S.
Fonte: Future Medicine Ltd. Publicador: Future Medicine Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Research and development in nanomedicine has been accompanied by the consideration of ethical issues; however, little is known about how researchers working in this area perceive such issues. Extracting data from 22 semi-structured interviews with nanomedicine practitioners, this case study explores scientists’ attitude towards and knowledge of ethical issues. We found that scientists reflect with ambiguity on the reputed novelty of nanomedicine and what are ethical issues and risks in their work. Respondents see no necessity for a paradigm shift in ethical considerations, but view ethical issues in nanomedicine as overlapping with those of other areas of biomedical research. Most respondents discuss ethical issues they faced in scientific work with their colleagues but expect benefit from additional information and training on ethics. Our findings can contribute to the design of new strategies - including training programs - to engage scientists in ethical discussion and stimulate their responsibility as nanomedicine practitioners.

Three-dimensional layer-by-layer strategies for tissue engineering and nanomedicine

Costa, Rui R.; Mano, J. F.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /05/2012 ENG
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Layer-by-layer (LbL) is a self-assembly-driven surface modification strategy that allows the construction of nanostructured films onto substrates of any geometry, from simple bidimensional surfaces to more complex three-dimensional porous scaffolds. The principle behind LbL lies in the existence of multiple intermolecular interactions, such as electrostatic contacts, hydrophobic interactions, and hydrogen bonding, where the cooperative effects of multipoint attractions play the most important role. It is a technique that offers ease of preparation, versatility, fine control over the materials structure and robustness under physiological conditions.

Although LbL has been mostly limited to the modification of planar surfaces, its potential lies in the capability to be extrapolated to 3D structures and coat increasingly complex geometries. Currently trending is the use of spherical templates – sacrificial or non-sacrificial – for applications in Nanomedicine, such as the construction of drug carriers or for the encapsulation of cells. The nanostructured nature of multilayered coatings makes it possible to build containers which permeability to molecules may be tuned simply by varying the number of involving layers or the class of materials involved. This way...

The era of nanomedicine

Grenha, Ana
Fonte: Universidade do Algarve Publicador: Universidade do Algarve
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2011 ENG
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Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences is now in its 7th issue and in the way that has been paved so far, it is possible to find some works on nanomedicine. This term encompasses the applications of nanotechnology in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and comprises an emerging field that is believed to have the potential to revolutionise individual health in the present century. The outstanding approach of nanomedicine is that it offers the delivery of potential drugs which were previously beyond the capacities of microscale technologies, due to specific biological barriers. Currently, several nanotherapeutics are approved or are undergoing clinical trials and application of nanotechnologies is expected to extend to many more commercial products in the near future.

Nanomedicine: Techniques, Potentials, and Ethical Implications

Ebbesen, Mette; Jensen, Thomas G.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Nanotechnology is concerned with materials and systems whose structures and components exhibit novel physical, chemical, and biological properties due to their nanoscale size. This paper focuses on what is known as nanomedicine, referring to the application of nanotechnology to medicine. We consider the use and potentials of emerging nanoscience techniques in medicine such as nanosurgery, tissue engineering, and targeted drug delivery, and we discuss the ethical questions that these techniques raise. The ethical considerations involved in nanomedicine are related to risk assessment in general, somatic-cell versus germline-cell therapy, the enhancement of human capabilities, research into human embryonic stem cells and the toxicity, uncontrolled function and self-assembly of nanoparticles. The ethical considerations associated with the application of nanotechnology to medicine have not been greatly discussed. This paper aims to balance clear ethical discussion and sound science and so provide nanotechnologists and biotechnologists with tools to assess ethical problems in nanomedicine.

Ethics in Nanomedicine

Resnik, David B.; Tinkle, Sally S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2007 EN
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As the science and technology of nanomedicine speed ahead, ethics, policy, and the law struggle to catch up. It is important to proactively address the ethical, social and regulatory aspects of nanomedicine to minimize its adverse impacts on the environment and public health and to avoid a public backlash. At present, the most significant concerns involve risk assessment, risk management of engineered nanomaterials (ENM), and risk communication in clinical trials. Though in vivo animal experiments and ex vivo laboratory analyses can increase our understanding of the interaction of ENM in biological systems, they cannot eliminate all of the uncertainty surrounding the exposure of a human subject to nanomedicine products in clinical trials. Significant risks can still materialize after a product has cleared the Phase I hurdle and is in Phase II or III clinical trial. Furthermore, as the use of ENM in nanomedicine increases, questions of social justice, access to health care and the use of nanotechnology for physical enhancement become increasingly important.

Nanomedicine: promises and challenges for the future of public health

Pautler, Michelle; Brenner, Sara
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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As the scope of nanotechnology applications in medicine evolves, it is important to simultaneously recognize and advance contributions germane to public health. A wide range of innovations in nanomedicine stand to impact nearly every medical specialty and unveil novel ways to improve the quality and extend the duration of life – these gains can be measured at both individual and population levels. For example, heart disease and cancer combined make up approximately half of all deaths in the United States per year, and already, advances in nanomedicine demonstrate great potential to reduce rates of morbidity and mortality due to these diseases. Meanwhile, public health applications of nanomedicine such as rapid and portable diagnostics and more effective vaccinations have the potential to revolutionize global health. Research driven by innovators across disciplines such as engineering, biology, medicine, and public health should collaborate in order to achieve maximal potential impact in health for individuals and populations. In turn, knowledge gaps regarding the potential health and safety implications of exposure to engineered nanomaterials must be continuously addressed and actively researched. Dynamic, proactive, and socially responsible research will drive nanomedicine as it plays an increasingly integral and transformative role in medicine and public health in the 21st century.

Nanomedicine: Tiny Particles and Machines Give Huge Gains

Tong, Sheng; Fine, Eli J.; Lin, Yanni; Cradick, Thomas J.; Bao, Gang
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Nanomedicine is an emerging field that integrates nanotechnology, biomolecular engineering, life sciences and medicine; it is expected to produce major breakthroughs in medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Nano-scale structures and devices are compatible in size with proteins and nucleic acids in living cells. Therefore, the design, characterization and application of nano-scale probes, carriers and machines may provide unprecedented opportunities for achieving a better control of biological processes, and drastic improvements in disease detection, therapy, and prevention. Recent advances in nanomedicine include the development of nanoparticle-based probes for molecular imaging, nano-carriers for drug/gene delivery, multi-functional nanoparticles for theranostics, and molecular machines for biological and medical studies. This article provides an overview of the nanomedicine field, with an emphasis on nanoparticles for imaging and therapy, as well as engineered nucleases for genome editing. The challenges in translating nanomedicine approaches to clinical applications are discussed.

Therapeutic targeting of liver inflammation and fibrosis by nanomedicine

Bartneck, Matthias; Warzecha, Klaudia Theresa; Tacke, Frank
Fonte: AME Publishing Company Publicador: AME Publishing Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2014 EN
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Nanomedicine constitutes the emerging field of medical applications for nanotechnology such as nanomaterial-based drug delivery systems. This technology may hold exceptional potential for novel therapeutic approaches to liver diseases. The specific and unspecific targeting of macrophages, hepatic stellate cells (HSC), hepatocytes, and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) using nanomedicine has been developed and tested in preclinical settings. These four major cell types in the liver are crucially involved in the complex sequence of events that occurs during the initiation and maintenance of liver inflammation and fibrosis. Targeting different cell types can be based on their capacity to ingest surrounding material, endocytosis, and specificity for a single cell type can be achieved by targeting characteristic structures such as receptors, sugar moieties or peptide sequences. Macrophages and especially the liver-resident Kupffer cells are in the focus of nanomedicine due to their highly efficient and unspecific uptake of most nanomaterials as well as due to their critical pathogenic functions during inflammation and fibrogenesis. The mannose receptor enables targeting macrophages in liver disease, but macrophages can also become activated by certain nanomaterials...

Essential components of a successful doctoral program in nanomedicine

van de Ven, Anne L; Shann, Mary H; Sridhar, Srinivas
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/12/2014 EN
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The Nanomedicine program at Northeastern University provides a unique interdisciplinary graduate education that combines experiential research, didactic learning, networking, and outreach. Students are taught how to apply nanoscience and nanotechnology to problems in medicine, translate basic research to the development of marketable products, negotiate ethical and social issues related to nanomedicine, and develop a strong sense of community involvement within a global perspective. Since 2006, the program has recruited 50 doctoral students from ten traditional science, technology, and engineering disciplines to participate in the 2-year specialization program. Each trainee received mentoring from two or more individuals, including faculty members outside the student’s home department and faculty members at other academic institutions, and/or clinicians. Both students and faculty members reported a significant increase in interdisciplinary scholarly activities, including publications, presentations, and funded research proposals, as a direct result of the program. Nearly 90% of students graduating with a specialization in nanomedicine have continued on to careers in the health care sector. Currently, 43% of graduates are performing research or developing products that directly involve nanomedicine. This article identifies some key elements of the Nanomedicine program...

Bypassing the EPR effect with a nanomedicine harboring a sustained-release function allows better tumor control

Shen, Yao An; Shyu, Ing Luen; Lu, Maggie; He, Chun Lin; Hsu, Yen Mei; Liang, Hsiang Fa; Liu, Chih Peng; Liu, Ren Shyan; Shen, Biing Jiun; Wei, Yau Huei; Chuang, Chi Mu
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/03/2015 EN
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The current enhanced permeability and retention (EPR)-based approved nanomedicines have had little impact in terms of prolongation of overall survival in patients with cancer. For example, the two Phase III trials comparing Doxil®, the first nanomedicine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, with free doxorubicin did not find an actual translation of the EPR effect into a statistically significant increase in overall survival but did show less cardiotoxicity. In the current work, we used a two-factor factorial experimental design with intraperitoneal versus intravenous delivery and nanomedicine versus free drug as factors to test our hypothesis that regional (intraperitoneal) delivery of nanomedicine may better increase survival when compared with systemic delivery. In this study, we demonstrate that bypassing, rather than exploiting, the EPR effect via intraperitoneal delivery of nanomedicine harboring a sustained-release function demonstrates dual pharmacokinetic advantages, producing more efficient tumor control and suppressing the expression of stemness markers, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis signals, and multidrug resistance in the tumor microenvironment. Metastases to vital organs (eg, lung, liver...

THE BIG PICTURE ON SMALL MEDICINE: THE STATE OF NANOMEDICINE PRODUCTS APPROVED FOR USE OR IN CLINICAL TRIALS

Etheridge, Michael L.; Campbell, Stephen A.; Erdman, Arthur G.; Haynes, Christy L.; Wolf, Susan M.; McCullough, Jeffrey
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Developments in nanomedicine are expected to provide solutions to many of modern medicine’s unsolved problems, so it is no surprise that literature is flush with articles discussing the subject. However, existing reviews tend to focus on specific sectors of nanomedicine or take a very forward looking stance and fail to provide a complete perspective on the current landscape. This article provides a more comprehensive and contemporary inventory of nanomedicine products. A keyword search of literature, clinical trial registries, and the Web, yielded 247 nanomedicine products that are approved or in various stages of clinical study. Specific information on each was gathered, so the overall field could be described based on various dimensions, including: FDA classification, approval status, nanoscale size, treated condition, nanostructure, and others. In addition to documenting the large number of nanomedicine products already in human use, this study indentifies some interesting trends forecasting the future of nanomedicine.

Recommendations for Nanomedicine Human Subjects Research Oversight: An Evolutionary Approach for an Emerging Field

Fatehi, Leili; Wolf, Susan M.; McCullough, Jeffrey; Hall, Ralph; Lawrenz, Frances; Kahn, Jeffrey P.; Jones, Cortney; Campbell, Stephen A.; Dresser, Rebecca S.; Erdman, Arthur G.; Haynes, Christy L.; Hoerr, Robert A.; Hogle, Linda F.; Keane, Moira A.; Khus
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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The nanomedicine field is fast evolving toward complex, “active,” and interactive formulations. Like many emerging technologies, nanomedicine raises questions of how human subjects research (HSR) should be conducted and the adequacy of current oversight, as well as how to integrate concerns over occupational, bystander, and environmental exposures. The history of oversight for HSR investigating emerging technologies is a patchwork quilt without systematic justification of when ordinary oversight for HSR is enough versus when added oversight is warranted. Nanomedicine HSR provides an occasion to think systematically about appropriate oversight, especially early in the evolution of a technology, when hazard and risk information may remain incomplete. This paper presents the consensus recommendations of a multidisciplinary, NIH-funded project group, to ensure a science-based and ethically informed approach to HSR issues in nanomedicine, and integrate HSR analysis with analysis of occupational, bystander, and environmental concerns. We recommend creating two bodies, an interagency Human Subjects Research in Nanomedicine (HSR/N) Working Group and a Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Nanomedicine (SAC/N). HSR/N and SAC/N should perform 3 primary functions: (1) analysis of the attributes and subsets of nanomedicine interventions that raise HSR challenges and current gaps in oversight; (2) providing advice to relevant agencies and institutional bodies on the HSR issues...

Nanomedicine and future body enhancement

Saniotis, A.
Fonte: Collegium Basilea Publicador: Collegium Basilea
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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The role of nanomedicine in developing therapies to combat disease and body morbidity has received a plethora of theoretical analysis. While nanomedicine has well defined therapeutic value, its role in body enhancement needs greater theoretical consideration. This article focuses on the potential marriage between nanomedicine and future body enhancement. It argues that nanomedical enhancements have the possibility of overriding physical limitations of the human body. The paper discusses both current approaches to body enhancement and future applications of nanomedicine such as cosmetic neurology.; Arthur Saniotis

The Emerging Nanomedicine Landscape

BOCK ANNE-KATRIN
Fonte: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP Publicador: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Online
ENG
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The surge in Nanomedicine research activity over the past decade is now translating into considerable commercialisation efforts around the world. More than 150 start-ups and SMEs worldwide pursue focussed Nanomedicine R&D projects and about 38 Nanotechnology-enabled products with total sales valued at $ 6.8 billion are now on the market. With regards to commercialisation efforts, the USA leads the field with twice as much Nanomedicine patent applications and 25 % more products on the market compared to EU-25 countries. At present, the development in Nanomedicine is still much technology-driven. Scientific challenges lie ahead and much needed investment by pharmaceutical corporations to bring products to the market is lacking. Despite these stumbling blocks, Nanotechnology is anticipated to have an increasing impact on medical innovations in the future.; JRC.J.5-Agriculture and Life Sciences in the Economy

Nanoinformatics: developing new computing applications for nanomedicine

Maojo, Víctor; Fritts, Martin; Martín Sánchez, Fernando; Iglesia, Diana de la; Cachau, Raul E.; García-Remesal, Miguel; Crespo, José; Mitchell, Joyce A.; Anguita, Alberto; Baker, Nathan; Barreiro, José María; Benítez, Sonia E.; Calle, Guillermo de
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Nanoinformatics has recently emerged to address the need of computing applications at the nano level. In this regard, the authors have participated in various initiatives to identify its concepts, foundations and challenges. While nanomaterials open up the possibility for developing new devices in many industrial and scientific areas, they also offer breakthrough perspectives for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In this paper, we analyze the different aspects of nanoinformatics and suggest five research topics to help catalyze new research and development in the area, particularly focused on nanomedicine. We also encompass the use of informatics to further the biological and clinical applications of basic research in nanoscience and nanotechnology, and the related concept of an extended “nanotype” to coalesce information related to nanoparticles. We suggest how nanoinformatics could accelerate developments in nanomedicine, similarly to what happened with the Human Genome and other -omics projects, on issues like exchanging modeling and simulation methods and tools, linking toxicity information to clinical and personal databases or developing new approaches for scientific ontologies, among many others.

La nanosanté : perspective et enjeux sociologiques de l'application des nanotechnologies à la médecine.

Noury, Mathieu
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Considérée comme le futur de la pratique médicale, la nanomédecine est l’application des nanotechnologies aux soins de santé. Plus qu’un nouveau domaine d’application technologique, la nanomédecine est porteuse d’un nouveau paradigme biomédical qui promeut une conception technoscientifique de la santé. Ce nouveau paradigme regroupe sous le préfixe nano l’ensemble des grandes tendances actuelles de la recherche en santé : la médecine prédictive, la médecine personnalisée et la médecine régénératrice. Centré sur le développement d’innovations visant au contrôle technique des éléments et des processus biologiques fondamentaux, ce nouveau paradigme se développe largement grâce au soutien des gouvernements et aux promesses économiques qu’il soulève. Il se construit à la croisée du scientifique, du politique et de l’économique. Interroger la nanomédecine revient alors à examiner plus largement la forme et les conditions du sens des innovations biomédicales et à soulever les implications de la « technoscientifisation » des soins de santé. L’objectif de cette thèse est de rendre compte de la spécificité et des enjeux sociaux, culturels et politico-économiques caractéristiques du modèle biomédical technoscientifique porté par la nanomédecine à partir de sa conceptualisation sous la forme d’un idéaltype : la nanosanté. Si la nanomédecine renvoie de manière générale aux applications techniques de la nanotechnologie au domaine biomédical...

Nanomedicine and drug delivery strategies for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

Takedatsu, Hidetoshi; Mitsuyama, Keiichi; Torimura, Takuji
Fonte: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc Publicador: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are two important categories of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Because the precise mechanisms of the inflammation and immune responses in IBD have not been fully elucidated, the treatment of IBD primarily aims to inhibit the pathogenic factors of the inflammatory cascade. Inconsistencies exist regarding the response and side effects of the drugs that are currently used to treat IBD. Recent studies have suggested that the use of nanomedicine might be advantageous for the treatment of intestinal inflammation because nano-sized molecules can effectively penetrate epithelial and inflammatory cells. We reviewed nanomedicine treatments, such as the use of small interfering RNAs, antisense oligonucleotides, and anti-inflammatory molecules with delivery systems in experimental colitis models and clinical trials for IBD based on a systematic search. The efficacy and usefulness of the treatments reviewed in this manuscript have been demonstrated in experimental colitis models and clinical trials using various types of nanomedicine. Nanomedicine is expected to become a new therapeutic approach to the treatment of IBD.

Nanomedicine in Latin America

Abraham, Gustavo Abel; Romero, Eder Lilia; Sosnik, Alejandro Dario
Fonte: American Scientific Publishers Publicador: American Scientific Publishers
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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This special issue of Journal of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering includes articles from Latin American researchers that work in an emerging discipline at the interface of biomaterials science, nanotechnology and therapeutics called Nanomedicine and that comprises the use of different mono, bi and three-dimensional nano-objects (e.g., nanoplates, nanoparticles, nanotubes, etc.) to address different medical problems; Fil: Abraham, Gustavo Abel. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico - CONICET - Mar del Plata. Instituto de Investigación en Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (i); Argentina;; Fil: Romero, Eder Lilia. Universidad Nacional de Quilmes. Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología. Laboratorio de Diseño de Estrategias de Targeting de Drogas; Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay; Argentina;; Fil: Sosnik, Alejandro Dario. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Departamento de Tecnología Farmacéutica; Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay; Argentina;

Nanomedicine concepts in the general medical curriculum: initiating a discussion

Sweeney, Aldrin E
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 07/12/2015 EN
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Various applications of nanoscale science to the field of medicine have resulted in the ongoing development of the subfield of nanomedicine. Within the past several years, there has been a concurrent proliferation of academic journals, textbooks, and other professional literature addressing fundamental basic science research and seminal clinical developments in nanomedicine. Additionally, there is now broad consensus among medical researchers and practitioners that along with personalized medicine and regenerative medicine, nanomedicine is likely to revolutionize our definitions of what constitutes human disease and its treatment. In light of these developments, incorporation of key nanomedicine concepts into the general medical curriculum ought to be considered. Here, I offer for consideration five key nanomedicine concepts, along with suggestions regarding the manner in which they might be incorporated effectively into the general medical curriculum. Related curricular issues and implications for medical education also are presented.