Nanotechnology has emerged to be one of the most powerful engineering approaches in the past half a century. Nanotechnology brought nanomaterials for biomedical use with diverse applications. In the present manuscript we summarize the recent progress in adopting nanobiomaterials for bone healing and repair approaches. We first discuss the use of nanophase surface modification in manipulating metals and ceramics for bone implantation, and then the use of polymers as nanofiber scaffolds in bone repair. Finally we briefly present the potential use of the nanoparticle delivery system as adjunct system in promoting bone regeneration following fracture.