Cell-surface interactions play a crucial role for biomaterial application in orthopaedics.
It is evident that not only the chemical composition of solid substances influence cellular adherence,
migration, proliferation and differentiation but also the surface topography of a biomaterial.
The progressive application of nanostructured surfaces in medicine has gained increasing interest
to improve the cytocompatibility and osteointegration of orthopaedic implants. Therefore, the
understanding of cell-surface interactions is of major interest for these substances. In this review,
we elucidate the principle mechanisms of nano- and microscale cell-surface interactions in vitro for
different cell types onto typical orthopaedic biomaterials such as titanium (Ti),
cobalt-chrome-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys, stainless steel (SS), as well as synthetic polymers
(UHMWPE, XLPE, PEEK, PLLA). In addition, effects of nano- and microscaled particles and their
significance in orthopaedics were reviewed. The significance for the cytocompatibility
of nanobiomaterials is discussed critically.
Targeted delivery systems of nanobiomaterials are necessary to be developed for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Nanobiomaterials can be engineered to recognize cancer-specific receptors at the cellular levels and to deliver anticancer drugs into the diseased sites. In particular, nanobiomaterial-based nanocarriers, so-called nanoplatforms, are the design of the targeted delivery systems such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles/micelles, nanoconjugates, norganic materials, carbon-based nanobiomaterials, and bioinspired phage system, which are based on the nanosize of 1–100 nm in diameter. In this review, the design and the application of these nanoplatforms are discussed at the cellular levels as well as in the clinics. We believe that this review can offer recent advances in the targeted delivery systems of nanobiomaterials regarding in vitro and in vivo applications and the translation of nanobiomaterials to nanomedicine in anticancer therapy.