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Surface modification of stainless steel powders for microfabrication

Vieira, M. T.; Martins, A. G.; Barreiros, F. M.; Matos, M.; Castanho, J. M.
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: aplication/PDF
ENG
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The current trend towards miniaturization has led to the increasing use of stainless steel powders as raw material in the manufacture small parts with complex shapes, e.g. medical devices. This paper focuses on the role of coated and uncoated low carbon stainless steel powders, having d50 = 7.3 [mu]m, normal particle size distribution and a shape factor of 1 on additive processes used in micromanufacturing, e.g. micro powder injection moulding ([mu]PIM). Surfaces were treated using a magnetron sputtering deposition apparatus equipped with a high frequency powder vibration and a continuous feed system. The results clearly show that the coated powders assume an "artichoke" morphology, which significantly increases the surface area. This combined with their nanocrystalline character leads to higher flowability than uncoated powders. However, no improvements have been observed concerning the critical powder volume concentration (CPVC) in feedstocks for [mu]PIM processing. In consolidation processes, the debinding temperatures can attain values higher than 500 °C. After debinding and sintering, the coating of steel powders can show lower carbon contamination in solid solution than uncoated ones. This result is very important particularly for powder microtechnology of low carbon stainless steel.; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TGJ-4R7J837-19/1/c3ced7613d4cb2b5e4de14f154d7f51e

Desenvolvimento de microrreatores em tecnologia LTCC para produção de biodiesel.; Development of microreactors in LTCC technology for biodiesel production.

Cunha, Marcio Rodrigues da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/05/2012 PT
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O escopo deste trabalho foi o desenvolvimento de microrreatores em tecnologia LTCC para produção de biodiesel, com foco na otimização de uma geometria de micromisturador. Esta proposta é resultado das oportunidades identificadas em três áreas do conhecimento: Microtecnologia, Intensificação de processos e Biocombustíveis. A principal ferramenta de desenvolvimento desta proposta é a fluidodinâmica computacional. Os microcanais baseados em geometrias com sucessivos cotovelos foram os escolhidos, para a investigação computacional e experimental. A metodologia computacional desenvolvida para alcançar os objetivos propostos envolve as etapas de: definição de um padrão de comparação, projeto das distâncias entre cotovelos, escolha de uma geometria com base na comparação entre diversas geometrias baseadas em sucessivos cotovelos e a otimização da geometria em função dos parâmetros fluidodinâmicos. Paralelamente, ensaios para a produção de biodiesel foram realizados, bem como, a investigação da produção de emulsões para avaliar como uma etapa do processo de produção do biodiesel. A geometria escolhida e otimizada foi a serpentina 3D, o que permitiu a otimização do módulo de tempo de residência e o projeto do microrreator. Finalizando...

Avaliação de fungos na obtenção do metabólito quiral e ativo fexofenadina; Evaluation of fungi in obtaining chiral active metabolite fexofenadine

Metta, Gisele Maria
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/12/2013 PT
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A fexofenadina (FEX) tem sido o fármaco de primeira escolha no tratamento sintomático de manifestações alérgicas, por ser um anti-histamínico dos receptores H1 de 2ª geração não sedativo. É o metabólito ativo e quiral da terfenadina (TERF), medicamento cuja produção e comercialização foram suspensas em função dos eventos adversos apresentados. Fungos têm se apresentado como uma alternativa promissora na produção de compostos com atividade biológica. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse projeto foi avaliar a capacidade de fungos em biotransformar enantiosseletivamente a terfenadina em seu metabólito ativo, a fexofenadina empregando fungos como agentes catalisadores. Para a análise enantiosseletiva da fexofenadina foi desenvolvido um método de separação cromatográfica empregando a coluna quiral Lux® cellulose-1, fase móvel constituída de água: metanol (35:65, v/v) + 0,3% trietilamina + 0,4% ácido acético, vazão de 0,5 mL min-1, com detecção em 220nm. Duas microtécnicas de preparação de amostras foram avaliadas na extração dos analitos do meio de cultura: a microextração liquido-liquido dispersiva (DLLME) e a microextração em fase liquida empregando membranas cilíndricas ocas (HF-LPME). Entre essas...

Drug delivery systems: Past, present, and future

Mainardes, R. M.; Silva, L. P.
Fonte: Bentham Science Publ Ltd Publicador: Bentham Science Publ Ltd
Tipo: Revisão Formato: 449-455
ENG
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Drug delivery systems are essential components of drugs controlled release. In the last decades, several drug delivery technologies have emerged including capsules, liposomes. microparticles, nanoparticles, and polymers. These components must be biocompatible, biodegradable, and display a desired biodistribution providing a long-term availability of the therapeutic at specific target over time.

Desenvolvimento de um monitor de vibrações utilizando sensores de tecnologia micro-eletromecânica - MEMS

Freitas Júnior, Joacy de Lima
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 100 f. : il.
POR
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Pós-graduação em Engenharia Mecânica - FEG; Sistemas micro-eletromecânicos (MEMS) é uma tecnologia revolucionária que envolve a miniaturização de componentes e estruturas para a transdução, atuação e controle de sinais, através de interfaces eletrônicas, afetando a forma que pessoas e máquinas interagem com o mundo físico. Este avanço tecnológico é conseqüência da integração de áreas multidisciplinares, que possibilitou o desenvolvimento de componentes de pequenas dimensões, de baixo consumo e operando em diferentes ambientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a aplicabilidade de sensores de aceleração tipo capacitivo que utilizam desta tecnologia, visando desenvolver um sistema para monitoramento de sinais de vibração em máquinas rotativas, levando em consideração o custo, a portabilidade e a capacidade de monitoramento de sinais na faixa entre zero e 5kHz. Os resultados foram satisfatórios, alcançando os objetivos propostos.; Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS) is a revolutionary technology involving miniaturization of components and structures to transduction, performance and control of signals, through electronic interface, affecting the form that people and machines interact with the physical world. This technologic progress is consequence of the integration of several areas...

Microelectromechanical systems. Fabrication and characterization of microcantilevers

Ferreira, Sofia de Lemos Henriques
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /12/2014 ENG
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Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies can be used to produce from the simplest structures to the most complex devices and systems. Due to their many applications in various fields, MEMS have turned into one of the most researched areas in microtechnology. In this context, this project was developed in an attempt to produce one of most used structures in MEMS sensing devices - microcantilevers. Several microfabrication techniques were combined to fabricate this type of structures on the top layer of silicon of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. After the microcantilevers had been successfully created, an experiment was set up to verify the microcantilevers ability to bend. Here, a voltage was applied between the top and bottom layers of silicon of the SOI wafer. It was then observed that the microcantilevers were deflected all the way to the bottom silicon layer by the electrostatic force acting between them, given that a current was detected when a certain value of applied voltage was reached.

Chromosome microdissection and cloning in human genome and genetic disease analysis.

Kao, F T; Yu, J W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/1991 EN
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A procedure has been described for microdissection and microcloning of human chromosomal DNA sequences in which universal amplification of the dissected fragments by Mbo I linker adaptor and polymerase chain reaction is used. A very large library comprising 700,000 recombinant plasmid microclones from 30 dissected chromosomes of human chromosome 21 was constructed. Colony hybridization showed that 42% of the clones contained repetitive sequences and 58% contained single or low-copy sequences. The insert sizes generated by complete Mbo I cleavage ranged from 50 to 1100 base pairs with a mean of 416 base pairs. Southern blot analysis of microclones from the library confirmed their human origin and chromosome 21 specificity. Some of these clones have also been regionally mapped to specific sites of chromosome 21 by using a regional mapping panel of cell hybrids. This chromosome microtechnology can generate large numbers of microclones with unique sequences from defined chromosomal regions and can be used for processes such as (i) isolating corresponding yeast artificial chromosome clones with large inserts, (ii) screening various cDNA libraries for isolating expressed sequences, and (iii) constructing region-specific libraries of the entire human genome. The studies described here demonstrate the power of this technology for high-resolution genome analysis and explicate their use in an efficient search for disease-associated genes localized to specific chromosomal regions.

Electronic detection of DNA by its intrinsic molecular charge

Fritz, Jürgen; Cooper, Emily B.; Gaudet, Suzanne; Sorger, Peter K.; Manalis, Scott R.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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We report the selective and real-time detection of label-free DNA using an electronic readout. Microfabricated silicon field-effect sensors were used to directly monitor the increase in surface charge when DNA hybridizes on the sensor surface. The electrostatic immobilization of probe DNA on a positively charged poly-l-lysine layer allows hybridization at low ionic strength where field-effect sensing is most sensitive. Nanomolar DNA concentrations can be detected within minutes, and a single base mismatch within 12-mer oligonucleotides can be distinguished by using a differential detection technique with two sensors in parallel. The sensors were fabricated by standard silicon microtechnology and show promise for future electronic DNA arrays and rapid characterization of nucleic acid samples. This approach demonstrates the most direct and simple translation of genetic information to microelectronics.

Molecular engineering: An approach to the development of general capabilities for molecular manipulation

Drexler, K. Eric
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1981 EN
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Development of the ability to design protein molecules will open a path to the fabrication of devices to complex atomic specifications, thus sidestepping obstacles facing conventional microtechnology. This path will involve construction of molecular machinery able to position reactive groups to atomic precision. It could lead to great advances in computational devices and in the ability to manipulate biological materials. The existence of this path has implications for the present.

BioMEMS and Cellular Biology: Perspectives and Applications

Folch, Albert
Fonte: MyJove Corporation Publicador: MyJove Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2007 EN
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The ability to culture cells has revolutionized hypothesis testing in basic cell and molecular biology research. It has become a standard methodology in drug screening, toxicology, and clinical assays, and is increasingly used in regenerative medicine. However, the traditional cell culture methodology essentially consisting of the immersion of a large population of cells in a homogeneous fluid medium and on a homogeneous flat substrate has become increasingly limiting both from a fundamental and practical perspective. Microfabrication technologies have enabled researchers to design, with micrometer control, the biochemical composition and topology of the substrate, and the medium composition, as well as the neighboring cell type in the surrounding cellular microenvironment. Additionally, microtechnology is conceptually well-suited for the development of fast, low-cost in vitro systems that allow for high-throughput culturing and analysis of cells under large numbers of conditions. In this interview, Albert Folch explains these limitations, how they can be overcome with soft lithography and microfluidics, and describes some relevant examples of research in his lab and future directions.

When does a protein become an allergen? Searching for a dynamic definition based on most advanced technology tools

Mari, A
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2008 EN
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Since the early beginning of allergology as a science considerable efforts have been made by clinicians and researchers to identify and characterize allergic triggers as raw allergenic materials, allergenic sources and tissues, and more recently basic allergenic structures defined as molecules. The last 15–20 years have witnessed many centres focusing on the identification and characterization of allergenic molecules leading to an expanding wealth of knowledge. The need to organize this information leads to the most important question ‘when does a protein become an allergen?’ In this article, I try to address this question by reviewing a few basic concepts of the immunology of IgE-mediated diseases, reporting on the current diagnostic and epidemiological tools used for allergic disease studies and discussing the usefulness of novel biotechnology tools (i.e. proteomics and molecular biology approaches), information technology tools (i.e. Internet-based resources) and microtechnology tools (i.e. proteomic microarray for IgE testing on molecular allergens). A step-wise staging of the identification and characterization process, including bench, clinical and epidemiological aspects, is proposed, in order to classify allergenic molecules dynamically. This proposal reflects the application and use of all the new tools available from current technologies.

Microfluidics meet cell biology: bridging the gap by validation and application of microscale techniques for cell biological assays

Paguirigan, Amy L.; Beebe, David J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2008 EN
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Microscale techniques have been applied to biological assays for nearly two decades, but haven’t been widely integrated as common tools in biological laboratories. The significant differences between several physical phenomena at the microscale versus the macroscale have been exploited to provide a variety of new types of assays (such as gradient production or spatial cell patterning). However, the use of these devices by biologists seems to be limited by issues regarding biological validation, ease of use, and the limited available readouts for assays done using microtechnology. Critical validation work has been done recently that highlights the current challenges for microfluidic methods and suggest ways in which future devices might be improved to better integrate with biological assays. With more validation and improved designs, microscale techniques hold immense promise as a platform to study aspects of cell biology that are not possible using current macroscale techniques.

Cardiolipin microdomains localize to negatively curved regions of Escherichia coli membranes

Renner, Lars D.; Weibel, Douglas B.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Many proteins reside at the cell poles in rod-shaped bacteria. Several hypotheses have drawn a connection between protein localization and the large cell-wall curvature at the poles. One hypothesis has centered on the formation of microdomains of the lipid cardiolipin (CL), its localization to regions of high membrane curvature, and its interaction with membrane-associated proteins. A lack of experimental techniques has left this hypothesis unanswered. This paper describes a microtechnology-based technique for manipulating bacterial membrane curvature and quantitatively measuring its effect on the localization of CL and proteins in cells. We confined Escherichia coli spheroplasts in microchambers with defined shapes that were embossed into a layer of polymer and observed that the shape of the membrane deformed predictably to accommodate the walls of the microchambers. Combining this technique with epifluorescence microscopy and quantitative image analyses, we characterized the localization of CL microdomains in response to E. coli membrane curvature. CL microdomains localized to regions of high intrinsic negative curvature imposed by microchambers. We expressed a chimera of yellow fluorescent protein fused to the N-terminal region of MinD—a spatial determinant of E. coli division plane assembly—in spheroplasts and observed its colocalization with CL to regions of large...

Aqueous biphasic microprinting approach to tissue engineering

Tavana, Hossein; Takayama, Shuichi
Fonte: American Institute of Physics Publicador: American Institute of Physics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/03/2011 EN
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We summarize a recently developed microtechnology for printing biomaterials on biological surfaces. The technique is based on the use of immiscible aqueous solutions of two biopolymers and allows spatially defined placement of cells and biomolecules suspended in the denser aqueous phase on existing cell layers and extracellular matrix hydrogel surfaces maintained in the second phase. Printing takes place due to an extremely small interfacial tension and density difference between the two aqueous phases. The contact-free printing process ensures that both printed cells and the underlying cell monolayer maintain full viability and functionality. The technique accommodates both arbitrarily shaped patterns and microarrays of cells and bioreagents. The capability to print cells and small molecules on existing cell layers enables unique interrogations of the effects of cell-cell and cell-material interaction on cell fate and function. Furthermore, the very gentle conditions and the ability to directly pattern nongel embedded cells over cells make this technology appealing to tissue engineering applications where patterned multicellar organization with minimal scaffolding materials is needed, such as in dense tissues of the skeletal muscle and liver.

Photopatterned materials in bioanalytical microfluidic technology

Tentori, Augusto M.; Herr, Amy E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/05/2011 EN
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Microfluidic technologies are playing an increasingly important role in biological inquiry. Sophisticated approaches to the microanalysis of biological specimens rely, in part, on the fine fluid and material control offered by microtechnology, as well as a sufficient capacity for systems integration. A suite of techniques that utilize photopatterning of polymers on fluidic surfaces, within fluidic volumes, and as primary device structures underpins recent technological innovation in bioanalysis. Well-characterized photopatterning approaches enable previously fabricated or commercially fabricated devices to be customized by the user in a straight-forward manner, making the tools accessible to laboratories that do not focus on microfabrication technology innovation. In this review of recent advances, we summarize reported microfluidic devices with photopatterned structures and regions as platforms for a diverse set of biological measurements and assays.

Matrix nanotopography as a regulator of cell function

Kim, Deok-Ho; Provenzano, Paolo P.; Smith, Chris L.; Levchenko, Andre
Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/04/2012 EN
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The architecture of the extracellular matrix (ECM) directs cell behavior by providing spatial and mechanical cues to which cells respond. In addition to soluble chemical factors, physical interactions between the cell and ECM regulate primary cell processes, including differentiation, migration, and proliferation. Advances in microtechnology and, more recently, nanotechnology provide a powerful means to study the influence of the ECM on cell behavior. By recapitulating local architectures that cells encounter in vivo, we can elucidate and dissect the fundamental signal transduction pathways that control cell behavior in critical developmental, physiological, and pathological processes.

Reservoir-Based Drug Delivery Systems Utilizing Microtechnology

Stevenson, Cynthia L.; Santini, John T.; Langer, Robert
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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This review covers reservoir-based drug delivery systems that incorporate microtechnology, with an emphasis on oral, dermal, and implantable systems. Key features of each technology are highlighted such as working principles, fabrication methods, dimensional constraints, and performance criteria. Reservoir-based systems include a subset of microfabricated drug delivery systems and provide unique advantages. Reservoirs, whether external to the body or implanted, provide a well-controlled environment for a drug formulation, allowing increased drug stability and prolonged delivery times. Reservoir systems have the flexibility to accommodate various delivery schemes, including zero order, pulsatile, and on demand dosing, as opposed to a standard sustained release profile. Furthermore, the development of reservoir-based systems for targeted delivery for difficult to treat applications (e.g., ocular) has resulted in potential platforms for patient therapy.

High-throughput secretomic analysis of single cells to assess functional cellular heterogeneity

Lu, Yao; Chen, Jonathan J.; Mu, Luye; Xue, Qiong; Wu, Yu; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Li, Jie; Vortmeyer, Alexander O.; Miller-Jensen, Kathryn; Wirtz, Denis; Fan, Rong
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Secreted proteins dictate a range of cellular functions in human health and disease. Due to the high degree of cellular heterogeneity and, more importantly, polyfunctionality of individual cells, there is an unmet need to simultaneously measure an array of proteins from single cells and to rapidly assay a large number of single cells (more than 1000) in parallel. We describe a simple bioanalytical assay platform consisting of a large array of sub-nanoliter microchambers integrated with high-density antibody barcode microarrays for highly multiplexed protein detection from over a thousand single cells in parallel. This platform has been tested for both cell lines and complex biological samples such as primary cells from patients. We observed distinct heterogeneity among the single cell secretomic signatures that, for the first time, can be directly correlated to the cells’ physical behavior such as migration. Compared to the state-of-the-art protein secretion assay such as ELISpot and emerging microtechnology-enabled assays, our approach offers both high throughput and high multiplicity. It also has a number of clinician-friendly features such as ease of operation, low sample consumption and standardized data analysis, representing a potentially transformative tool for informative monitoring of cellular function and immunity in patients.

Microfabricated Mammalian Organ Systems and Their Integration into Models of Whole Animals and Humans

Sung, Jong H; Esch, Mandy B; Prot, Jean-Matthieu; Long, Christopher J; Smith, Alec; Hickman, James; Shuler, Michael L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/04/2013 EN
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While in vitro cell based systems have been an invaluable tool in biology, they often suffer from a lack of physiological relevance. The discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo systems has been a bottleneck in drug development process and biological sciences. The recent progress in microtechnology has enabled manipulation of cellular environment at a physiologically relevant length scale, which has led to the development of novel in vitro organ systems, often termed ‘organ-on-a-chip’ systems. By mimicking the cellular environment of in vivo tissues, various organ-on-a-chip systems have been reported to reproduce target organ functions better than conventional in vitro model systems. Ultimately, these organ-on-a-chip systems will converge into multi-organ ‘body-on-a-chip’ systems composed of functional tissues that reproduce the dynamics of the whole-body response. Such microscale in vitro systems will open up new possibilities in medical science and in the pharmaceutical industry.

High-Resolution Ocuar Imaging: Combining Advanced Optics and Microtechnology

Cordeiro, M. Francesca; Nickells, Robert; Drexler, Wolfgang; Borrás, Terete; Ritch, Robert
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
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Recent developments in imaging technologies offer great potential for the assessment of retinal ganglion cell disorders, with particular relevance to glaucoma. In particular, advances in this field have allowed unprecedented in vivo access to the retinal layers, using many different properties of light to differentiate cellular structures. This article is a summary of currently available and investigational advanced, high-resolution imaging technologies and their potential applications to glaucoma. It represents the topics of discussion at the annual Optic Nerve Rescue and Restoration Think Tank, sponsored by The Glaucoma Foundation, entitled “High Resolution Imaging of the Eye: Advanced Optics, Microtechnology and Nanotechnology” and held in New York, New York, September 28-29, 2007.