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Estudo da mucosa da língua e da superficie de interface epitélio-tecido conjuntivo da preguiça-de-coleira (Bradypus torquatus, Iliger, 1811), empregando os métodos de microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura; Study of the lingual mucosa and surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus, Iliger, 1811), employing light and scanning electron microscopy methods

Benetti, Edson José
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/12/2005 PT
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Estudo das superfícies dorsal e ventral da língua e da superfície de interface epitélio-tecido conjuntivo de Bradypus torquatus, foi realizado empregando-se os métodos de microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. As línguas de Bradypus torquatus foram removidas, dissecadas e seccionadas em 3 partes: rostral, média e caudal e tratadas pelos métodos de microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados revelaram que a língua apresenta um ápice arredondado, um corpo e uma raiz. A mucosa dorsal mostra três tipos de papilas linguais: filiformes, fungiformes e vaIadas e uma superfície inferior lisa. Histologicamente, observou-se que a superfície dorsal da língua contém as papilas filiformes, fungiformes e vaIadas, distribuídas nas regiões rostral, média e caudal. A camada epitelial é de espessura variável e possui os estratos basal, espinhosa, granular e córnea, mostrando as células epiteliais. A lâmina própria é caracterizada por um tecido conjuntivo denso formando as projeções papilares longas, curtas e arredondadas. As imagens tridimensionais obtidas pela microscopia eletrônica de varredura, mostraram numerosas papilas filiformes localizadas essencialmente nas regiões rostral e média. Poucas papilas fungiformes estão presentes na superfície dorsal da língua...

Caracterização de fibras lignocelulósicas pré-tratadas por meio de técnicas espectroscópicas e microscópicas ópticas de alta resolução; Characterization of pretreated lignocellulosic fibers by means of techniques spectroscopy and high resolution optical microscopy

Alves, Regina Estevam
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/06/2011 PT
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Neste trabalho, fibras de eucalipto pré-tratadas diferentemente com ácido e/ou enzima foram investigadas visando se verificar alterações estruturais decorrentes dos pré-tratamentos. Na caracterização foram empregadas técnicas de microscopia eletrônica, de fluorescência (campo de claro), de fluorescência confocal de varredura a laser (CLSM) e de tempo de vida de imagem de fluorescência (FLIM). Além disso, foi também empregada espectrocopia de fluorescência, absorção no ultravioleta e vísivel (UV-Vis), no infravermelho (FT-IR) e ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN). Para a caracterização das fibras via microscopia e espectroscopia de fluorescência foi necessário a produção de filmes de fibras de eucalipto. Os resultados demonstraram um aumento na intensidade da fluorescência das fibras em função dos pré-tratamentos. As imagens de microscopia permitiram conhecer a estrutura morfológica das fibras. Para aumentar a fluorescência das fibras e facilitar a visualização por microscopia de fluorescência, nós depositamos o polieletrólito poli(cloreto de tetraidrotiofeno de xililideno) (PTHT), precursor do poli(p-fenileno vinileno) (PPV). Pelas imagens CLSM observou-se a afinidade do PTHT-PPV pelas as fibras que...

Estudo da estrutura da glândula pineal humana empregando métodos de microscopia de luz, microscopia eletrônica de varredura, microscopia de varredura por espectrometria de raio-X e difração de raio-X.; A study of human pineal gland structure, using optic microscopy, scanning eletron microscopy, x-ray spectrometry. scanning microscopy and x-ray difraction.

Oliveira, Sérgio Felipe de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/06/1998 PT
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Estruturas da glândula pineal humana foram estudadas empregando os métodos de microscopia de luz, microscopia eletrônica de varredura, microscopia de varredura por espectrometria de raio-x e difração de raio-x. As peças para microscopia de luz foram fixadas em solução de formalina a 10% durante 48h e incluídas em parafina. Para a microscopia eletrônica de varredura, as peças foram fixadas em solução de Karnovsky modificada, sendo que parte das peças foram fraturadas em nitrogênio líquido para o exame das características internas do corpo píneal. Os resultados evidenciaram que o corpo píneal apresenta formações calcáreas distribuídas no interior do tecido conjuntivo. As formações calcáreas possuem tamanhos e formas diferentes. As estruturas calcáreas apresentam uma cápsula constituída pelo tecido conjuntivo. Na porção interna, a estrutura calcárea é constituída por uma série de !ameias concêntricas, com porosidade de aspecto amorfo. Evidenciou-se pela análise de difração de raio-x, a estrutura cristalina formada pelos átomos de vários elementos que compõem a formação calc área .; The structure of human pineal gland was studied by optic microscopy, scanning eletromicroscopy, spectrometer x-ray scanning eletron microscopy with energy dispersion (EDS). The tissues to analysis by optic microscopy were fixed in formalin at 1O % during 48 h and put in parffin. For S.E.M....

Microscopia confocal a laser na avaliação in vivo da gengivite descamativa: padrões no penfigóide das membranas mucosas, pênfigo vulgar e líquen plano oral; Confocal microscopy in the in vivo evaluation of desquamative gingivitis: patterns in mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris and oral lichen planus

Cesar, Sabrina Sisto Alessi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/04/2015 PT
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Introdução: Gengivite descamativa (GD) se refere a uma manifestação clínica associada com diversas doenças mucocutâneas. Suas causas mais comuns são penfigóide das membranas mucosas (PMM), pênfigo vulgar (PV) e líquen plano oral (LP). A diagnose específica é melhor estabelecida através de avaliação histopatológica e de imunofluorescência. Objetivos: Examinar casos de gengivite descamativa utilizando microscopia confocal a laser e comparar os achados com aqueles encontrados na gengiva normal. Além disso, comparar os achados de microscopia confocal da gengivite descamativa com os da histopatologia convencional das lesões biopsiadas a fim de estabelecer critérios para este método diagnóstico não invasivo. Método: Doentes com manifestações clínicas de gengivite descamativa foram incluídos, totalizando quarenta e três casos. A microscopia confocal foi realizada na gengiva de um indivíduo saudável e nas lesões gengivais. Todas as lesões sem exame histopatológico prévio foram biopsiadas a fim de permitir uma correlação entre a microscopia confocal e a histopatologia. Resultados: O exame de microscopia confocal das lesões suspeitas de penfigóide das membranas mucosas revelou uma separação ao nível da junção dermo-epidérmica...

Estudo de técnicas de microscopia para caracterização estrutural de heteroestruturas semicondutoras; Microscopy techniques applied to semiconductor heterostructures structural characterization

Rodrigues, Sergio Gasques
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/10/1997 PT
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Este trabalho tem como objetivo principal, o estudo de técnicas de microscopia para a caracterização estrutural de semicondutores, visando o desenvolvimento das técnicas de preparação de amostras, visto que a caracterização estrutural é de suma importância para a obtenção de melhores resultados no processo de produção de filmes de semicondutores do grupo III-V. Dentre as técnicas mais utilizadas na caracterização estrutural, destacam-se as técnicas de microscopia eletrônica de varredura e de transmissão, juntamente com a microscopia de força atômica. Foram utilizadas amostras semicondutoras de InGaAs/GaAs e InAs/GaAs, crescidas pela técnica de MBE (epitaxia por feixe molecular), contendo pontos quânticos, estruturas estas ricas em detalhes. Tais amostras foram preparadas e caracterizadas em cada uma das técnicas em estudo. A microscopia de varredura e de força atômica apresentam fácil preparação. Os resultados obtidos, porém mostram que a técnica de microscopia eletrônica de varredura não oferece resolução suficiente para visualização das heteroestruturas; já a técnica de microscopia de força atômica mostra resultados excelentes da topografia dos pontos quânticos. Para a microscopia de transmissão a preparação de amostras mostra-se muito difícil e demorada...

Structure and properties of Brazilian peat: Analysis by spectroscopy and microscopy

Romão, Luciane P. C.; Lead, Jamie R.; Rocha, Julio C.; De Oliveira, Luciana Camargo; Rosa, André H.; Mendonça, André G. R.; Ribeiro, Adauto de Souza
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 714-720
ENG
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Peat was taken from the Sergipe State, Brazil and characterized by several techniques: elemental and thermal analyses; Fourier infrared (FTIR) and solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies; scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Also, the Sergipe State peat samples were compared with other peat sample from later from Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The lowest O/C and E 4/E 6 ratios and differential thermal analysis (DTA) curves of the Santo Amaro (SAO) sample indicated that this sample had the highest degree of decomposition. FTIR results showed that Itabaiana (ITA) and São Paulo (SAP) samples presented more prominent peak at 1086 cm -1 attributed the presence of Si-O than SAO sample spectra. The SAO sample showed two more intense peaks at 2920 cm -1 and 2850 cm -1. These results were corroborated by 13C NMR and thermal gravimetric (TG) where the relative abundance of the alkyl-C groups was greater in the SAO sample. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) of SAO sample is characteristic of amorphous matter however, the SAP and ITA samples revealed the large presence of quartz mineral. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) showed that the surface of peat samples have porous granules of organic material. The ITA and SAP peat samples are alike while SAO peat sample is richer in organic material. Only the SAO sample has truthful characteristics of peat. The results of this study showed that the samples are very different due to variable inorganic and organic material contents. ©2007 Sociedade Brasileira de Química.

Correlative fractography: Combining scanning electron microscopy and light microscopes for qualitative and quantitative analysis of fracture surfaces

De Oliveira Hein, Luis Rogerio.; De Oliveira, José Alberto; De Campos, Kamila Amato
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 496-500
ENG
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Correlative fractography is a new expression proposed here to describe a new method for the association between scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of fracture surfaces. This article presents a new method involving the fusion of one elevation map obtained by extended depth from focus reconstruction from LM with exactly the same area by SEM and associated techniques, as X-ray mapping. The true topographic information is perfectly associated to local fracture mechanisms with this new technique, presented here as an alternative to stereo-pair reconstruction for the investigation of fractured components. The great advantage of this technique resides in the possibility of combining any imaging methods associated with LM and SEM for the same observed field from fracture surface. © Microscopy Society of America 2013.

Nanofios semicondutores : análise de propriedades elétricas e estruturais por microscopia no modo Kelvin Probe; Semiconductor nanowires : analysis of electric and structural properties by Kelvin Probe force microscopy

Angela Carolina Narvaez Gonzalez
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/09/2008 PT
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As propriedades elétricas de nanofios (InAs, InP, InP-InAs-InP, InAsP) individuais e em junções foram estudadas implementando simultaneamente as técnicas Non Contact Atomic Force Microscopy NC-AFM (para aquisição da topografia) e Amplitude-sensitive Modulated Kelvin Probe Microscopy AM-KPFM (fornece medidas do Potencial de Superfície), permitindo correlacionar as propriedades elétricas com a estrutura da amostra. Em particular, o comportamento do Potencial de Superfície (PS) em função do diâmetro do nanofio foi investigado e utilizado na identificação do material que o compõe. Em uma primeira etapa, a técnica AM-KPFM foi caracterizada, principalmente em termos de resolução para análise de nano-objetos. Nossos resultados evidenciaram um fator de escala presente associado à eletrônica do equipamento, que somente permitiu realizar uma análise qualitativa dos dados adquiridos. Além disso, foi observada uma diminuição no contraste nas medidas elétricas quando o tamanho do objeto analisado diminui. Medidas em nanofios individuais de InP e InAs permitiram estabelecer que há uma queda no PS quando o diâmetro do fio diminui. Este comportamento é o resultado de duas contribuições: a perda no contraste (efeito de tamanho na medida) e o incremento local da função trabalho...

Study of Mural Paintings Using In Situ XRF, Confocal Synchrotron-m-XRF, m-XRD, Optical Microscopy, and SEM-EDS—The Case of the Frescoes from Misericordia Church of Odemira

Valadas, S.; Candeias, A.E.; Mirão, J.; Tavares, D.; Coroado, J.; Simon, R.; Silva, A.S.; Gil, M.; Guilherme, A.; Carvalho, M.L.
Fonte: MICROSCOPY SOCIETY OF AMERICA Publicador: MICROSCOPY SOCIETY OF AMERICA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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In this work, we present the results of an analytical method developed for detailed pigment identification, stratigraphy, and degradation of the paint layers of mural paintings applied in the study of the 17th century frescoes from the Misericordia Church of Odemira ~Southwest Portugal!. In situ X-ray fluores- cence spectrometry analyses were performed on three panels of the mural paintings and complemented by colorimetric measurements. The different color areas were also sampled as microfragments ~approx. 1 mm2 ! that were studied as taken or mounted in epoxy resin to expose the different paint layers. The microfragments of paint layers and their cross sections were characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Furthermore, elemental analysis was obtained with spatially resolved confocal synchrotron radiation m-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry performed at ANKA synchrotron FLUO beamline. Occasionally, phase analysis by m-X-ray diffraction was also performed. Results from the different techniques allowed pigment identification and, in some cases, the evaluation of color changes due to degradation processes and, considering the Southern Portugal geology...

Impression cytology and in vivo confocal microscopy in corneas with total limbal stem cell deficiency

Araújo,Aline Lütz de; Ricardo,José Reinaldo da Silva; Sakai,Vivian Naomi; Barros,Jeison Nadai de; Gomes,José Álvaro Pereira
Fonte: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia Publicador: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2013 EN
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PURPOSES: To describe corneal changes seen on in vivo confocal microscopy in patients with total limbal stem cell deficiency and to correlate them with cytological findings. METHODS: A prospective case series including 13 eyes (8 patients) with total limbal deficiency was carried out. Stem cell deficiency was diagnosed clinically and by corneal impression cytology. Confocal images of the central cornea were taken with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II, Rostock Corneal Module (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). RESULTS: Impression cytology of the cornea revealed conjunctival epithelial cells and goblet cells in all cases. In vivo confocal microscopy showed disruption of normal layers of the corneal epithelium in all eyes. Confocal images showed cells with characteristics of conjunctival epithelium at the cornea in 76.9% of the total. These findings on confocal microscopy were compatible to limbal stem cell deficiency. Additionally, goblet cells, squamous metaplasia, inflammatory cells and dendritic cells were observed. The sub-basal nerve plexus was not identified in any of the corneas. Corneal neovessels were observed at the epithelium and stroma. All cases showed diffuse hyper-reflective images of the stroma corresponding to opacity of the tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Limbal stem cell deficiency had been confirmed by impression cytology in all cases...

Laboratory diagnosis of amebiasis in a sample of students from southeastern Brazil and a comparison of microscopy with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of infections with Entamoeba sp.

Pereira,Valeriana Valadares; Conceição,Abiqueila da Silva; Maximiano,Leandro Henrique Silva; Belligoli,Leonardo de Queiroz Gomes; Silva,Eduardo Sergio da
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 EN
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Introduction: Epidemiological studies on amebiasis have been reassessed since Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar were first recognized as distinct species. Because the morphological similarity of these species renders microscopic diagnosis unreliable, additional tools are required to discriminate between Entamoeba species. The objectives of our study were to compare microscopy with ELISA kit (IVD®) results, to diagnose E. histolytica infection, and to determine the prevalence of amebiasis in a sample of students from southeastern Brazil. Methods: In this study, diagnosis was based on microscopy due to its capacity for revealing potential cysts/trophozoites and on two commercial kits for antigen detection in stool samples. Results: For 1,403 samples collected from students aged 6 to 14 years who were living in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, microscopy underestimated the number of individuals infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar (5.7% prevalence) compared with the ELISA kit (IVD®)-based diagnoses (15.7% for E. histolytica/E. dispar). A comparison of the ELISA (IVD®) and light microscopy results returned a 20% sensitivity, 97% specificity, low positive predictive value, and high negative predictive value for microscopy. An ELISA kit (TechLab®) that was specific for E. histolytica detected a 3.1% (43/1403) prevalence for E. histolytica infection. Conclusions: The ELISA kit (IVD®) can be used as an alternative screening tool. The high prevalence of E. histolytica infection detected in this study warrants the implementation of actions directed toward health promotion and preventive measures.

Structure and properties of brazilian peat: analysis by spectroscopy and microscopy

Romão,Luciane P. C.; Lead,Jamie R.; Rocha,Julio C.; Oliveira,Luciana Camargo de; Rosa,André H.; Mendonça,André G. R.; Ribeiro,Adauto de Souza
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 EN
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36.2802%
Peat was taken from the Sergipe State, Brazil and characterized by several techniques: elemental and thermal analyses; Fourier infrared (FTIR) and solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies; scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Also, the Sergipe State peat samples were compared with other peat sample from later from Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The lowest O/C and E4/E6 ratios and differential thermal analysis (DTA) curves of the Santo Amaro (SAO) sample indicated that this sample had the highest degree of decomposition. FTIR results showed that Itabaiana (ITA) and São Paulo (SAP) samples presented more prominent peak at 1086 cm-1 attributed the presence of Si-O than SAO sample spectra. The SAO sample showed two more intense peaks at 2920 cm-1 and 2850 cm-1. These results were corroborated by 13C NMR and thermal gravimetric (TG) where the relative abundance of the alkyl-C groups was greater in the SAO sample. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) of SAO sample is characteristic of amorphous matter however, the SAP and ITA samples revealed the large presence of quartz mineral. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) showed that the surface of peat samples have porous granules of organic material. The ITA and SAP peat samples are alike while SAO peat sample is richer in organic material. Only the SAO sample has truthful characteristics of peat. The results of this study showed that the samples are very different due to variable inorganic and organic material contents.

The role of electron microscopy for the diagnosis of glomerulopathies

Sementilli,Angelo; Moura,Luiz Antonio; Franco,Marcello Fabiano
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2004 EN
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CONTEXT: Electron microscopy has been used for the morphological diagnosis of glomerular diseases for more than three decades and its value has been widely emphasized. However, recent reports have analyzed the routine use of electron microscopy critically. Its use in other areas of diagnosis such as tumor diseases has declined considerably; in addition, in view of the unavoidable financial pressure for the reduction of costs due to investigations and diagnostic routines, the selection of cases for electron microscopy has been quite rigorous. OBJECTIVE: To identify the glomerular diseases that depend on electron microscopy for a final diagnosis, by means of reviewing renal biopsies performed over a 12-year period. DESIGN: Prospective SETTING: Hospital Ana Costa, Hospital Guilherme Álvaro and Serviço de Anatomia Patológica de Santos, Santos, São Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 200 consecutive renal biopsies obtained from private hospitals and the teaching hospital from 1979 to 1991 were studied. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: All cases were analyzed via light microscopy, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. The diagnosis was first made via light microscopy plus immunofluorescence and then via electron microscopy. RESULTS: Electron microscopy was diagnostic or essential for diagnosis in 10.0% of the cases...

Polarized light microscopy of hair shafts aids in the differential diagnosis of Chédiak-Higashi and Griscelli-Prunieras syndromes

Valente,Neusa Y.S.; Machado,Maria Cecilia M.R.; Boggio,Paula; Alves,Ana Cristina F.; Bergonse,Fabiane N.; Casella,Erasmo; Vasconcelos,Dewton Moraes; Grumach,Anete S.; Oliveira,Zilda N.P. de
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2006 EN
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PURPOSE: To study and compare the appearance of hairs from patients with Chédiak-Higashi and Griscelli-Prunieras syndromes under light and polarized light microscopy. METHOD: Hairs from 2 Chédiak-Higashi and 2 Griscelli-Prunieras patients were obtained and examined under normal and polarized light microscopy. RESULTS: Under light microscopy, hairs from Chédiak-Higashi patients presented evenly distributed, regular melanin granules, larger than those seen in normal hairs. Under polarized light microscopy, shafts exhibited a bright and polychromatic refringence appearance. In contrast, hair from Griscelli-Prunieras patients, under light microscopy, exhibited bigger and irregular melanin granules, distributed mainly near the medulla. Under polarized light microscopy, shafts appeared monotonously white. CONCLUSION: Light microscopic examination of hair shafts of patients with Chédiak-Higashi or Griscelli-Prunieras syndrome reveals subtle differences that are useful in identifying both disorders, but not in distinguishing between them. We provide evidence that polarized light microscopy of hair shafts, an approach that has not been previously described, aids in differentiating between these syndromes. We propose hair study by polarized light microscopy as a helpful complementary diagnostic method for differential diagnosis between CHS and GPS...

Fluorescence Microscopy Gets Faster and Clearer: Roles of Photochemistry and Selective Illumination

Wolenski, Joseph S.; Julich, Doerthe
Fonte: YJBM Publicador: YJBM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/03/2014 EN
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Significant advances in fluorescence microscopy tend be a balance between two competing qualities wherein improvements in resolution and low light detection are typically accompanied by losses in acquisition rate and signal-to-noise, respectively. These trade-offs are becoming less of a barrier to biomedical research as recent advances in optoelectronic microscopy and developments in fluorophore chemistry have enabled scientists to see beyond the diffraction barrier, image deeper into live specimens, and acquire images at unprecedented speed. Selective plane illumination microscopy has provided significant gains in the spatial and temporal acquisition of fluorescence specimens several mm in thickness. With commercial systems now available, this method promises to expand on recent advances in 2-photon deep-tissue imaging with improved speed and reduced photobleaching compared to laser scanning confocal microscopy. Superresolution microscopes are also available in several modalities and can be coupled with selective plane illumination techniques. The combination of methods to increase resolution, acquisition speed, and depth of collection are now being married to common microscope systems, enabling scientists to make significant advances in live cell and in situ imaging in real time. We show that light sheet microscopy provides significant advantages for imaging live zebrafish embryos compared to laser scanning confocal microscopy.

New Policies, New Technologies : Modelling the Potential for Improved Smear Microscopy Services in Malawi

Ramsay, A.; Cuevas, L. E.; Mundy, C. J.; Nathanson, C. M.; Chirambo, P.; Dacombe, R.; Squire, S. B.; Salaniponi, F. M.; Munthali, S.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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BACKGROUND: To quantify the likely impact of recent WHO policy recommendations regarding smear microscopy and the introduction of appropriate low-cost fluorescence microscopy on a) case detection and b) laboratory workload. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An audit of the laboratory register in an urban hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi, and the application of a simple modelling framework. The adoption of the new definition of a smear-positive case could directly increase case detection by up to 28%. Examining Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) sputum smears for up to 10 minutes before declaring them negative has previously been shown to increase case detection (over and above that gained by the adoption of the new case definition) by 70% compared with examination times in routine practice. Three times the number of staff would be required to adequately examine the current workload of smears using ZN microscopy. Through implementing new policy recommendations and LED-based fluorescence microscopy the current laboratory staff complement could investigate the same number of patients, examining auramine-stained smears to an extent that is equivalent to a 10 minutes ZN smear examination. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Combined implementation of the new WHO recommendations on smear microscopy and LED-based fluorescence microscopy could result in substantial increases in smear positive case-detection using existing human resources and minimal additional equipment.

Array microscopy technology and its application to digital detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

McCall, Brian
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
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Tuberculosis causes more deaths worldwide than any other curable infectious disease. This is the case despite tuberculosis appearing to be on the verge of eradication midway through the last century. Efforts at reversing the spread of tuberculosis have intensified since the early 1990s. Since then, microscopy has been the primary frontline diagnostic. In this dissertation, advances in clinical microscopy towards array microscopy for digital detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are presented. Digital array microscopy separates the tasks of microscope operation and pathogen detection and will reduce the specialization needed in order to operate the microscope. Distributing the work and reducing specialization will allow this technology to be deployed at the point of care, taking the front-line diagnostic for tuberculosis from the microscopy center to the community health center. By improving access to microscopy centers, hundreds of thousands of lives can be saved. For this dissertation, a lens was designed that can be manufactured as 4×6 array of microscopes. This lens design is diffraction limited, having less than 0.071 waves of aberration (root mean square) over the entire field of view. A total area imaged onto a full-frame digital image sensor is expected to be 3.94 mm2...

Consecutive light microscopy, scanning-transmission electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy of traumatic human brain oedema and ischaemic brain damage

Castejon, O.J.; Castejon, H.V.; Diaz, M.; Castellano, A.
Fonte: Murcia : F. Hernández Publicador: Murcia : F. Hernández
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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Cortical biopsies of 11 patients with traumatic brain oedema were consecutively studied by light microscopy (LM) using thick plastic sections, scanning-transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) using semithin plastic sections and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using ultrathin sections. Samples were glutaraldehyde-osmium fixed and embedded in Araldite or Epon. Thick sections were stained with toluidine-blue for light microscopy. Semithin sections were examined unstained and uncoated for (S)TEM. Ultrathin sections were stained with uranyl and lead. Perivascular haemorrhages and perivascular extravasation of proteinaceous oedema fluid were observed in both moderate and severe oedema. Ischaemic pyramidal and non-pyramidal nerve cells appeared shrunken, electron dense and with enlargement of intracytoplasmic membrane compartment. Notably swollen astrocytes were observed in all samples examined. Glycogen-rich and glycogen-depleted astrocytes were identified in anoxic-ischaemic regions. Dark and hydropic satellite, interfascicular and perivascular oligodendrocytes were also found. The status spongiosus of severely oedematous brain parenchyma observed by LM and (S)TEM was correlated with the enlarged extracellular space and disrupted neuropil observed by TEM. The (S)TEM is recommended as a suitable technique for studying pathological processes in the central nervous system and as an informative adjunct to LM and TEM.

Developing Single-Laser Sources for Multimodal Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy

PEGORARO, ADRIAN FRANK
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
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Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy has developed rapidly and is opening the door to new types of experiments. This work describes the development of new laser sources for CARS microscopy and their use for different applications. It is specifically focused on multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy—the simultaneous combination of different imaging techniques. This allows us to address a diverse range of applications, such as the study of biomaterials, fluid inclusions, atherosclerosis, hepatitis C infection in cells, and ice formation in cells. For these applications new laser sources are developed that allow for practical multimodal imaging. For example, it is shown that using a single Ti:sapphire oscillator with a photonic crystal fiber, it is possible to develop a versatile multimodal imaging system using optimally chirped laser pulses. This system can perform simultaneous two photon excited fluorescence, second harmonic generation, and CARS microscopy. The versatility of the system is further demonstrated by showing that it is possible to probe different Raman modes using CARS microscopy simply by changing a time delay between the excitation beams. Using optimally chirped pulses also enables further simplification of the laser system required by using a single fiber laser combined with nonlinear optical fibers to perform effective multimodal imaging. While these sources are useful for practical multimodal imaging...

Contribuição do estudo dos cabelos com microscopia de luz polarizada ao diagnóstico diferencial das síndromes de Chédiak-Higashi and Grisceli-Prunieras; Polarized light microscopy of hair shafts aids in the differential diagnosis of Chédiak-Higashi and Griscelli-Prunieras syndromes

Valente, Neusa Y.S.; Machado, Maria Cecilia M.R.; Boggio, Paula; Alves, Ana Cristina F.; Bergonse, Fabiane N.; Casella, Erasmo; Vasconcelos, Dewton Moraes; Grumach, Anete S.; Oliveira, Zilda N.P. de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2006 ENG
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OBJETIVO: Estudar e comparar o aspecto dos cabelos de portadores das síndromes de Chédiak-Higashi e Griscelli-Prunieras, tanto na microscopia óptica convencional quanto com luz polarizada. MÉTODO: Cabelos de dois doentes portadores da síndrome de Chédiak-Higashi e de dois portadores da síndrome de Griscelli-Prunieras foram obtidos e estudados tanto à microscopia convencional quanto com luz polarizada. RESULTADOS: Na microscopia óptica convencional, os cabelos dos doentes portadores da síndrome de Chédiak-Higashi mostraram grânulos de melanina regulares, com distribuição homogênea e de maior tamanho em comparação aos presentes no cabelo normal. À microscopia de luz polarizada notou-se aspecto brilhante e refringência policromática. Diferentemente, os cabelos dos doentes portadores da síndrome de Griscelli-Prunieras apresentaram à microscopia convencional, grânulos de melanina irregulares e maiores do que os presentes no cabelo normal e os presentes nos cabelos dos doentes portadores da síndrome de Chédiak-Higashi, preferencialmente próximos à medula das hastes pilosas. À microscopia de luz polarizada apresentaram aspecto monotonamente esbranquiçado. CONCLUSÃO: O exame dos cabelos pela microscopia convencional nas síndromes de Chédiak-Higashi e Griscelli-Prunieras revela diferenças sutis no reconhecimento dessas doenças. No presente trabalho apresentamos evidência de que o exame das hastes pilosas com microscopia de luz polarizada - não descrito previamente - contribui na diferenciação de ambas doenças sugerindo que esse seja um método diagnóstico útil na distinção entre as síndromes de Chédiak-Higashi e Griscelli Prunieras...