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Amphotericin B and Fluconazole Affect Cellular Charge, Macrophage Phagocytosis, and Cellular Morphology of Cryptococcus neoformans at Subinhibitory Concentrations

Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Cleare, Wendy; Franzot, Sarah P.; Casadevall, Arturo
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
995.24195%
Amphotericin B (AmB) and fluconazole (FLU) are the major antifungal drugs used in the treatment of cryptococcosis. Both drugs are believed to exert their antifungal effects through actions on cell membrane sterols. In this study we investigated whether AmB and FLU had other, more subtle effects on C. neoformans that could contribute to their therapeutic efficacy. C. neoformans cells were grown in media with subinhibitory concentrations of either AmB or FLU and analyzed for cellular charge, phagocytosis by macrophages with antibody and complement opsonins, appearance by scanning electron and light microscopies, and release of the capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan into the culture medium. Growth in the presence of either AmB or FLU resulted in major reductions in cellular charge, as measured by determination of the zeta potential. Phagocytosis studies demonstrated that exposure of C. neoformans to subinhibitory concentrations of AmB or FLU enhanced phagocytosis by macrophages. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that a large proportion of cells had an altered capsular appearance. Cells grown in medium with either AmB or FLU were smaller and released more glucuronoxylomannan into the culture medium than cells grown without antibiotics. The results suggest additional mechanisms of action for AmB and FLU that may be operative in body compartments where drug levels do not achieve the MICs. Furthermore...

In Vitro Antibacterial Activities of Platelet Microbicidal Protein and Neutrophil Defensin against Staphylococcus aureus Are Influenced by Antibiotics Differing in Mechanism of Action

Xiong, Yan-Qiong; Yeaman, Michael R.; Bayer, Arnold S.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1999 EN
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1102.87625%
Thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein-1 (tPMP-1) and human neutrophil defensin-1 (HNP-1) are small, cationic antimicrobial peptides. These peptides exert potent in vitro microbicidal activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. Evidence suggests that tPMP-1 and HNP-1 target and disrupt the bacterial membrane. However, it is not yet clear whether membrane disruption itself is sufficient to kill the bacterium or whether subsequent, presumably intracellular, events are also involved in killing. We investigated the staphylocidal activities of tPMP-1 and HNP-1 in the presence or absence of pretreatment with antibiotics that differ in their mechanisms of action. The staphylocidal effects of tPMP-1 and HNP-1 on control cells (no antibiotic pretreatment) were rapid and concentration dependent. Pretreatment of S. aureus with either penicillin or vancomycin (bacterial cell wall synthesis inhibitors) significantly enhanced the anti-S. aureus effects of tPMP-1 compared with the effects against the respective control cells over the entire tPMP-1 concentration range tested (P < 0.05). Similarly, S. aureus cells pretreated with these antibiotics were more susceptible to HNP-1 than control cells, although the difference in the effects against cells that received penicillin pretreatment did not reach statistical significance (P < 0.05 for cells that received vancomycin pretreatment versus effects against control cells). Studies with isogenic pairs of strains with normal or deficient autolytic enzyme activities demonstrated that enhancement of S. aureus killing by cationic peptides and cell wall-active agents could not be ascribed to a predominant role of autolytic enzyme activation. Pretreatment of S. aureus cells with tetracycline...

Multiple Mechanisms of Action for Inhibitors of Histidine Protein Kinases from Bacterial Two-Component Systems

Hilliard, Jamese J.; Goldschmidt, Raul M.; Licata, Lisa; Baum, Ellen Z.; Bush, Karen
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
994.8232%
Many pathogenic bacteria utilize two-component systems consisting of a histidine protein kinase (HPK) and a response regulator (RR) for signal transduction. During the search for novel inhibitors, several chemical series, including benzoxazines, benzimidazoles, bis-phenols, cyclohexenes, trityls, and salicylanilides, were identified that inhibited the purified HPK-RR pairs KinA-Spo0F and NRII-NRI, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 1.9 to >500 μM and MICs ranging from 0.5 to >16 μg/ml for gram-positive bacteria. However, additional observations suggested that mechanisms other than HPK inhibition might contribute to antibacterial activity. In the present work, representative compounds from the six different series of inhibitors were analyzed for their effects on membrane integrity and macromolecular synthesis. At 4× MIC, 17 of 24 compounds compromised the integrity of the bacterial cell membrane within 10 min, as measured by uptake of propidium iodide. In this set, compounds with lower IC50s tended to cause greater membrane disruption. Eleven of 12 compounds inhibited cellular incorporation of radiolabeled thymidine and uridine >97% in 5 min and amino acids >80% in 15 min. The HPK inhibitor that allowed >25% precursor incorporation had no measurable MIC (>16 μg/ml). Fifteen of 24 compounds also caused hemolysis of equine erythrocytes. Thus...

Antibacterial Action of Structurally Diverse Cationic Peptides on Gram-Positive Bacteria

Friedrich, Carol L.; Moyles, Dianne; Beveridge, Terry J.; Hancock, Robert E. W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2000 EN
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1000.4026%
Antimicrobial cationic peptides are ubiquitous in nature and are thought to be a component of the first line of defense against infectious agents. It is widely believed that the killing mechanism of these peptides on bacteria involves an interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane. Cationic peptides from different structural classes were used in experiments with Staphylococcus aureus and other medically important gram-positive bacteria to gain insight into the mechanism of action. The membrane potential-sensitive fluorophore dipropylthiacarbocyanine was used to assess the interactions of selected antimicrobial peptides with the cytoplasmic membrane of S. aureus. Study of the kinetics of killing and membrane depolarization showed that, at early time points, membrane depolarization was incomplete, even when 90% or more of the bacteria had been killed. CP26, a 26-amino-acid α-helical peptide with a high MIC against S. aureus, still had the ability to permeabilize the membrane. Cytoplasmic-membrane permeabilization was a widespread ability and an action that may be necessary for reaching an intracellular target but in itself did not appear to be the killing mechanism. Transmission electron microscopy of S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis treated with CP29 (a 26-amino-acid α-helical peptide)...

Central Role of Hemoglobin Degradation in Mechanisms of Action of 4-Aminoquinolines, Quinoline Methanols, and Phenanthrene Methanols

Mungthin, Mathirut; Bray, Patrick G.; Ridley, Robert G.; Ward, Stephen A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
1090.5615%
We have used a specific inhibitor of the malarial aspartic proteinase plasmepsin I and a nonspecific cysteine proteinase inhibitor to investigate the importance of hemoglobin degradation in the mechanism of action of chloroquine, amodiaquine, quinine, mefloquine (MQ), halofantrine, and primaquine. Both proteinase inhibitors antagonized the antiparasitic activity of all drugs tested with the exception of primaquine. An inhibitor of plasmepsin I, Ro40-4388, reduced the incorporation of radiolabelled chloroquine and quinine into malarial pigment by 95%, while causing a 70% reduction in the incorporation of radiolabelled MQ. Cysteine proteinase inhibitor E64 reduced the incorporation of chloroquine and quinine into malarial pigment by 60 and 40%, respectively. This study provides definitive support for the central role of hemoglobin degradation in the mechanism of action of the 4-aminoquinolines and the quinoline and phenanthrene methanol antimalarials.

Mechanism of Action of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil on Staphylococcus aureus Determined by Time-Kill, Lysis, Leakage, and Salt Tolerance Assays and Electron Microscopy

Carson, Christine F.; Mee, Brian J.; Riley, Thomas V.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
1088.396%
The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The mechanisms of action of tea tree oil and three of its components, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol, against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 were investigated. Treatment with these agents at their MICs and two times their MICs, particularly treatment with terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, reduced the viability of S. aureus. None of the agents caused lysis, as determined by measurement of the optical density at 620 nm, although cells became disproportionately sensitive to subsequent autolysis. Loss of 260-nm-absorbing material occurred after treatment with concentrations equivalent to the MIC, particularly after treatment with 1,8-cineole and α-terpineol. S. aureus organisms treated with tea tree oil or its components at the MIC or two times the MIC showed a significant loss of tolerance to NaCl. When the agents were tested at one-half the MIC, only 1,8-cineole significantly reduced the tolerance of S. aureus to NaCl. Electron microscopy of terpinen-4-ol-treated cells showed the formation of mesosomes and the loss of cytoplasmic contents. The predisposition to lysis, the loss of 260-nm-absorbing material, the loss of tolerance to NaCl...

Roles of Mycobacterium smegmatis d-Alanine:d-Alanine Ligase and d-Alanine Racemase in the Mechanisms of Action of and Resistance to the Peptidoglycan Inhibitor d-Cycloserine†

Feng, Zhengyu; Barletta, Raúl G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
1191.66516%
d-Cycloserine (DCS) targets the peptidoglycan biosynthetic enzymes d-alanine racemase (Alr) and d-alanine:d-alanine ligase (Ddl). Previously, we demonstrated that the overproduction of Alr in Mycobacterium smegmatis determines a DCS resistance phenotype. In this study, we investigated the roles of both Alr and Ddl in the mechanisms of action of and resistance to DCS in M. smegmatis. We found that the overexpression of either the M. smegmatis or the Mycobacterium tuberculosis ddl gene in M. smegmatis confers resistance to DCS, but at lower levels than the overexpression of the alr gene. Furthermore, a strain overexpressing both the alr and ddl genes displayed an eightfold-higher level of resistance. To test the hypothesis that inhibition of Alr by DCS decreases the intracellular pool of d-alanine, we determined the alanine pools in M. smegmatis wild-type and recombinant strains with or without DCS treatment. Alr-overproducing strain GPM14 cells not exposed to DCS displayed almost equimolar amounts of l- and d-alanine in the steady state. The wild-type strain and Ddl-overproducing strains contained a twofold excess of l- over d-alanine. In all strains, DCS treatment led to a significant accumulation of l-alanine and a concomitant decease of d-alanine...

Mechanism of Action of NB2001 and NB2030, Novel Antibacterial Agents Activated by β-Lactamases

Stone, Geoffrey W.; Zhang, Qin; Castillo, Rosario; Doppalapudi, V. Ramana; Bueno, Analia R.; Lee, Jean Y.; Li, Qing; Sergeeva, Maria; Khambatta, Gody; Georgopapadakou, Nafsika H.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
1088.2013%
Two potent antibacterial agents designed to undergo enzyme-catalyzed therapeutic activation were evaluated for their mechanisms of action. The compounds, NB2001 and NB2030, contain a cephalosporin with a thienyl (NB2001) or a tetrazole (NB2030) ring at the C-7 position and are linked to the antibacterial triclosan at the C-3 position. The compounds exploit β-lactamases to release triclosan through hydrolysis of the β-lactam ring. Like cephalothin, NB2001 and NB2030 were hydrolyzed by class A β-lactamases (Escherichia coli TEM-1 and, to a lesser degree, Staphylococcus aureus PC1) and class C β-lactamases (Enterobacter cloacae P99 and E. coli AmpC) with comparable catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km). They also bound to the penicillin-binding proteins of S. aureus and E. coli, but with reduced affinities relative to that of cephalothin. Accordingly, they produced a cell morphology in E. coli consistent with the toxophore rather than the β-lactam being responsible for antibacterial activity. In biochemical assays, they inhibited the triclosan target enoyl reductase (FabI), with 50% inhibitory concentrations being markedly reduced relative to that of free triclosan. The transport of NB2001, NB2030, and triclosan was rapid, with significant accumulation of triclosan in both S. aureus and E. coli. Taken together...

Panel of Bacillus subtilis Reporter Strains Indicative of Various Modes of Action

Hutter, Bernd; Fischer, Christina; Jacobi, Alexander; Schaab, Christoph; Loferer, Hannes
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
1092.0904%
In a recent project, we collected the transcriptional profiles of Bacillus subtilis 168 after treatment with a large set of diverse antibacterial agents. One result of the data analysis was the identification of marker genes that are indicative of certain compounds or compound classes. We cloned these promoter regions in front of a luciferase reporter gene and reintroduced the constructs individually into the B. subtilis chromosome. Strains were analyzed for their responsiveness after treatment with a set of 37 antibacterials. Twelve functional reporter strains were generated that were selectively and significantly upregulated by the compounds. The selectivity of the reporter strains ranged from generic pathways like protein biosynthesis, cell wall biosynthesis, and fatty acid biosynthesis to compound classes (quinolones and glycopeptides) and individual compounds (rifampin, cycloserine, and clindamycin). Five of the strains are amenable for high-throughput applications, e.g., pathway-specific screening. In summary, we successfully generated B. subtilis reporter strains that are indicative of the mechanisms of action of various classes of antibacterials. The set of reporter strains presented herein can be used for mode-of-action analyses and for whole-cell screening of compound libraries in a mode-of-action-specific manner.

Prediction of Mechanisms of Action of Antibacterial Compounds by Gene Expression Profiling

Hutter, Bernd; Schaab, Christoph; Albrecht, Sebastian; Borgmann, Matthias; Brunner, Nina A.; Freiberg, Christoph; Ziegelbauer, Karl; Rock, Charles O.; Ivanov, Igor; Loferer, Hannes
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
1191.5371%
We have generated a database of expression profiles carrying the transcriptional responses of the model organism Bacillus subtilis following treatment with 37 well-characterized antibacterial compounds of different classes. The database was used to build a predictor for the assignment of the mechanisms of action (MoAs) of antibacterial compounds by the use of support vector machines. This predictor was able to correctly classify the MoA class for most compounds tested. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the in vivo MoA of hexachlorophene does not match the MoA predicted from in vitro data, a situation frequently faced in drug discovery. A database of this kind may facilitate the prioritization of novel antibacterial entities in drug discovery programs. Potential applications and limitations are discussed.

Discovering the Mechanism of Action of Novel Antibacterial Agents through Transcriptional Profiling of Conditional Mutants

Freiberg, C.; Fischer, H. P.; Brunner, N. A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
1090.5048%
We present a new strategy for predicting novel antibiotic mechanisms of action based on the analysis of whole-genome microarray data. We first built up a reference compendium of Bacillus subtilis expression profiles induced by 14 different antibiotics. This data set was expanded by adding expression profiles from mutants that showed downregulation of genes coding for proven or emerging antibacterial targets. Here, we investigate conditional mutants underexpressing ileS, pheST, fabF, and accDA, each of which is essential for growth. Our proof-of-principle analyses reveal that conditional mutants can be used to mimic chemical inhibition of the corresponding gene products. Moreover, we show that a statistical data analysis combined with thorough pathway and regulon analysis can pinpoint the molecular target of uncharacterized antibiotics. We apply this approach to two novel antibiotics: a recently published phenyl-thiazolylurea derivative and the natural product moiramide B. Our results support recent findings suggesting that the phenyl-thiazolylurea derivative is a novel phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor. Finally, we propose a completely novel antibiotic mechanism of action for moiramide B based on inhibition of the bacterial acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase.

Mechanisms of Antibacterial Action of Three Monoterpenes

Trombetta, Domenico; Castelli, Francesco; Sarpietro, Maria Grazia; Venuti, Vincenza; Cristani, Mariateresa; Daniele, Claudia; Saija, Antonella; Mazzanti, Gabriela; Bisignano, Giuseppe
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
1091.62234%
In the present paper, we report the antimicrobial efficacy of three monoterpenes [linalyl acetate, (+)menthol, and thymol] against the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. For a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, the capability of these three monoterpenes to damage biomembranes was evaluated by monitoring the release, following exposure to the compounds under study, of the water-soluble fluorescent marker carboxyfluorescein from unilamellar vesicles with different lipidic compositions (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine [9:1], phosphatidylcholine/stearylamine [9:1], and phosphatidylglycerol/cardiolipin [9:1]). Furthermore, the interaction of the terpenes tested with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles as model membranes was monitored by means of differential scanning calorimetry. Finally, the results were related to the relative lipophilicity and water solubility of the compounds examined. Taken together, our findings lead us to speculate that the antimicrobial effect of (+)menthol, thymol, and linalyl acetate may result, at least partially, from a perturbation of the lipid fraction of microorganism plasma membrane...

Multiple Antibiotics Exert Delayed Effects against the Plasmodium falciparum Apicoplast▿

Dahl, Erica L.; Rosenthal, Philip J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
995.6328%
Several classes of antibiotics exert antimalarial activity. The mechanisms of action of antibiotics against malaria parasites have been unclear, and prior studies have led to conflicting results, in part because they studied antibiotics at suprapharmacological concentrations. We examined the antimalarial effects of azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doxycycline, and rifampin against chloroquine-resistant (W2) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) Plasmodium falciparum strains. At clinically relevant concentrations, rifampin killed parasites quickly, preventing them from initiating cell division. In contrast, pharmacological concentrations of azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, and doxycycline were relatively inactive against parasites initially but exerted a delayed death effect, in which the progeny of treated parasites failed to complete erythrocytic development. The drugs that caused delayed death did not alter the distribution of apicoplasts into developing progeny. However, the apicoplasts inherited by the progeny of treated parasites were abnormal. The loss of apicoplast function became apparent as the progeny of antibiotic-treated parasites initiated cell division, with the failure of schizonts to fully mature or for erythrocyte rupture to take place. These findings explain the slow antimalarial action of multiple antibiotics.

Proteomic Signature of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Inhibition Available for In Vivo Mechanism-of-Action Studies▿

Wenzel, Michaela; Patra, Malay; Albrecht, Dirk; Chen, David Y.-K.; Nicolaou, K. C.; Metzler-Nolte, Nils; Bandow, Julia E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
1093.54875%
Fatty acid biosynthesis is a promising novel antibiotic target. Two inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis, platencin and platensimycin, were recently discovered and their molecular targets identified. Numerous structure-activity relationship studies for both platencin and platensimycin are currently being undertaken. We established a proteomic signature for fatty acid biosynthesis inhibition in Bacillus subtilis using platencin, platensimycin, cerulenin, and triclosan. The induced proteins, FabHA, FabHB, FabF, FabI, PlsX, and PanB, are enzymes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and thus linked directly to the target pathway. The proteomic signature can now be used to assess the in vivo mechanisms of action of compounds derived from structure-activity relationship programs, as demonstrated for the platensimycin-inspired chromium bioorganometallic PM47. It will further serve as a reference signature for structurally novel natural and synthetic antimicrobial compounds with unknown mechanisms of action. In summary, we described a proteomic signature in B. subtilis consisting of six upregulated proteins that is diagnostic of fatty acid biosynthesis inhibition and thus can be applied to advance antibacterial drug discovery programs.

Mechanisms of Action of Escapin, a Bactericidal Agent in the Ink Secretion of the Sea Hare Aplysia californica: Rapid and Long-Lasting DNA Condensation and Involvement of the OxyR-Regulated Oxidative Stress Pathway

Ko, Ko-Chun; Tai, Phang C.; Derby, Charles D.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
1092.7213%
The marine snail Aplysia californica produces escapin, an l-amino acid oxidase, in its defensive ink. Escapin uses l-lysine to produce diverse products called escapin intermediate products of l-lysine (EIP-K), including α-amino-ε-caproic acid, Δ1-piperidine-2-carboxylic acid, and Δ2-piperidine-2-carboxylic acid. EIP-K and H2O2 together, but neither alone, is a powerful bactericide. Here, we report bactericidal mechanisms of escapin products on Escherichia coli. We show that EIP-K and H2O2 together cause rapid and long-lasting DNA condensation: 2-min treatment causes significant DNA condensation and killing, and 10-min treatment causes maximal effect, lasting at least 70 h. We isolated two mutants resistant to EIP-K plus H2O2, both having a single missense mutation in the oxidation regulatory gene, oxyR. A complementation assay showed that the mutated gene, oxyR(A233V), renders resistance to EIP-K plus H2O2, and a gene dosage effect leads to reduction of resistance for strains carrying wild-type oxyR. Temperature stress with EIP-K does not produce the bactericidal effect, suggesting the effect is due to a specific response to oxidative stress. The null mutant for any single DNA-binding protein—Dps, H-NS, Hup, Him, or MukB—was not resistant to EIP-K plus H2O2...

Mechanism of Action of the Arylomycin Antibiotics and Effects of Signal Peptidase I Inhibition

Smith, Peter A.; Romesberg, Floyd E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
1106.87625%
Clinically approved antibiotics inhibit only a small number of conserved pathways that are essential for bacterial viability, and the physiological effects of inhibiting these pathways have been studied in great detail. Likewise, characterizing the effects of candidate antibiotics that function via novel mechanisms of action is critical for their development, which is of increasing importance due to the ever-growing problem of resistance. The arylomycins are a novel class of natural-product antibiotics that act via the inhibition of type I signal peptidase (SPase), which is an essential enzyme that functions as part of the general secretory pathway and is not the target of any clinically deployed antibiotic. Correspondingly, little is known about the effects of SPase inhibition or how bacteria may respond to mitigate the associated secretion stress. Using genetically sensitized Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as model organisms, we examine the activity of arylomycin as a function of its concentration, bacterial cell density, target expression levels, and bacterial growth phase. The results reveal that the activity of the arylomycins results from an insufficient flux of proteins through the secretion pathway and the resulting mislocalization of proteins. Interestingly...

Defining the Timing of Action of Antimalarial Drugs against Plasmodium falciparum

Wilson, Danny W.; Langer, Christine; Goodman, Christopher D.; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; Beeson, James G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
1093.7744%
Most current antimalarials for treatment of clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria fall into two broad drug families and target the food vacuole of the trophozoite stage. No antimalarials have been shown to target the brief extracellular merozoite form of blood-stage malaria. We studied a panel of 12 drugs, 10 of which have been used extensively clinically, for their invasion, schizont rupture, and growth-inhibitory activity using high-throughput flow cytometry and new approaches for the study of merozoite invasion and early intraerythrocytic development. Not surprisingly, given reported mechanisms of action, none of the drugs inhibited merozoite invasion in vitro. Pretreatment of erythrocytes with drugs suggested that halofantrine, lumefantrine, piperaquine, amodiaquine, and mefloquine diffuse into and remain within the erythrocyte and inhibit downstream growth of parasites. Studying the inhibitory activity of the drugs on intraerythrocytic development, schizont rupture, and reinvasion enabled several different inhibitory phenotypes to be defined. All drugs inhibited parasite replication when added at ring stages, but only artesunate, artemisinin, cycloheximide, and trichostatin A appeared to have substantial activity against ring stages...

Nanoscale Effects of Caspofungin against Two Yeast Species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans

Formosa, C.; Schiavone, M.; Martin-Yken, H.; François, J. M.; Duval, R. E.; Dague, E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
994.8009%
Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans are model yeasts for biotechnology and human health, respectively. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the effects of caspofungin, an antifungal drug used in hospitals, on these two species. Our nanoscale investigation revealed similar, but also different, behaviors of the two yeasts in response to treatment with the drug. While administration of caspofungin induced deep cell wall remodeling in both yeast species, as evidenced by a dramatic increase in chitin and decrease in β-glucan content, changes in cell wall composition were more pronounced with C. albicans cells. Notably, the increase of chitin was proportional to the increase in the caspofungin dose. In addition, the Young modulus of the cell was three times lower for C. albicans cells than for S. cerevisiae cells and increased proportionally with the increase of chitin, suggesting differences in the molecular organization of the cell wall between the two yeast species. Also, at a low dose of caspofungin (i.e., 0.5× MIC), the cell surface of C. albicans exhibited a morphology that was reminiscent of cells expressing adhesion proteins. Interestingly, this morphology was lost at high doses of the drug (i.e., 4× MIC). However...

Fungicidal Mechanisms of Cathelicidins LL-37 and CATH-2 Revealed by Live-Cell Imaging

Ordonez, Soledad R.; Amarullah, Ilham H.; Wubbolts, Richard W.; Veldhuizen, Edwin J. A.; Haagsman, Henk P.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
1097.1058%
Antifungal mechanisms of action of two cathelicidins, chicken CATH-2 and human LL-37, were studied and compared with the mode of action of the salivary peptide histatin 5 (Hst5). Candida albicans was used as a model organism for fungal pathogens. Analysis by live-cell imaging showed that the peptides kill C. albicans rapidly. CATH-2 is the most active peptide and kills C. albicans within 5 min. Both cathelicidins induce cell membrane permeabilization and simultaneous vacuolar expansion. Minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) are in the same order of magnitude for all three peptides, but the mechanisms of antifungal activity are very different. The activity of cathelicidins is independent of the energy status of the fungal cell, unlike Hst5 activity. Live-cell imaging using fluorescently labeled peptides showed that both CATH-2 and LL-37 quickly localize to the C. albicans cell membrane, while Hst5 was mainly directed to the fungal vacuole. Small amounts of cathelicidins internalize at sub-MFCs, suggesting that intracellular activities of the peptide could contribute to the antifungal activity. Analysis by flow cytometry indicated that CATH-2 significantly decreases C. albicans cell size. Finally, electron microscopy showed that CATH-2 affects the integrity of the cell membrane and nuclear envelope. It is concluded that the general mechanisms of action of both cathelicidins are partially similar (but very different from that of Hst5). CATH-2 has unique features and possesses antifungal potential superior to that of LL-37.

Novel Insights into the Mechanism of Inhibition of MmpL3, a Target of Multiple Pharmacophores in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Li, Wei; Upadhyay, Ashutosh; Fontes, Fabio L.; North, E. Jeffrey; Wang, Yuehong; Crans, Debbie C.; Grzegorzewicz, Anna E.; Jones, Victoria; Franzblau, Scott G.; Lee, Richard E.; Crick, Dean C.; Jackson, Mary
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
995.4534%
MmpL3, a resistance-nodulation-division (RND) superfamily transporter, has been implicated in the formation of the outer membrane of Mycobacterium tuberculosis; specifically, MmpL3 is required for the export of mycolic acids in the form of trehalose monomycolates (TMM) to the periplasmic space or outer membrane of M. tuberculosis. Recently, seven series of inhibitors identified by whole-cell screening against M. tuberculosis, including the antituberculosis drug candidate SQ109, were shown to abolish MmpL3-mediated TMM export. However, this mode of action was brought into question by the broad-spectrum activities of some of these inhibitors against a variety of bacterial and fungal pathogens that do not synthesize mycolic acids. This observation, coupled with the ability of three of these classes of inhibitors to kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis bacilli, led us to investigate alternative mechanisms of action. Our results indicate that the inhibitory effects of adamantyl ureas, indolecarboxamides, tetrahydropyrazolopyrimidines, and the 1,5-diarylpyrrole BM212 on the transport activity of MmpL3 in actively replicating M. tuberculosis bacilli are, like that of SQ109, most likely due to their ability to dissipate the transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient. In addition to providing novel insights into the modes of action of compounds reported to inhibit MmpL3...