In specialized literature, reports on anatomy of miners in host plants are few in number. These agents trigger excavations, or paths, by consumption of plant inner tissues by larvae of several insects. The aim of this work was to investigate leaf miner occurrence in Commelina diffusa (a cosmopolitan plant) and Floscopa glabrata (an amphibious plant) using anatomical techniques. The place where the plants were collected is subjected to seasonal floods, consequently both the species were exposed to the same weather conditions and seasonal floods. This study showed that members of Agromyzidae and Chironomidae families, which are Diptera endophytophagous larvae types, were responsible for the tunnels. Moreover, in Commelina diffusa Agromyzidae larvae were found, while in Floscopa glabrata three Chironomidae cephalic exuviae were found. The miners, as can be seen from anatomical studies, used only mesophyll parenchyma tissues for feeding, causing the formation of linear mines. In addition, in both the species, the epidermis and the medium-sized vascular units were kept intact, showing no structural modification, such as neoformation of tissues.; Existem poucos relatos na literatura sobre anatomia de plantas parasitadas por agentes minadores...
INTRODUCTION: Use of a Bacillus sphaericus based mosquito larvicide was evaluated as an intervention for malaria vector control at a mining site in Amapá, Brazil. Impacts on larval and adult densities of the primary vector Anopheles darlingi were measured over the course of a 52 week study period. METHODS: In Calçoene, State of Amapá, gold mining activity occurs in 19 mining sites in gold-miners of Lourenço. Large pools are formed in mining sites and naturally colonized by Anopheles darlingi. During one year, the impact of applications of VectoLex(r) CG to these larval sources was evaluated. Applications of 20kg/ha were made as needed, based on 10 immature (3rd, 4th instars and pupae) surveillance of health and established thresholds. RESULTS: One hundred percent initial control was observed 48h after each treatment. The pools received from 2-10 (5.3±1.6) treatments during the year. The average re-treatment interval in productive pools was 9.4±4.3 weeks. During weeks 3-52 of the study, mean density of late stage larvae was 78% and pupae were 93% lower in the treated pools than in untreated pools (p< 0.0001, n=51) while reduction of adult mosquitoes was 53% in comparison to the untreated area during the last five months of the study...
Chromosome abnormalities and the mitotic index in lymphocyte cultures and micronuclei in buccal mucosa cells were investigated in a sample of underground mineral coal miners from Southern Brazil. A decreased mitotic index, an excess of micronuclei and a higher frequency of chromosome abnormalities (fragments, polyploidy and overall chromosome alterations) were observed in the miners when compared to age-paired normal controls from the same area. An alternative assay for clastogenesis in occupational exposition was tested by submitting lymphocytes from non-exposed individuals to a pool of plasmas from the exposed population. This assay proved to be very convenient, as the lymphocytes obtained from the same individuals can be used as target as well as control cells. Also, it yielded a larger number of metaphases and of successful cultures than with common lymphocyte cultures from miners. A significantly higher frequency of chromatid gaps, fragments and overall alterations were observed when lymphocytes from control subjects were exposed to miner plasma pools. Control plasma pools did not significantly induce any type of chromosome alterations in the cultures of normal subjects, thus indicating that the results are not due to the effect of the addition of plasma pools per se.
In specialized literature, reports on anatomy of miners in host plants are few in number. These agents trigger excavations, or paths, by consumption of plant inner tissues by larvae of several insects. The aim of this work was to investigate leaf miner occurrence in Commelina diffusa (a cosmopolitan plant) and Floscopa glabrata (an amphibious plant) using anatomical techniques. The place where the plants were collected is subjected to seasonal floods, consequently both the species were exposed to the same weather conditions and seasonal floods. This study showed that members of Agromyzidae and Chironomidae families, which are Diptera endophytophagous larvae types, were responsible for the tunnels. Moreover, in Commelina diffusa Agromyzidae larvae were found, while in Floscopa glabrata three Chironomidae cephalic exuviae were found. The miners, as can be seen from anatomical studies, used only mesophyll parenchyma tissues for feeding, causing the formation of linear mines. In addition, in both the species, the epidermis and the medium-sized vascular units were kept intact, showing no structural modification, such as neoformation of tissues.
We analyzed the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes from underground miners from the Casapalca (n = 8, mean age = 45 y, range = 36 y to 55 y) and Bellavista (n = 8, mean age = 28 y, range 23 y to 34 y) high-altitude mining camps in the Peruvian Andes. This population was occupationally exposed to heavy metals such as lead and zinc as well as diesel emission particles, organic solvents and mine dust. The control groups consisted of individuals from a high altitude farming community in the Peruvian village of Tinco (n = 8, mean age = 37 y, range = 25 y to 52 y) and the sea level city of Lima (n = 14, mean age = 26 y, range = 20 y to 35 y). All individuals were male native Peruvians. A significantly higher incidence (1.88%, p < 0.05) of chromosomal aberrations (chromatid deletions and breaks, chromosome breaks and acentric fragments) were detected in lymphocytes from miners at the Casapalca camp as compared to miners from the Bellavista camp (0.5%, chromatid deletions and acentric fragments only) and the Lima sea level (0.07%, chromatid deletions only) and Tinco high altitude (no aberrations) controls. These results suggest that male native Peruvians occupationally exposed to underground mining activity have an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations...
The clinical, histological, and biological features of 157 lung cancers in coal miners and ex-miners are presented. In most respects—age, bronchoscopic appearances, histological type, and symptoms —the two groups are similar. A high incidence of dyspnoea in the miners was attributed to the concurrence of chronic bronchopulmonary disease. A striking feature was the lower frequency with which lung cancer in miners was found to be operable. It was suggested that the lower frequency of lung cancer in miners is related to an enhancement of the state of immunological preparedness in the lung related to the immune component in the pathogenesis of pneumoconiosis. The differences in lung cancer between miners and non-miners may be partially explained in this way.
As part of a large cross sectional epidemiological study of respiratory disease in coalminers, the respiratory health of miners in one colliery in south Wales has been compared with the health of nearby telecommunication (telecom) workers. The studies were carried out in 1981 and 1982. The answers to questionnaires on respiratory symptoms and results of lung spirometry indicate a much greater frequency of respiratory ill health among the miners than the telecom workers. The frequency of symptoms of chronic bronchitis among the current employees was 31% in the miners and 5% in the telecom workers, and these symptoms were reported as frequently by younger as by older miners. Reports of other respiratory symptoms showed similarly large differences between current miners and telecom workers. These differences were seen both within non-smoking and smoking groups. Comparisons of FEV1 with predicted values (several different predictions were used) confirmed that the differences in reported symptoms were accompanied by differences in lung function; of the order of 20% of current miners had an FEV1 less than 80% of predicted compared with 10% of current telecom workers. The excess of respiratory disease shown among these miners is not necessarily a consequence of the dust concentrations currently experienced underground...
A sample of men working in the British coal industry in the 1950s has been followed up and examined 22 years later. The relations between lung function and individual cumulative exposure to respirable dust have been studied in 1867 men who were still working in the industry at the time of follow up and 2192 men who had left. Levels of forced expired volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC ratio at follow up were found to be inversely related to exposure to respirable dust after allowing for other factors, even in men without pneumoconiosis. The magnitude of this estimated effect was equivalent to a loss of 228 ml FEV1 in response to an exposure of 300 gh/m3, a moderately high exposure for this group. Ex-miners aged under 65 had worse lung function than miners on average, suggesting that ill health had encouraged some of these men to leave the industry. Whereas a more severe response to dust exposure among ex-miners under 65 was suggested, this difference could easily have arisen by chance. The presence of symptoms of chronic bronchitis was associated with reduced levels of lung function, however, and, additionally, ex-miners under 65 with chronic bronchitis showed a more severe response of the FVC to dust exposure than miners without these symptoms. Among these ex-miners with chronic bronchitis a small group of men who had taken other jobs showed a much more severe effect of dust exposure on their lung function than the average...
Cohorts of 1974 gold miners and 213 coal miners in Western Australia surveyed for respiratory symptoms, smoking habits, occupational history and radiographic evidence of pneumoconiosis have been followed up for 13-14 years. Overall, neither group had a significantly higher mortality than expected from the experience of Western Australian men in general. Lung cancer mortality was relatively high in the gold miners (59 deaths observed, 40.8 expected) but weakly and inconclusively related to the extent of their underground mining experience. Cigarette smoking may explain the excess of lung cancer in the gold miners because the prevalence of the habit in the latter (66.3%) was higher than in the coal miners (58.7%) or in other men in Western Australia (53.2%). Radiographic evidence of silicosis was present in 21.7% of the gold miners but did not appear to have contributed substantially to their mortality. The coal miners showed a lower than expected rate of lung cancer but an excess of deaths from all other forms of cancer (11 observed, 5.6 expected). This excess was not attributable to any one cancer site and cannot be explained readily.
To assess changes in the mechanical properties of the lungs in pneumoconiosis, the “elastance” (coefficient of elastic resistance, the reciprocal of compliance) of the lung and resistance of the airways were measured by the method of Mead and Whittenberger (1953) in 97 coal-miners and 17 men who had never worked underground. Ages ranged from 24 to 57. The work done on the lung was measured in 66 of these subjects, and the maximum voluntary ventilation (M.V.V.) was measured in all. The subjects were obtained by random selection from hospital out-patients and by random selection from a radiological survey of over 5,000 coal-miners. The M.V.V. was reduced in coal-miners with progressive massive fibrosis (P.M.F.), and in those without pneumoconiosis, but was not significantly reduced in simple pneumoconiosis. Elastance of the lung was unaltered in young miners but was slightly, and significantly, increased in all elderly faceworkers whatever the radiological category. This change appeared to be due to long years of work underground rather than to the radiological abnormality of pneumoconiosis. This slight change in the pulmonary elastance cannot be the cause of the reduction in M.V.V., since the two are unrelated. Inspiratory resistance was normal in all coal-miners...
An excess of mortality from stomach cancer has been found in Ontario gold miners (observed (obs) 104, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 152, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 125-185) and no excess of stomach cancer could be detected in other miners in Ontario (obs 74, SMR 102, 95% CI 80-128). The excess of stomach cancer appeared five to 19 years after the miners began gold mining in Ontario. In that interval, similar patterns of excess mortality from stomach cancer were found in miners born in north America (obs 14, SMR 268, CI 147-450) and in miners born outside north America (obs 12, SMR 280, 95% CI 145-489). Twenty or more years after the miners began mining gold, an excess of mortality from stomach cancer was found in gold miners born outside of north American (obs 41, SMR 160, 95% CI 115-218) but not in gold miners born in north America (obs 37, SMR 113, 95% CI 80-156). The excess of stomach cancer in gold miners under the age of 60 (obs 45, SMR 167, 95% CI 122-223) seems larger than the excess in gold miners between the ages of 60 and 74 (obs 59, SMR 143, 95% CI 109-184). Exposures to arsenic, chromium, mineral fibre, diesel emissions, and aluminium powder were considered as possible explanations of the excess of stomach cancer in Ontario gold miners. Exposure to diesel emissions and aluminium powder was rejected as gold miners and uranium miners were exposed to both agents but an excess of stomach cancer was noted only in gold miners. The association between the excess of stomach cancer and the time since the miner began mining gold suggested that duration of exposure to dust in gold mines ought to be weighted according to the time since the exposure to dust occurred and that an appropriate time weighting function would be one in the interval five to 19 years after each year of exposure to dust and zero otherwise. A statistically significant association between the relative risk of mortality from stomach cancer and the time weighted duration of exposure to dust in gold mines was found in miners under the age of 60. Time weighted indices of exposure to chromium and arsenic were formed for each gold miner by time weighting the product of the duration of exposure to dust in a gold mine and the percentages of arsenic and chromium in rocks in that gold mine. Exposure to mineral fibre was measured in terms of the time weighted duration of employment in those gold mines that contain mineral fibre. A statistically significant association between the excess of stomach cancer in gold miners under the age of 60 and the time weighted index of exposure to chromium occurred and not association was found between the excess of stomach cancer and either the time weighted duration of employment in mines containing mineral fibre. The excess of stomach cancer in gold miners under the age of 60 was better associated with the time weighted index of exposure to chromium than to the time weighted duration of exposure to dust in gold mines. Although the number of cases of gastric cancer that were classified according to the system of Lauren was small...
OBJECTIVE--To investigate if blood Cu++/Zn++ superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and total plasma antioxidant activities could be markers of biological activity resulting from exposure to respirable coal mine dust in active miners, and of pneumoconiosis in retired miners. METHODS--Blood samples were randomly obtained from active surface workers (n = 30) and underground miners (n = 34), and from retired miners without (n = 21), and with (n = 33) pneumoconiosis. Antioxidant enzyme activities and total plasma antioxidants were measured in erythrocytes and plasma. Non-parametric tests were completed by analyses of covariance to compare antioxidants between groups, taking into account potential confounding factors (age, smoking history (pack-years)). RESULTS--Erythrocyte Cu++/Zn++ superoxide dismutase activity was significantly higher in the group of underground miners than the group of surface workers. The differences in total plasma antioxidants and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity between both groups were related to age. Glutathione peroxidase activity increased in the plasma of retired miners with pneumoconiosis, compared with retired miners without pneumoconiosis. No differences were found either in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities or in total plasma antioxidants between the groups of retired miners without and with pneumoconiosis. CONCLUSIONS--In this study...
BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are now recognised complications of occupational exposure to coal dust, and since 1992 compensation has been available for miners with impaired lung function provided that they also have x ray film evidence of pneumoconiosis. However, many miners with heavy exposure to coal dust and impairment of lung function therefore do not qualify for compensation because they do not have simple pneumoconiosis. In the present study attempts were made to determine whether coal mining is an independent risk factor for impairment of lung function in a group of Nottinghamshire miners with no evidence of simple pneumoconiosis, by comparing these men with a group of local controls who were not occupationally exposed. METHOD: Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were obtained on 1286 miners with no evidence of pneumoconiosis on x ray film. Lung function data were also obtained from a random sample of 567 men aged between 40 and 70 living in a district of Nottingham and who had never worked in the mining industry or in any other dusty occupation. Multiple linear regression in SPSS was used to estimate the mean independent effect of mining on FEV1 and FVC after adjustment for age...
In this study, we evaluated the impact of long-term occupational exposure to elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) on the personality traits of ex-mercury miners. Study groups included 53 ex-miners previously exposed to Hg0 and 53 age-matched controls. Miners and controls completed the self-reporting Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Emotional States Questionnaire. The relationship between the indices of past occupational exposure and the observed personality traits was evaluated using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and on a subgroup level by machine learning methods (regression trees). The ex-mercury miners were intermittently exposed to Hg0 for a period of 7–31 years. The means of exposure-cycle urine mercury (U-Hg) concentrations ranged from 20 to 120 μg/L. The results obtained indicate that ex-miners tend to be more introverted and sincere, more depressive, more rigid in expressing their emotions and are likely to have more negative self-concepts than controls, but no correlations were found with the indices of past occupational exposure. Despite certain limitations, results obtained by the regression tree suggest that higher alcohol consumption per se and long-term intermittent, moderate exposure to Hg0 (exposure cycle mean U-Hg concentrations > 38.7 < 53.5 μg/L) in interaction with alcohol remain a plausible explanation for the depression associated with negative self-concept found in subgroups of ex-mercury miners. This could be one of the reason for the higher risk of suicide among miners of the Idrija Mercury Mine in the last 45 years.
BACKGROUND: Clinical and epidemiological studies have given discordant results on the usefulness of the level of circulating elastin peptide (EP), a potential marker of both elastin destruction (a key phenomenon in pulmonary emphysema) and neosynthesis, for assessing structural changes in the lung extracellular matrix. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between levels of EP and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and single breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TLCO and KCO) in coal miners. METHODS: The study population comprised 227 working coal miners aged 34-50 years consisting of 75 miners heavily exposed to underground coal dust with pulmonary radiographs classified as 0/1 or 1/0 by the International Labour Office classification, 75 exposed miners with radiographs classified as normal (0/0), and 77 miners slightly exposed to coal dust with normal radiographs. The subjects answered a standardised questionnaire and performed spirometric tests and a carbon monoxide (CO) transfer test. RESULTS: No association was observed between EP levels and % predicted FEV1 (or FEV1/FVC). The level of EP increased significantly with decreased % predicted TLCO (r = -0.20). Miners in the lowest % predicted KCO quintile had higher EP levels than the rest (3.28 (1.37) vs 2.47 (1.16)). A significantly lower EP level was observed in miners with radiographs classified as 1/0 or 0/1...
The present guide mining together-when
large-scale mining meets artisanal mining is an important
step to better understanding the conflict dynamics and
underlying issues between large-scale and small-scale
mining. This guide for action not only points to some of the
challenges that both parties need to deal with in order to
build a more constructive relationship, but most importantly
it sheds more light on some potential interventions for
conflict prevention, management, and even transformation.
This guide, then, represents a step in the right direction
to start transforming the relationship between large-scale
and artisanal miners through win-win solutions that emerge
out of the genuine interaction and dialogue of all
stakeholders involved: governments, companies, communities,
miners and development organizations. Large-Scale Mining
(LSM) companies increasingly come across Artisanal and
Small-scale Mining (ASM) workers during their exploration or
production activities in the developing world. The ASM-LSM
relationship is often conflictual because both types of
miners compete for the same resource or because they
perceive each other as a threat. However the ASM-LSM
relationship is now also undergoing a largely positive
evolution in part thanks to new Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR) commitments. This guide is the result
of this collaboration and provides an informative overview
of the growing experiences of the most typical ASM-LSM
issues and guidance for appropriate interventions.
A working party (WP) from the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists, Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists, Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia and Royal Australasian College of Physicians recommends the following: - mass units should be used for reporting therapeutic drug concentrations in Australia and New Zealand; and - the litre (L) should be used as the denominator when expressing concentration. Examples of these units are mg/L and μg/L Exceptions to these principles include: - drugs for which there is current uniformity of reporting and supporting information using molar units, notably lithium (mmol/L) and methotrexate (μmol/L); - drugs that are also present as endogenous substances, where the units used routinely should continue to be used. This applies to many substances, including minerals (eg, iron; μmol/L), vitamins (eg, vitamin D; nmol/L) and hormones (eg, thyroxine; pmol/L). - drugs for which the denominator is not a volume of fluid and there is international uniformity of reporting (eg, thiopurine metabolites; per 109 red blood cells). These recommendations relate to drugs that are used therapeutically, whether measured for therapeutic drug monitoring purposes or for assessment of overdose. Other substances...
OBJECTIVES—To estimate lung function prediction equations and to identify appropriate normal reference values for the population of about 250 000 of South African gold miners. METHODS—Data from a lung function screening programme conducted at a large South African gold mine from 1994 to 1998 were used to estimate the lung function prediction equations. The most reliable period of lung function testing was identified in a previous study of a temporal pattern in reliability, and lung function tests from this period were used. Miners with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis or with radiological abnormalities were excluded from the study. The prediction equations were estimated cross sectionally on 15 772 black and 2752 white miners, and published reference equations that fitted most closely the observed data were identified. RESULTS—The estimated prediction equations for forced vital capacity (FVC) are as follows: for black men, FVC (l)=− 2.901−0.025×age+4.655×height; and for white men, FVC(l)=−4.407−0.036×age+ 5.940×height. For forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) these equations are: for black men, FEV1(l)=−1.654− 0.30×age+3.665×height; and for white men, FEV1(l)= −2.341− 0.038×age+4.314×height. Units are years for age and metres for height. Knudson's and the European Community of Coal and Steel (ECCS) reference values provided the closest fit to the data on lung function of white miners...
OBJECTIVES—To understand the variations of selenium (Se) concentration relative to changes in occupational exposure to coal dust, taking into account age and changes in smoking habits in miners surveyed twice, in 1990 and 1994. To better understand the relation of Se concentration with glutathione peroxidase activities (GSH-Px) in these miners. METHODS—In 1994, blood samples were obtained from active (n=131) and retired (n=40) miners without coal worker's pneumoconiosis, in whom Se concentration was available at both surveys and in whom International Labour Organisation (ILO) profusion grade had not been changed. Active miners were exposed to high dust concentrations (n=48) or low dust concentrations (n=83). Miners were classified into three subgroups according to their estimated cumulative exposure to dust, and into three subgroups according to their smoking habits. RESULTS—Selenium concentration and GSH-Px activities were significantly lower in active than in retired miners (Se adjusted means: 62.6 v 72.2 ng/ml p=0.01). Moreover, Se concentration was lower in miners exposed to high compared with those exposed to low dust concentrations (adjusted means: 59.4 v 65.8). In miners exposed to high dust concentrations, Se concentration was significantly lower whereas erythrocyte GSH-Px activity was significantly higher in the subgroup with estimated cumulative exposure >68 mg/m3.y. In all miners...
Fonte: West Indian Medical JournalPublicador: West Indian Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista CientíficaFormato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2008EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
BACKGROUND: Guyana had an estimated HIV prevalence of 1.5% among pregnant women in 2006 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-1.9). However, a survey of miners in one mine found a 6.5% HIV prevalence in 2002. To determine whether Guyanese miners are at high risk for HIV infection we conducted a HIV and syphilis prevalence survey of miners in several mines. METHODS: Adult male consenting miners in 45 Guyanese mines were interviewed, counselled, tested for HIV and syphilis with rapid tests and provided onsite test results. The survey was cross-sectional and used a multi-stage cluster sampling design; population estimates were calculated using SUDAAN. RESULTS: Of 651 miners approached, 539 (83%) were interviewed and 509 (78%) tested. The estimated prevalence for HIV was 3.9% (CI = 2.1, 7.1) and for life-time syphilis exposure was 6.4% (CI = 4.5, 9.1). Fifty-four per cent (CI = 41.3, 66.7) of miners had casual sex during the preceding year, of whom 44.4% (CI = 34.3, 55.0) had always used condoms with these partners. CONCLUSION: The estimated HIV prevalence among Guyanese miners was higher than that of the general population. Targeted interventions including condom promotion are recommended to prevent further spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among miners.