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Biological and physicochemical stability of ceftazidime and aminophylline on glucose parenteral solution

Santos, Carolina Alves dos; Oliveira-Nascimento, Laura de; Knirsch, Marcos Camargo; Stephano, Marco Antonio; Pessoa Junior, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni
Fonte: São Paulo Publicador: São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Ceftazidime is a broad spectrum antibiotic administered mainly by the parenteral route, and it is especially effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The period of time in which serum levels exceed the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) is an important pharmacodynamic parameter for its efficacy. One of the forms to extend this period is to administer the antibiotic by continuous infusion, after prior dilution in a Parenteral Solution (PS). The present work assessed the stability of ceftazidime in 5% glucose PS for 24 hours, combined or not with aminophylline, through High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The physicochemical evaluation was accompanied by in vitro antimicrobial activity compared MIC test in the 24-hour period. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the microorganisms chosen for the MIC comparison. The HPLC analysis confirmed ceftazidime and aminophylline individual stability on PS, while the MIC values were slightly higher than the mean described in the literature. When both drugs were associated in the same PS, the ceftazidime concentration by HPLC decreased 25% after 24 hours. Not only did the MIC values show high loss of antibiotic activity within the same period, but also altered MIC values immediately after the preparation...

Concentração inibitória mínima de vancomicina para staphylococcus sp. coagulase negativa resistente à meticilina : comparação entre os métodos de microdiluição em caldo e etest e correlação com falha terapêutica em pacientes com bacteremia; Vancomycin MIC for methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcus sp.: comparison of broth microdilution and etest methods and correlation to therapeutic failure among patients with bacteremia

Paiva, Rodrigo Minuto
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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Vancomicina é o antimicrobiano de escolha no tratamento de bacteremias causadas por estafilococos resistentes à meticilina. No entanto, estudos recentes têm reportado que a vancomicina apresenta atividade reduzida contra Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à meticilina com concentrações inibitórias mínimas (CIMs) próximas do limite do ponto de corte de suscetibilidade, conforme critérios do CLSI, indicando falha terapêutica. Entretanto, existem poucos estudos à respeito dos Staphylococcus sp. coagulase negativa resistentes à meticilina (SCoNRM). Ademais, para determinação da CIM, deveria ser utilizado o método de referência microdiluição em caldo (MDC), mas a maioria dos laboratórios clínicos utiliza a técnica de Etest ou sistemas automatizados. Alguns estudos com S. aureus demonstraram discrepâncias entre MDC e Etest, contudo não existem dados referentes aos SCoN. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a correlação entre as CIMs de vancomicina determinadas pelas técnicas de MDC e Etest em 130 SCoNRM isolados de hemocultura, bem como verificar a relação entre valores de CIM e falha terapêutica entre pacientes com bacteremia por SCoNRM tratados com este antimicrobiano. A maioria dos resultados de CIM por MDC (98...

Susceptibility of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria from the alcohol industry to several antimicrobial compounds

Oliva-Neto, Pedro de; Yokoya, Fumio
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 10-14
ENG
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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); O efeito antimicrobiano de vários produtos incluindo formulações comerciais usualmente utilizadas em usinas de açúcar e álcool foi determinado pelo teste da Concentração Mínima Inibitória (CMI) adaptada para Saccharomyces cerevisiae e os contaminantes naturais Lactobacillus fermentum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. O teste da CMI foi feito pela adaptação do método da Macrodiluição em caldo pela formulação de um meio de cultivo com caldo de cana em condições similares ao mosto da fermentação alcoólica. Penicilina V Ácida (CMI= 0,10-0,20 µg/ml) e clindamicina (CMI = 0,05-0,40 µg/ml) foram os mais efetivos contra o crescimento bacteriano em 24 horas. Entre os produtos químicos, sulfito (CMI = 10-40 µg/ml), nitrito (CMI <117 µg/ml) e sulfato de cobre (CMI = 75-300 µg/ml) foram os mais efetivos. Etileno-bis-ditiocarbamato de zinco e manganês e dimetilditilcarbamato não apresentaram efeito inibitório satisfatório (CMI > 50 µg/ml). Metilditiocarbamato foi eficiente apenas para L. fermentum (CMI= 2,5 µg/ml) e S. cerevisiae (CMI= 5,0 µg/ml). Tiocianato (CMI= 1,2-5,0 µg/ml), bromofenato (CMI= 9-18 µg/ml) e n-alquildimetilbenzil cloreto de amônio (CMI= 1-8 µg/ml) afetaram o crescimento de S. cerevisiae em concentrações inibitórias similares à L. mesenteroides ou L. fermentum. Formaldeido foi mais efetivo contra as bactérias (CMI= 11...

Avaliação da aplicabilidade de técnicas MIC/FT-IR/DSC para a caracterização de filmes multicamadas

Nogueira,Luciano M.; Dutra,Rita C.L.; Diniz,Milton F.; Pires,Marcia; Evangelista,Mônica; Santana,Fernanda A.; Tomasi,Leandro; Santos,Priscila dos; Nonemacher,Regina
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Polímeros Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Polímeros
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2007 PT
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Técnicas FT-IR de transmissão, reflexão atenuada (ATR), reflexão difusa (DRIFT), microscopia acoplada ao FT-IR (MIC/FT-IR) e detecção fotoacústica (PAS) foram utilizadas para a caracterização de filmes multicamadas. As técnicas ATR, MIC/FT-IR e PAS apresentaram os melhores resultados, provavelmente em função da possibilidade de análise somente da superfície das amostras com cristal (ATR), análise de cada camada da amostra separadamente (MIC/FT-IR) e possibilidade de variação da velocidade de obtenção do espectro (PAS). Dados de análises de microscopia ótica (MO) e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC) foram usados, associados aos dados FT-IR, para a caracterização completa dos materiais.

Susceptibility of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria from the alcohol industry to several antimicrobial compounds

Oliva-Neto,Pedro de; Yokoya,Fumio
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2001 EN
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The antimicrobial effect of several products including commercial formulations currently used in sugar and alcohol factories was determined by adapted MIC (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration) test on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and on natural contaminants Lactobacillus fermentum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The MIC test by macrodilution broth method was adapted by formulating of the culture medium with cane juice closely simulating industrial alcoholic fermentation must. Acid penicillin V (MIC 0.10-0.20 µg/ml) and clindamycin (MIC 0.05-0.40 µg/ml) were most effective against bacterial growth in 24 h. Among the chemicals, sulphite (MIC 10-40 µg/ml), nitrite (MIC <117 µg/ml) and copper sulphate (75-300 µg/ml) were the most effective. Zinc and manganese ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate and dimethyldithiocarbamate did not show good inhibitory effect on bacteria (MIC > 50 µg/ml). Methyldithiocarbamate was efficient only on L. fermentum (MIC 2.5 µg/ml) and S. cerevisiae (MIC 5.0 µg/ml). Thiocianate (MIC 1.2-5.0 µg/ml), bromophenate (MIC 9-18 µg/ml) and n- alkyldimethylbenzylammonium cloride (MIC 1-8 µg/ml) affected S. cerevisiae at similar inhibitory concentration for L. mesenteroides or L. fermentum. Formaldehyde was more effective on bacteria (MIC 11.5 - 23 µg/ml) in both pH (4.5 and 6.5) than yeast (MIC 46-92 µg/ml). Several tested formulated biocides seriously affect S. cerevisiae growth in the similar dosages of the bacterial inhibition...

Postantibiotic effects and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects of tilmicosin, erythromycin and tiamulin on erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus suis

Wang,Liping; Zhang,Yuanshu
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2009 EN
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The postantibiotic effects (PAEs) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA SMEs) of tilmicosin, erythromycin and tiamulin on erythromycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant strains of Streptococcus suis (M phenotype) were investigated in vitro. Tilmicosin and tiamulin induced significantly longer PAE and PA SME against both erythromycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant strains than did erythromycin. The durations of PAE and PA SMEs were proportional to the concentrations of drugs used for exposure. The PA SMEs were substantially longer than PAEs on S. suis (P<0.05) regardless of the antimicrobial used for exposure. The results indicated that the PAE and PA SME could help in the design of efficient control strategies for infection especially caused by erythromycin-resistant S. suis and that they may provide additional valuable information for the rational drug use in clinical practice.

Sub-MIC of antibiotics induced biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of chlorhexidine

Aka,Safaa T.; Haji,Sayran H.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2015 EN
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Public health is facing a new challenge due to the alarming increase in bacterial resistance to most of the conventional antibacterial agents. It has been found that only minor cell damage is caused when exposed to sub-lethal levels of antimicrobial. Biofilms can play an important role in producing resistance, which is developed to reservoirs of pathogens in the hospital and cannot be easily removed. The aim of this study was to test whether the sub-lethal dose of antibiotics can induce biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa following incubating in the presence and absence of chlorhexidine. Standard antibiotic-micro broth 96-flat well plates were used for determination of MIC and biofilm assay. The adherence degree of biofilm was determined by estimation of OD630 nm values using ELISA reader. The mean 22 isolates of P. aeruginosa growing in culture with presence and absence of chlorhexidine, could exhibited the significant (p < 0.001) proportion of adherence followed incubation in sub minimal inhibitory concentrations (Sub-MIC) of cefotaxim, amoxicillin, and azithromycin in comparison with control (antibiotic-free broth), while the sub-MIC of ciprofloxacin revealed significant inhibition of biofilm. Conclusion: Incubating the isolates of P. aeruginosa to sub-MIC of antibiotics exhibited induction of biofilm in the presence of chlorhexidine.

Pharmacodynamics of Gatifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic Model: Impact of Area under the Curve/MIC Ratios on Eradication

Lister, Philip D.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2002 EN
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Previous studies have demonstrated that fluoroquinolone area under the curve (AUC)/MIC ratios of 30 to 50 are sufficient to eradicate pneumococci from in vitro pharmacokinetic models (IVPMs). However, more systematic studies of the impact of AUC/MIC ratios on the antipneumococcal activities of fluoroquinolones are needed. In the present study, a two-compartment IVPM was used to evaluate the impact of AUC/MIC ratios on the pharmacodynamics of gatifloxacin against four strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Gatifloxacin MICs were 0.4 to 1 μg/ml, whereas levofloxacin MICs were 1.8 to 3.2 μg/ml. Since both peak concentration/MIC (peak/MIC) and AUC/MIC ratios affect fluoroquinolone pharmacodynamics, logarithmic-phase cultures (5 × 107 CFU/ml) were exposed to gatifloxacin at constant peak/MIC ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 at 0 and 24 h, elimination half-lives were varied to provide a range of AUC/MIC ratios, and changes in viable counts were measured over 30 h. As a comparison, levofloxacin was evaluated at similar peak/MIC ratios and at AUC/MIC ratios of 30 to 38. For each strain, killing rates through 4 to 8 h were similar since peak/MIC ratios were kept constant. However, continued killing and eradication were observed only when gatifloxacin AUC/MIC ratios were 27 to 48. Levofloxacin also provided eradication. In contrast...

Pharmacodynamics of Levofloxacin and Ciprofloxacin in a Murine Pneumonia Model: Peak Concentration/MIC versus Area under the Curve/MIC Ratios

Scaglione, F.; Mouton, J. W.; Mattina, R.; Fraschini, F.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2003 EN
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During the last decade some studies have shown that the area under the curve (AUC)/MIC ratio is the pharmacodynamic index that best predicts the efficacies of quinolones, while other studies suggest that the predictive value of the peak concentration/MIC (peak/MIC) ratio is superior to the AUC/MIC ratio in explaining clinical and microbiological outcomes. In classical fractionated dose-response studies with animals, it is difficult to differentiate between the AUC/MIC ratio and the peak/MIC ratio because of colinearity. Three different levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin dosing regimens were studied in a neutropenic mouse pneumonia model. The different regimens were used with the aim of increasing the AUC/MIC ratio without changing the peak/MIC ratio and vice versa. The first regimen (RC) consisted of daily doses of 5 up to 160 mg/kg of body weight divided into one, two, or four doses. In the second regimen (R0), mice were given 1.25 mg/kg every hour from 1 to 23 h, while the dose given at 0 h was 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg. In the third regimen (R11), mice also received 1.25 mg/kg every hour from 0 to 23 h; but in addition, they also received 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg at 11 h. The level of protein binding was also evaluated. The results indicate that the unbound fraction (fu) was concentration dependent for both levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin and ranged from approximately 0.67 to 0.88 for both drugs between concentrations of 0.5 and 80 mg/liter. The relationships between the AUC/MIC ratio and the number of CFU were slightly better than those between the peak/MIC ratio and the number of CFU. There was no clear relationship between the amount of time that the concentration remained above the MIC and effect (R2 < 0.1). For both drugs...

Fluconazole MIC and the Fluconazole Dose/MIC Ratio Correlate with Therapeutic Response among Patients with Candidemia

Clancy, Cornelius J.; Yu, Victor L.; Morris, Arthur J.; Snydman, David R.; Nguyen, M. Hong
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2005 EN
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We tested 32 Candida isolates recovered in the early 1990s from the bloodstreams of patients with candidemia for in vitro susceptibility to fluconazole and determined if MIC and/or the daily dose of fluconazole/MIC ratio correlated with the response to therapy. This is a unique data set since 87.5% (28/32) of patients were treated with fluconazole doses now considered to be inadequate (≤200 mg), which contributed to high therapeutic failure rates (53% [17/32]). The geometric mean MIC and dose/MIC ratio for isolates associated with therapeutic failure (11.55 μg/ml and 14.3, respectively) differed significantly from values associated with therapeutic success (0.95 μg/ml and 219.36 [P = 0.0009 and 0.0004, respectively]). The therapeutic success rates among patients infected with susceptible (MIC ≤ 8 μg/ml), susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) (MIC = 16 or 32 μg/ml), and resistant (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml) isolates were 67% (14/21), 20% (1/5), and 0% (0/6), respectively. A dose/MIC ratio >50 was associated with a success rate of 74% (14/19), compared to 8% (1/13) for a dose/MIC ratio ≤50 (P = 0.0003). Our data suggest that both fluconazole MIC and dose/MIC ratio correlate with the therapeutic response to fluconazole among patients with candidemia. In clinical practice...

Correlation between Vancomycin MIC Values and Those of Other Agents against Gram-Positive Bacteria among Patients with Bloodstream Infections Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ▿

Patel, N.; Lubanski, P.; Ferro, S.; Bonafede, M.; Harrington, S.; Evans, A.; Stellrecht, K.; Lodise, T. P.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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An increase in the distribution of vancomycin MIC values among methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates has been noted. It is postulated that the shift in vancomycin MIC values may be associated with a concurrent rise in the MIC values of other anti-MRSA agents. Scant data are available on the correlation between vancomycin MIC values and the MIC values of other anti-MRSA agents. This study examined the correlation between vancomycin MIC values and the MIC values of daptomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, and teicoplanin among 120 patients with bloodstream infections caused by MRSA at a tertiary care hospital between January 2005 and May 2007. For each included patient, the MIC values of the antibiotics under study were determined by the Etest method and were separated into the following two categories: day 1 (index) and post-day 1 (subsequent). For subsequent isolates, the MIC values for each antibiotic from the post-day 1 terminal isolate were used. Among the index isolates, there was a significant correlation (P value, <0.01) between the MIC values for vancomycin and daptomycin and between the MIC values for vancomycin and teicoplanin. The MIC values for daptomycin were significantly correlated with linezolid...

A step-by-step guide for building localised versions of the MIC site. Version 1.1

Turner, James M.; Sambaíno, Samira; El Sahn, Marwa
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: [Autre / Other] Formato: 224638 bytes; application/pdf
EN
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This is a test version of the kit for localising the Moving Image Collections (MIC) site, designed in the context of a research project undertaken by the Audiovisual and Multimedia Section (AVMS) of IFLA.; International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), Committee on Free Access to Information and Freedom of Expression (FAIFE).

ACG43/3: M??ster Propio en Creaci??n y Edici??n de C??mic e Ilustraci??n: Conocer, Crear y Producir. 1?? Edici??n 11/M/023

Universidad de Granada
Fonte: Universidade de Granada Publicador: Universidade de Granada
Tipo: Outros
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Aprobaci??n del M??ster Propio en Creaci??n y Edici??n de C??mic e Ilustraci??n: Conocer, Crear y Producir. 1?? Edici??n 11/M/023, aprobado en Sesi??n Extraordinaria del Consejo de Gobierno celebrado el 26 de mayo de 2011.

El c??mic digital: Adaptaci??n del lenguaje narrativo gr??fico tradicional al formato digital interactivo.

Pereira Hurtado, Pablo J.
Fonte: Universidade de Granada Publicador: Universidade de Granada
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
SPA
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En esta investigaci??n hablaremos principalmente de la adaptaci??n del c??mic actual al formato digital, esto es, los cambios que podr??an afectar a los distintos c??digos y recursos de la narrativa gr??fica contempor??nea en su adaptaci??n a los nuevos formatos que ofrece el ??mbito digital actual. Para ello, antes hablaremos de la Historia del arte secuencial, pero centr??ndonos en unos aspectos muy espec??ficos. Lejos de intentar abarcar toda la historia del c??mic, el inter??s radicar?? en hacer un recorrido por los formatos f??sicos mayoritarios en los que ha sido reproducido el arte secuencial, estableciendo dos momentos clave en los que tuvo que adaptarse a un cambio de formato importante: el siglo XV con la invenci??n de la imprenta, y la ??poca actual con la inserci??n de las nuevas tecnolog??as inform??ticas que ofrecen soportes digitales. En primer lugar, hablaremos del uso, difusi??n y evoluci??n de este arte secuencial por parte de las civilizaciones antiguas, donde encontramos gran variedad de formatos, posteriormente analizaremos su paso por la imprenta, y tras establecer el lenguaje gr??fico narrativo que ha desarrollado hasta ser el c??mic de hoy en d??a, analizaremos las posibilidades que tiene de adaptarse a este nuevo medio digital.; In this research we will talk mainly about the nowadays?? comic adaptation to the digital format...

El c??mic como recurso did??ctico en el ??rea de lengua

S??nchez P??rez, ??ngela
Fonte: Universidade de Granada Publicador: Universidade de Granada
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
SPA
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El presente trabajo, en forma de unidad did??ctica, aborda el uso del c??mic para la ense??anza de la Lengua en Educaci??n Primaria. Aprovechando las cualidades que presenta este g??nero, debido a su car??cter eminentemente visual, al componente l??dico y motivacional y a la creatividad que manifiesta y contribuye a promover en el lector, se propone una unidad did??ctica, Bocadillos de otros mundos, donde a partir del c??mic se trabajan contenidos propios del ??rea de Lengua, como la descripci??n, el di??logo y la narraci??n. Al mismo tiempo, se propone la ense??anza de contenidos transversales, como la resoluci??n de conflictos a trav??s del di??logo o el uso de TICs, mediante la creaci??n de un c??mic propio, donde el alumno deber?? poner en juego todos los conocimientos adquiridos a lo largo de la unidad.

Evaluation of the Department of the Navy's (DoN's) Managers Internal Control (MIC) manual

Steward, LaTresa; Haney, Dale A.; Kobie, David A.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xii, 99 p.; 28 cm.
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MBA Professional Report; The purpose of this MBA project was to conduct a comprehensive review of the current DoN Manager's Internal Control (MIC) Manual to evaluate its effectiveness in helping to align the Navy's current mission, organizational philosophy, management strategy, goals, metrics, sustainment efforts, and improvement programs. Additionally, this study reviews the (MIC) manual to evaluate its ease of use or identify potential challenges in applying the concepts as outlined in the aforementioned manual. The primary framework used in evaluating the MIC manual was a report published by Government Accountability Office (GAO) titled: Internal Control Management and Evaluation Tool (2001) which is based upon the five standards for internal control in the federal government. Although the MIC manual provides an interpretation of the guidance and requirements set forth by SECNAVINST 5200.35E, the manual falls short in transcending or translating the spirit and intent of SECNAVINST 5200.35E and other statutory and regulatory references. The MIC manual's ease of use is hindered due to the strict focus on providing instructional guidance in adhering directly to the requirements of SECNAVINST 5200.35E alone. Additionally, it is challenging for the reader to grasp the purpose and vision of the program given that the overarching organizational goals and objectives are not clearly stated within the manual. Structuring the MIC manual to reflect GAO's five standards of internal control will increase its effectiveness in aligning an organizations' current mission...

Vancomycin AUC/MIC ratio and 30-Day mortality in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

Holmes, N.; Turnidge, J.; Munckhof, W.; Robinson, J.; Korman, T.; O'Sullivan, M.; Anderson, T.; Roberts, S.; Warren, S.; Gao, W.; Howden, B.; Johnson, P.
Fonte: Amer Soc Microbiology Publicador: Amer Soc Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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A ratio of the vancomycin area under the concentration-time curve to the MIC (AUC/MIC) of ≥400 has been associated with clinical success when treating Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, and this target was recommended by recently published vancomycin therapeutic monitoring consensus guidelines for treating all serious S. aureus infections. Here, vancomycin serum trough levels and vancomycin AUC/MIC were evaluated in a “real-world” context by following a cohort of 182 patients with S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) and analyzing these parameters within the critical first 96 h of vancomycin therapy. The median vancomycin trough level at this time point was 19.5 mg/liter. There was a significant difference in vancomycin AUC/MIC when using broth microdilution (BMD) compared with Etest MIC (medians of 436.1 and 271.5, respectively; P < 0.001). Obtaining the recommended vancomycin target AUC/MIC of ≥400 using BMD was not associated with lower 30-day all-cause or attributable mortality from SAB (P = 0.132 and P = 0.273, respectively). However, an alternative vancomycin AUC/MIC of >373, derived using classification and regression tree analysis, was associated with reduced mortality (P = 0.043) and remained significant in a multivariable model. This study demonstrated that we obtained vancomycin trough levels in the target therapeutic range early during the course of therapy and that obtaining a higher vancomycin AUC/MIC (in this case...

Inclus?es fluidas crepitadas, fluidos hipersalinos e aquo-carb?nicos em quartzo associado a rochas mic?ceas no Granito Xinguara - Terreno Granito-Greenstone de Rio Maria, PA

WEBER, Marcelo Leopoldo; RONCHI, Luiz Henrique; ALTHOFF, Fernando Jacques; LEITE, Albano Ant?nio da Silva; DALL'AGNOL, Roberto; FUZIKAWA, Kazuo
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Pará Publicador: Universidade Federal do Pará
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
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As rochas mic?ceas encontradas no Granito Xinguara, terreno Granito-Greenstone de Rio Maria, Par?, s?o compostas por muscovita e clorita com n?veis de quartzo intercalados, que formam uma xistosidade bem desenvolvida. Essa xistosidade ? cortada por veios de quartzo. Ambas as gera??es de quartzo apresentam os mesmos tipos de inclus?es fluidas em halos ou trilhas secund?rias de composi??es variadas entre aquosas, aquo-carb?nicas e saturadas em torno de grandes inclus?es prim?rias crepitadas ou em trilhas transgranulares secund?rias. A grande varia??o de temperaturas de homogeneiza??o, a alta salinidade, as evid?ncias de estrangulamento e a exist?ncia das inclus?es crepitadas permitem supor forte influ?ncia de altera??es p?s-formacionais e reequil?brio relacionados ? intrus?o do granito. Essas rochas foliadas s?o, portanto, enclaves metassedimentares afetados por fluidos gran?ticos hipersalinos aquo-carb?nicos.; ABSTRACT: The micaceous rocks occurring in the Xinguara Granite, Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone terrain, Par? State, Brazil, are composed of muscovite and chlorite with quartz levels intercalated forming a well developed schistosity. This schistosity is cut by quartz veins. Both quartz generations show the same aqueous, aqueous-carbonic and halite-bearing fluid inclusions either in secondary inclusions halos and trails surrounding decrepitated primary fluid inclusions or in transgranular secondary trails. A wide variation of homogenization temperatures...

Vancomycin AUC/MIC Ratio and 30-Day Mortality in Patients with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

Holmes, Natasha E.; Turnidge, John D.; Munckhof, Wendy J.; Robinson, J. Owen; Korman, Tony M.; O'Sullivan, Matthew V. N.; Anderson, Tara L.; Roberts, Sally A.; Warren, Sanchia J. C.; Gao, Wei; Howden, Benjamin P.; Johnson, Paul D. R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2013 EN
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A ratio of the vancomycin area under the concentration-time curve to the MIC (AUC/MIC) of ≥400 has been associated with clinical success when treating Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, and this target was recommended by recently published vancomycin therapeutic monitoring consensus guidelines for treating all serious S. aureus infections. Here, vancomycin serum trough levels and vancomycin AUC/MIC were evaluated in a “real-world” context by following a cohort of 182 patients with S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) and analyzing these parameters within the critical first 96 h of vancomycin therapy. The median vancomycin trough level at this time point was 19.5 mg/liter. There was a significant difference in vancomycin AUC/MIC when using broth microdilution (BMD) compared with Etest MIC (medians of 436.1 and 271.5, respectively; P < 0.001). Obtaining the recommended vancomycin target AUC/MIC of ≥400 using BMD was not associated with lower 30-day all-cause or attributable mortality from SAB (P = 0.132 and P = 0.273, respectively). However, an alternative vancomycin AUC/MIC of >373, derived using classification and regression tree analysis, was associated with reduced mortality (P = 0.043) and remained significant in a multivariable model. This study demonstrated that we obtained vancomycin trough levels in the target therapeutic range early during the course of therapy and that obtaining a higher vancomycin AUC/MIC (in this case...

Biological and physicochemical stability of ceftazidime and aminophylline on glucose parenteral solution

Santos, Carolina Alves dos; Oliveira-Nascimento, Laura; Knirsch, Marcos Camargo; Stephano, Marco Antônio; Pessoa Júnior, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2012 ENG
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Ceftazidima é um antimicrobiano administrado por via parenteral, que apresenta amplo espectro de ação, principalmente contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa. O tempo em que a concentração sérica de ceftazidima permanece acima da concentração mínima inibitória (MIC) é um importante parâmetro farmacodinâmico para a determinação da eficácia antimicrobiana e pode ser potencializado através da utilização de infusão contínua em soluções parenterais (PS). Este artigo visa a avaliar a estabilidade da ceftazidima em solução de glicose 5%, na presença e na ausência do fármaco aminofilina, através de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência HPLC e MIC durante o período de 24 horas. Os microorganismos selecionados para a determinação do MIC foram Escherichia coli e Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Os ensaios em cromatógrafo líquido confirmaram a estabilidade dos fármacos ceftazidima e aminofilina quando são individualmente associados em PS, enquanto os valores de MIC ficaram maiores que os valores encontrados na literatura. Quando ambos os fármacos foram associados na mesma solução parenteral a concentração de ceftazidima obtida por HPLC diminuiu 25% depois de 24 horas. Os valores de MIC mostraram maior decaimento da atividade antimicrobiana neste mesmo período e também valores de MIC alterados nas soluções preparadas no tempo zero...