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Perdas de nitrôgenio por lixiviação em café fertirrigado no oeste baiano; Nitrogen leaching losses in a coffee crop of west Bahia

Bortolotto, Rafael Pivotto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/02/2011 PT
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A cafeicultura possui grande destaque no cenário agrícola nacional e seu cultivo vem avançando para regiões não tradicionais, como o oeste do Estado da Bahia. Esta região apresenta relevo plano, facilmente mecanizável, proporcionando utilização de alta tecnologia, como a fertirrigação via pivô-central. Os cafeeiros desta região apresentam alta produtividade, alcançando a média de 55 sacas ha-1 ano-1. O cafeeiro necessita de água facilmente disponível no solo em sua fase vegetativa, promovendo o crescimento de ramos laterais e em sua fase reprodutiva (floração, granação e maturação dos frutos) para se desenvolver e produzir satisfatoriamente. O balanço hídrico - BH é um dos métodos utilizados para estimar essa demanda hídrica para os diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento das culturas. O BH consiste no somatório das quantidades de água que entram e saem de um elemento de volume de solo e, em dado intervalo de tempo, é a quantidade líquida de água que nele permanece. Através do componente drenagem profunda do BH é possível fazer a estimação da lixiviação de nitrato - NO3 -. Na região de Barreiras-BA não tem sido realizado, com frequência, pesquisa básica em relação ao cultivo do cafeeiro...

Impactos das doses e do parcelamento da fertilização na produtividade, lixiviação e ciclagem de nutrientes em plantações de eucalipto; Impacts of doses and split fertilization on productivity, leaching and nutrient cycling in eucalypt plantation

Silva, Paulo Henrique Müller da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/12/2011 PT
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368.3204%
No Brasil, está ocorrendo a expansão da área florestal plantada com espécies do gênero Eucalyptus, sendo que a elevada produtividade pode ser atribuída às pesquisas e melhorias operacionais introduzidas nas ultimas décadas. Nos experimentos realizados em diferentes regiões do Brasil, tem se observado maior incremento dos eucaliptos com o aumento das doses de fertilizantes. Mas o excesso ou a aplicação inadequada de fertilizantes gera freqüentemente o desperdício dos insumos e a lixiviação dos elementos, que podem contaminar o solo e o lençol freático. Portanto, foi objetivo deste trabalho analisar o efeito de doses, bem como do parcelamento da aplicação de fertilizantes na produtividade e na ciclagem de nutrientes em plantios de eucaliptos, além de avaliar a lixiviação de nitrogênio e potássio no solo, após a fertilização de cobertura parcelada em comparação à aplicação em dose única, três meses após o plantio. O experimento foi implantado no município de Anhembi-SP, sendo constituído por cinco tratamentos com a aplicação de doses crescentes e eqüidistantes de N, P e K com a aplicação da fertilização de cobertura (N e K) em 4 parcelas e por um tratamento com fertilização de cobertura aplicada em dose única...

Lixiviação, mobilidade, degradação, mineralização e atividade microbiana de herbicidas em função de atributos de cinco tipos de solos; Leaching, mobility degradation, mineralization and microbial activity of herbicides on the basis of five attributes of soil types

Dias, Ana Carolina Ribeiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/05/2012 PT
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372.3392%
O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a mobilidade, lixiviação, degradação, mineralização e mineralização da 14C-glicose para os herbicidas diuron, hexazinona, diuron + hexazinona e metribuzin em cinco classes de solo. Objetivouse também avaliar a existência de associação da lixiviação, mobilidade, mineralização e mineralização da 14C-glicose entre o teor de argila, capacidade de troca de cátions (CTC), matéria orgânica (MO) e carbono orgânico (CO). Todos os estudos foram realizados no Laboratório de Ecotoxicologia do CENA/USP utilizando as normas da Organisation For Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) para os estudos de lixiviação, degradação, mineralização e mineralização da 14Cglicose e as normas da Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) para o estudo de mobilidade. Os solos foram coletados na camada de 0 a 0,10 m de profundidade e classificados como Latossolo Vermelho eutrófico (LVe), Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo distrófico (LVAd), Nitossolo Háplico eutrófico (NXe), Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo eutrófico (PVAe) e Neossolo Quartzarenico órtico (RQo). Para os estudos de mobilidade, os herbicidas apresentaram a seguinte ordem quanto a mobilidade: hexazinona metribuzin diuron + hexazinona diuron. A mobilidade dos herbicidas diuron...

BACTERIAL LEACHING OF URANIUM ORE FROM FIGUEIRA-PR, BRAZIL, AT LABORATORY AND PILOT-SCALE

Garcia, O.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 237-242
ENG
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A bacterial leaching program was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of applying this process to leach uranium from the ore of Figueira-PR, Brazil. The experiments were carried out in shake flasks, column percolation (laboratory and semipilot scale) and in heap leaching. In shake flasks and in column percolation experiments at laboratory scale, bacterial activity on the ore was confirmed: approximately 60% of uranium was leached, against around 30% in sterilized controls. Column percolation experiments at semipilot scale and heap leaching (850 tons of ore) showed uranium extractions of approximately 50%. In both experiments, a complementary sulfuric acid attack, after the bacterial leaching phase, was necessary to reach this level of uranium extraction.

Bacterial leaching of uranium ore from Figueira-PR, Brazil, at laboratory and pilot scale

Junior, O. G.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 237-242
ENG
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A bacterial leaching program was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of applying this process to leach uranium from the ore of Figueira-PR, Brazil. The experiments were carried out in shake flasks, column percolation (laboratory and semipilot scale) and in heap leaching. In shake flasks and in column percolation experiments at laboratory scale, bacterial activity on the ore was confirmed: approximately 60% of uranium was leached, against around 30% in sterilized controls. Column percolation experiments at semipilot scale and heap leaching (850 tons of ore) showed uranium extractions of approximately 50%. In both experiments, a complementary sulfuric acid attack, after the bacterial leaching phase, was necessary to reach this level of uranium extraction.

Leaching of Ni and Cu from mine wastes (tailings and slags) using acid solutions and A. ferrooxidans

Muñoz, A.; Bevilaqua, D.; Garcia, O.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 425-428
ENG
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The objective of this work is to evaluate the acidic and biological leaching of tailings containing Ni/Cu from a flotation and smelting plant. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, strain LR, was used for bioleaching at pH 1.8 and chemical controls were run parallel to that. The acidic leaching was done within 48 hours at pH 0.5 and 1.0. In the slag inoculated flasks the redox potential was high (600 mV), thus indicating oxidative bacterial activity, however, the obtained results after 15 days showed only around 13% Ni and 8% Cu extractions, which were not different to those of the controls. For the flotation tailings bioleaching extractions were approximately 45% for Ni and 16% for Cu while differing figures were obtained for the chemical controls. These were 30% and 12% respectively. Here we could observe that the presence of bacterial activity led to a higher solubility of Ni. Acid leaching of slag showed higher nickel and copper extractions: 56% and 24% respectively at pH 0.5 and 21% and 11% at pH 1.0. However, the acid consumption was 320 and 150 Kg/ton of slag, respectively, both much higher than in bacterial assays. These results indicated that Ni and Cu solubilization from the slag is acid dependent no matter the redox potential or ferric iron concentration of the leaching solution. For flotation tailings...

Effects of eucalypt residue management on nutrient leaching and soil properties

Gómez-Rey, M.X.; Vasconcelos, E.; Madeira, M.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 ENG
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Effects of harvest residues on nutrient leaching and soil chemical properties were studied in a lysimeter experiment. Treatments were: (A) forest Xoor litter and harvest residues, other than branches, incorporated into the soil, (B) as A, but with branches cut in 20 cm long bits and placed on the soil surface, (C) as B, but with bits incorporated into the soil, (D) as B, but with branches chopped into chips, (E) as C, but with branches chopped into chips, (F) forest Xoor litter and harvest residues on the soil surface, with branches cut in 20 cm long bits, (G) as F, but with branches chopped into chips, and (H) absence of harvest residues (control). Treatments were applied in zero-tension lysimeters containing 25 kg of soil. Leachates were collected for a 6-year period. At the end of the experiment, lysimeters were dismantled and soil was divided in four layers. Residues, other than branches, increased N leaching, as compared with the control. Branches on the soil surface reduced N leaching when cut in chips. Branches incorporated into the soil reduced leaching independently of their size. Organic residues on the soil surface showed similar effect to those incorporated into the soil. However, harvest residues on the soil surface increased leachate volume...

Leaching behavior of several zinc rich residues in a hydrometallurgical recycling process

Pedrosa, Fátima; Cabral, Marta; Nogueira, C. A.; Margarido, F.
Fonte: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia Publicador: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 10/11/2009 ENG
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The leaching of metals contained in spent Zn-MnO2 batteries and electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts using sulfuric acid solutions was studied, in order to evaluate the feasibility of simultaneous treatment of both wastes by a hydrometallurgical process. In both residues, a substantial quantity of zinc was solubilized (about 100% in batteries and 70-80% in EAF dusts) in diluted acid solutions and room temperature, corresponding to the reaction of zinc oxide species. Other species were more refractory to the chemical attack, namely the manganese (III or IV) oxides in batteries and the zinc ferrite in dusts, requiring higher temperatures (e.g. 90ºC) and higher leachant concentrations. Lead present in EAF dusts was not solubilized in sulfate media, thus remaining in the leach residue. Results seem to confirm the possibility of treatment of both zinc-containing residues by the same hydrometallurgical process, eventually involving two leaching stages – diluted acid leaching and hot acid leaching – followed by solution purification through iron precipitation and Zn/Mn separation and recovery. Concerning lead, a second leaching circuit in chloride media could be developed for its potential recovery.

Recycling of exhausted batteries and EAF dusts by leaching with several aqueous media

Pedrosa, Fátima; Cabral, Marta; Margarido, F.; Nogueira, C. A.
Fonte: Trans Tech Publications Publicador: Trans Tech Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 ENG
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Zinc is a base metal present in several products of general use, and therefore found in numerous residues and end-of-life products. The two main sources of zinc containing wastes are spent Zn-MnO2 portable batteries and electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts from steelmaking plants. The recovery of metals from these residues by appropriate recycling processes is mandatory due to environmental, economic and resource conservation issues. Concerning the similar composition of both residues, their simultaneous processing can be envisaged. The research herein described consists on the hydrometallurgical treatment of zinc bearing waste, where several leaching routes for solubilising metals, mainly zinc, are studied. The leaching of shredded batteries and EAF dusts was carried out using three different leaching solutions containing sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid or ammonium chloride. The acid leaching of zinc in the oxide form (zincite) using both acids, was very efficient and quick, allowing the recovery of practically all Zn contained in batteries and about of 80% of Zn in dusts. Regarding to the leaching media the behaviour of lead oxides present in dusts was different, being insoluble with H2SO4 and partially soluble with HCl (40-90% yield...

Oxidative leaching process with cupric ion in hydrochloric acid mediafor recovery of Pd and Rh from spent catalytic converters

Nogueira, C. A.; Paiva, A. P.; Oliveira, Paula C.; Costa, M. Clara; Costa, Ana M. Rosa da
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 ENG
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The recycling of platinum-group metals from wastes such as autocatalytic converters is getting growing attention due to the scarcity of these precious metals and the market pressure originated by increase of demand in current and emerging applications. Hydrometallurgical treatment of such wastes is an alternative way to the most usual pyrometallurgical processes based on smelter operations. This paper focuses on the development of a leaching process using cupric chloride as oxidising agent, in HCl media, for recovery of palladium and rhodium from a spent catalyst. The chloride media allows the adequate conditions for oxidising and solubilising the metals, as demonstrated by equilibrium calculations based on thermodynamic data. The experimental study of the leaching process revealed that Pd solubilisation is clearly easier than that of Rh. The factors temperature, time, and HCl and Cu2+ concentrations were significant regarding Pd and Rh leaching, the latter requiring higher factor values to achieve the same results. Leaching yields of 95% Pd and 86% Rh were achieved under optimised conditions (T = 80.C, t = 4 h,[HCl] = 6 M, [Cu2+] = 0.3 M).

A statistical approach to the experimental design of the sulfuric acid leaching of gold-copper ore

Mendes,F.D.; Martins,A.H.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2003 EN
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The high grade of copper in the Igarapé Bahia (Brazil) gold-copper ore prevents the direct application of the classic cyanidation process. Copper oxides and sulfides react with cyanides in solution, causing a high consumption of leach reagent and thereby raising processing costs and decreasing recovery of gold. Studies have showm that a feasible route for this ore would be a pretreatment for copper minerals removal prior to the cyanidation stage. The goal of this experimental work was to study the experimental conditions required for copper removal from Igarapé Bahia gold-copper ore by sulfuric acid leaching by applying a statistical approach to the experimental design. By using the Plackett Burman method, it was possible to select the variables that had the largest influence on the percentage of copper extracted at the sulfuric acid leaching stage. These were temperature of leach solution, stirring speed, concentration of sulfuric acid in the leach solution and particle size of the ore. The influence of the individual effects of these variables and their interactions on the experimental response were analyzed by applying the replicated full factorial design method. Finally, the selected variables were optimized by the ascending path statistical method...

A mathematical model for isothermal heap and column leaching

de Andrade Lima,L.R.P.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2004 EN
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Leaching occurs in metals recovery, in contaminated soil washing, and in many natural processes, such as fertilizer dissolution and rock weathering. This paper presents a model developed to simulate the transient evolution of the dissolved chemical species in the heap and column isothermal leaching processes. In this model, the solid bed is numerically divided into plane layers; the recovery of the chemical species, the enrichment of the pregnant leach solution, and the residual concentration of the leaching agent are calculated by interactions among the layers. The solution flow in the solid bed is assumed as unidirectional without dispersion, and the solid-fluid reaction is described by a diffusive control model that is integrated analytically for each time step. The data set used in the model include physical-chemical, geometrical, and operational variables, such as: leachable chemical species content, leaching agent flow rate and concentration, particles size distribution, solution residence time in the solid bed, and solid bed length, weight and irrigated area. The results for two case studies, namely, an industrial gold heap leaching and a pilot column copper acid leaching, showed that the model successful predict the general features of the process time evolution.

LEACHING OF MALACHITE ORE IN AMMONIUM SULFATE SOLUTIONS AND PRODUCTION OF COPPER OXIDE

Ekmekyapar,A.; Demirkıran,N.; Künkül,A.; Aktaş,E.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 EN
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Abstract Malachite ore is one of the most important of oxidized copper ores. Copper production can be performed by using this ore. In this work, the leaching kinetics of malachite in ammonium sulfate solutions was investigated, and metallic copper was recovered by a cementation method from the resulting actual leach solution. Copper (II) oxide was prepared by an isothermal oxidation method from the cement copper. In the leaching experiments, the effects of reaction temperature, particle size, and stirring speed on copper leaching from malachite ore were studied. In the cementation experiments, metallic zinc was used as the reductant metal to recover the copper from the solution. Thermal oxidation of cement copper was performed under isothermal conditions. It was found that the leaching rate increased with increasing stirring speed and temperature, and decreased with particle size. It was observed that the leaching reaction fit to diffusion through the product layer. The activation energy of the leaching process was determined to be 25.4 kJ/mol. It was determined that the copper content of the metallic product obtained by the cementation method increased up to 96%. It was found that copper oxide prepared from cement copper had a tenorite structure.

Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis on phosphorus leaching through soil cores

Asghari, H.; Chittleborough, D.; Smith, F.; Smith, S.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
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Two experiments with soil cores were carried out to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization on mobility of phosphorus (P) during leaching of repacked columns of a soil with a loamy sand texture. Trifolium subterraneum plants inoculated with an AM fungus or not inoculated were grown in cores with low or high P concentrations for 8 or 10 weeks in the glasshouse. Cores were then irrigated with 2500 mL water and the leachate collected. Plant growth and the amounts of P removed by plants, remaining in soil as available P and removed dissolved in leachate were measured. Mycorrhizal fungal colonization and development of external hyphae were also determined. Inoculation and/or P application significantly increased plant growth and plant P removal and decreased P leaching. In low P soils AM fungal colonization significantly increased plant P uptake and decreased soil available P and total dissolved P in leachates. Lower P leaching from cores with AM plants under low P conditions was related to enhancement of plant growth and to scavenging and removal of P from the soil by roots and/or external hyphae. When P was applied AM effects were not observed and available P remaining in the soil after leaching was much higher...

Associated Sulfide Minerals in Thiosulfate Leaching of Gold: Problems and Solutions

Xia, Chen
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
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The effects of some associated minerals on thiosulfate gold leaching were studied through thermodynamic analysis and leaching experiments on composite ore samples containing various minerals and a reference silicate gold ore. In the leaching test on the reference gold ore, about 93% of gold was extracted within 3.0 hours. The presence of various amount of pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcocite, bornite, and some lead species, has significant detrimental effects. Under reduced oxygen conditions, the thiosulfate consumptions could be significantly reduced. High gold extractions (i.e. >= 90%) were observed in the leaching tests with reduced dissolved oxygen (i.e., 0.7% oxygen in the supplied gas) in the absence or in the presence of sulfide minerals such as pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite and chalcopyrite. High copper concentration and a pre-aeration step was also found to largely increase the gold extractions under such conditions. Thiosulfate-copper-ethylenediamine system was found effective in the leaching of gold. The leaching kinetics was significantly slower than that of the conventional thiosulfate-copper-ammonia leaching. The consumption of thiosulfate, however, was largely reduced. This leaching system worked effectively on the reference gold ore within a wider pH range (e.g....

Oxidative Leaching of metals from electronic waste with solutions based on quaternary ammonium salts

Pinheiro, Diana
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico do Porto. Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto Publicador: Instituto Politécnico do Porto. Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2009 ENG
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The treatment of electric and electronic waste (WEEE) is a problem which receives ever more attention. An inadequate treatment results in harmful products ending up in the environment. This project intends to investigate the possibilities of an alternative route for recycling of metals from printed circuit boards (PCBs) obtained from rejected computers. The process is based on aqueous solutions composed of an etchant, either 0.2 M CuCl2.2H2O or 0.2 M FeCl3.6H2O, and a quaternary ammonium salt (quat) such as choline chloride or chlormequat. These solutions are reminiscent of deep eutectic solvents (DES) based on quats. DES are quite similar to ionic liquids (ILs) and are used as well as alternative solvents with a great diversity of physical properties, making them attractive for replacement of hazardous, volatile solvents (e.g. VOCs). A remarkable difference between genuine DES and ILs with the solutions used in this project is the addition of rather large quantities of water. It is shown the presence of water has a lot of advantages on the leaching of metals, while the properties typical for DES still remain. The oxidizing capacities of Cu(II) stem from the existence of a stable Cu(I) component in quat based DES and thus the leaching stems from the activity of the Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox couple. The advantage of Fe(III) in combination with DES is the fact that the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couple becomes reversible...

Outotec direct leaching application in China

Haakana,T.; Saxén,B.; Lehtinen,L.; Takala,H.; Lahtinen,M.; Svens,K.; Ruonala,M.; Gongming,X.
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2008 EN
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Outotec's direct leaching process is an atmospheric leaching process for sulphidic zinc concentrates. The direct leaching process, based on special leaching reactors developed by Outokumpu, is the most economical way to produce electrolytic zinc. The production scale applications of the process realized so far are in use at Boliden's Kokkola and Odda zinc plants. A new full-scale application of Outotec's direct leaching process will be started in 2008 in China. The process is integrated into the existing production plant, replacing part of the old production facilities by modern technology. Besides high zinc extraction the plant expansion and modernization offers also indium recovery, iron precipitation and solution purification processes. The process equipment includes tailor-made reactors designed on the basis of the work and experience of Outotec research centre.

Kinetic studies on the leaching reactions in the autoclave circuit of the Tati Hydrometallurgical Demonstration Plant

Paphane,B.D; Nkoane,B.B.M.; Oyetunji,O.A
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
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Since the commissioning of the Tati Hydrometallurgical Demonstration Plant (HDP), which produces Ni and Cu cathodes as well as Co salt from sulphide concentrate employing Activox® technology for leaching, no kinetic data has been generated from the plant under normal operating conditions, from start-up to steady state. Therefore, this study seeks to determine the rate of reactions in the leaching circuit with a view to obtaining kinetic data for the system under the current operating conditions. Within the five-compartment autoclave operating at temperatures of 105°C to 110°C and 1100 kPa pressure, the extraction of Ni, Cu, and Co ions into solution is achieved through the oxidation of the sulphide concentrate using approximately 50 kg H2SO4 per ton, 10 kg NaCl per ton, and 1.21 kg O2 per kilogram of S2-. The autoclave reactions showed complex kinetics, with the reactions proceeding via some intermediate(s) before the formation of products. The results suggest that the reactions were dependent on the size of the metal ion of interest and the concentrations of the metal ions in the Tati concentrate as well as in chloride leaching. The order of the leaching rate constants was Fe2+ > Cu2+ > Ni2+ > Co2+ in all the compartments studied. The rates of leaching were also found to decrease as the concentrate moves from compartment 1 to compartment 4. For compartments 1 to 3...

Modelling the economic tradeoffs between allocating water for crop production or leaching for salinity management

Matthews,N; Grové,B; Barnard,JH; van Rensburg,LD
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
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Salinisation threatens the sustainability of irrigation agriculture and needs to be managed through leaching practices. Under conditions of water scarcity a tradeoff exists between allocating water for salinity management and production. Currently no model in South Africa is able to model explicitly the impact of salinity management through leaching on the economic efficiency of irrigation farming, taking the opportunity cost of water under limited water supply conditions into consideration. The main objective of this paper is to develop a robust non-linear optimisation model that is able to determine endogenously the impact of declining irrigation water quality on the economic efficiency of irrigation farming. A data envelopment framework was used to integrate recently developed soil water salinity crop-yield production functions and leaching functions to model the complex interactions involved in water allocation decisions. Results showed that it is profitable to reduce the area irrigated under limited water supply conditions in order to release water for leaching purposes. When more water, but still a limited amount of water, is allocated to the farmer, his willingness to pay for water will increase if irrigation water deteriorates. Thus...

Atmospheric oxidative and non-oxidative leaching of Ni-Cu matte by acidified ferric chloride solution

Sekhukhune,L.M.; Ntuli,F.; Muzenda,E.
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2014 EN
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The atmospheric leaching of copper-bearing matte by acidic ferric chloride solution was studied at the laboratory scale. The aim was to achieve maximum copper and nickel recovery by investigating the mechanisms of leaching, as well as identifying the effect of temperature, and concentration of ferric chloride and oxygen. Djurleite (Cu1.96S), hazelwoodite (Ni3S2), and Ni alloy were the primary phases detected in the matte. The quantitative composition of the matte was Cu 31%, Ni 50%, S 13%. Fe and Co constituted 2%, with platinum group metals (PGMs) accounting for 0.5%. A maximum nickel extraction of 98% was achieved using two-stage oxidative leaching at 90°C and 11 g/L Fe3+ as compared to 65% under non-oxidative conditions. A copper extraction of 99% was achieved in the first 45 minutes using two-stage non-oxidative leaching, and copper was recovered from solution by cementation. Three processes took place simultaneously throughout the leaching process, namely: dissolution, cementation/ metathesis, and oxidation. The leaching process was found to be diffusion-controlled.