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Estudo da formação de fases secundárias no compósito LSM/YSZ; STUDY OF THE FORMATION OF SECONDARY PHASES IN THE COMPOSITE LSM/YSZ

Rodrigues, Ranieri Andrade
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/06/2007 PT
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O compósito de manganito de lantânio dopado com estrôncio (La1-xSrxMnO3 - LSM) e zircônia estabilizada com ítria (ZrO2/Y2O3 - YSZ), tem sido indicado como catodo das células a combustível de óxido sólido, por apresentar melhor desempenho como eletrodo catódico na região da tripla fase reacional (TRIPLE PHASE BOUNDARY - TPB), formada na interface entre eletrólito e eletrodo. Para as temperaturas superiores a 1100 °C, o LSM e o YSZ podem-se reagir formando-se zirconatos de lantânio (La2Zr2O7 - LZO) e zirconatos de estrôncio (SrZrO3 - SZO). Neste sentido, o presente trabalho pretende contribuir no estudo da formação das fases LZO e SZO, estudando diferentes proporções mássicas entre LSM e YSZ e temperaturas de sinterização variando-se entre 1000 °C e 1400 °C. Para obtenção dos pós precursores foram adotadas as rotas de co-precitação para a obtenção do YSZ e mistura convencional de pós para preparação de LSM. Para a preparação do compósito LSM/YSZ, as composições químicas do LSM sintetizado neste trabalho foram para as duas concentrações 30 e 40 % mol de Sr (LSM7 e LSM6) e para YSZ 10 % mol de ítria. Os resultados obtidos por fluorescência de raios X mostraram que as rotas adotadas para síntese de pós foram eficazes na obtenção das composições LSM6...

Cálculo do Value at Risk (VaR) para o Ibovespa, pós crise de 2008, por meio dos modelos de heterocedasticidade condicional (GARCH) e de volatilidade estocástica (Local Scale Model - LSM)

Santos, Julio Cesar Grimalt dos
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
PT_BR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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O objetivo deste estudo é propor a implementação de um modelo estatístico para cálculo da volatilidade, não difundido na literatura brasileira, o modelo de escala local (LSM), apresentando suas vantagens e desvantagens em relação aos modelos habitualmente utilizados para mensuração de risco. Para estimação dos parâmetros serão usadas as cotações diárias do Ibovespa, no período de janeiro de 2009 a dezembro de 2014, e para a aferição da acurácia empírica dos modelos serão realizados testes fora da amostra, comparando os VaR obtidos para o período de janeiro a dezembro de 2014. Foram introduzidas variáveis explicativas na tentativa de aprimorar os modelos e optou-se pelo correspondente americano do Ibovespa, o índice Dow Jones, por ter apresentado propriedades como: alta correlação, causalidade no sentido de Granger, e razão de log-verossimilhança significativa. Uma das inovações do modelo de escala local é não utilizar diretamente a variância, mas sim a sua recíproca, chamada de “precisão” da série, que segue uma espécie de passeio aleatório multiplicativo. O LSM captou todos os fatos estilizados das séries financeiras, e os resultados foram favoráveis a sua utilização, logo, o modelo torna-se uma alternativa de especificação eficiente e parcimoniosa para estimar e prever volatilidade...

Obtenção de filmes finos de YSZ sobre substrato poroso de LSM a partir da técnica de spray pirólise

Falcade, Tiago
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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27.26271%
Este trabalho de pesquisa teve por objetivo desenvolver uma metodologia para a obtenção de filmes finos de YSZ, utilizando a técnica de spray pirólise sobre substrato poroso de LSM, mapeando os parâmetros operacionais da técnica, em especial a temperatura do substrato, com o intuito de avaliar as diferentes morfologias obtidas. Sabe-se que a técnica de spray pirólise possibilita a obtenção de filmes com características bastante diversas, desde filmes quebradiços até filmes pulverulentos, passando por filmes densos, os quais são almejados neste trabalho. Para tanto foram testadas três soluções precursoras, compostas de sais de zircônio e ítrio dissolvidos em três diferentes solventes. Variando os parâmetros operacionais e os protocolos de deposição, para cada solução precursora, foi possível definir um sistema de deposição no qual os filmes obtidos mostravam-se densos e homogêneos, possibilitando sua aplicação como eletrólito de células a combustível do tipo óxido sólido. Além disso, a caracterização microestrutural do material obtido, através de difração de raio X e espectroscopia de infravermelho, mostrou a composição de ZrO2 – 8% Y2O3, estabilizada na fase cúbica, sendo esta a fase de interesse na aplicação proposta para os filmes obtidos.; The aim of this work was develop a methodology to obtain thin YSZ films...

Síntese de manganita dopada com estrôncio e cobaltita dopada com antimônio e caracterização microestrutural

Tarragó, Diego Pereira
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.93314%
A grande variedade de propriedades dos óxidos com estrutura perovskita permite sua aplicação em diversas áreas da tecnologia. Em especial, as propriedades eletroquímicas e a estabilidade térmica de alguns destes compostos faz destes materiais os mais usados em cátodos de dispositivos para geração de energia como as células a combustível de óxido sólido (SOFC). As SOFC são dispositivos que podem atingir altas eficiências na conversão de energia elétrica e são passíveis de utilização na geração de energia sustentável e distribuída. Para estas células, as perovskitas compostas de manganita de lantânio dopada com estrôncio (LSM) preenche a maioria dos requisitos para aplicação como cátodos da SOFC. Nas células a combustível de óxido sólido de temperatura intermediária (IT-SOFC) há a possibilidade de construir a célula com filmes finos dos materiais cerâmicos suportados em um interconector metálico. No entanto, para os cátodos das IT-SOFC as manganitas não possuem bom desempenho eletroquímico devido à menor temperatura de operação do dispositivo, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de condutores mistos para aumentar os sítios reativos para reação de redução do O2. Assim, o desenvolvimento de cátodos utilizando a perovskita cobaltita de estrôncio dopada com antimônio (SCS) tem sido proposto para esta aplicação. Portanto...

Influência do substrato nas propriedades estruturais e morfológicas de filmes de manganita de lantânio dopados com estrôncio depositados por spray-pirólise

Rabelo,Sarah dos Santos; Venâncio,Selma Aparecida; Paes Jr,Herval Ramos; Silva,Gilmar Clemente; Miranda,Paulo Emílio Valadão de
Fonte: Rede Latino-Americana de Materiais Publicador: Rede Latino-Americana de Materiais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 PT
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Neste trabalho foram preparados filmes de manganita de lantânio dopados com estrôncio (LSM) nas concentrações de 0, 20 e 40 %at. depositados sobre substratos de silício monocristalino (100) tipo p e de zircônia estabilizada com ítria 8 % em mol (8ZEI) utilizando a técnica de spray-pirólise, tendo como objetivo principal sua utilização como catodo em pilhas a combustível de óxido sólido (PaCOS). Os filmes foram termicamente tratados a 900 ou 1000ºC por duas horas em atmosfera ambiente, tendo sido caracterizados estrutural e morfologicamente pelas técnicas de difração de raios X (DRX) e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV), respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos por MEV revelaram que o tipo de substrato tem grande influência na microestrutura dos filmes. Os filmes depositados em substratos de silício e tratados termicamente tendem a apresentar grande quantidade de trincas. Este fato se deve a incompatibilidade térmica entre filme e substrato, ocasionada pela grande diferença dos respectivos coeficientes de expansão térmica. Os filmes depositados sobre substratos de 8ZEI, além de apresentar maior uniformidade, se mostraram mais aderentes ao substrato. A análise das estruturas cristalográficas dos filmes de LSM tratados termicamente comprova a formação da fase cristalina referente à estrutura da perovskita.

Xenopus LSm Proteins Bind U8 snoRNA via an Internal Evolutionarily Conserved Octamer Sequence

Tomasevic, Nenad; Peculis, Brenda A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2002 EN
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U8 snoRNA plays a unique role in ribosome biogenesis: it is the only snoRNA essential for maturation of the large ribosomal subunit RNAs, 5.8S and 28S. To learn the mechanisms behind the in vivo role of U8 snoRNA, we have purified to near homogeneity and characterized a set of proteins responsible for the formation of a specific U8 RNA-binding complex. This 75-kDa complex is stable in the absence of added RNA and binds U8 with high specificity, requiring the conserved octamer sequence present in all U8 homologues. At least two proteins in this complex can be cross-linked directly to U8 RNA. We have identified the proteins as Xenopus homologues of the LSm (like Sm) proteins, which were previously reported to be involved in cytoplasmic degradation of mRNA and nuclear stabilization of U6 snRNA. We have identified LSm2, -3, -4, -6, -7, and -8 in our purified complex and found that this complex associates with U8 RNA in vivo. This purified complex can bind U6 snRNA in vitro but does not bind U3 or U14 snoRNA in vitro, demonstrating that the LSm complex specifically recognizes U8 RNA.

Lsm Proteins Are Required for Normal Processing of Pre-tRNAs and Their Efficient Association with La-Homologous Protein Lhp1p

Kufel, Joanna; Allmang, Christine; Verdone, Loredana; Beggs, Jean D.; Tollervey, David
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Depletion of any of the five essential proteins Lsm2p to Lsm5p and Lsm8p leads to strong accumulation of all tested unspliced pre-tRNA species, as well as accumulation of 5′ and 3′ unprocessed species. Aberrant 3′-extended pre-tRNAs were detected, presumably due to stabilization of transcripts that fail to undergo correct transcription termination, and the accumulation of truncated tRNA fragments was also observed. Tandem affinity purification-tagged Lsm3p was associated with pre-tRNA primary transcripts and, less efficiently, with other unspliced pre-tRNA intermediates but not mature tRNAs. Association of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae La homologue Lhp1p with pre-tRNAs was reduced approximately threefold on depletion of Lsm3p or Lsm5p. The association of Lhp1p with larger RNA polymerase III transcripts, pre-RNase P RNA and the signal recognition particle RNA (scR1), was more drastically reduced. The impaired pre-tRNA processing seen on Lsm depletion is not, however, due solely to reduced Lhp1p association as evidenced by analysis of lhp1-Δ strains depleted of Lsm3p or Lsm5p. These data are consistent with roles for an Lsm complex as a chaperone that facilitates the efficient association of pre-tRNA processing factors with their substrates.

A conserved Lsm-interaction motif in Prp24 required for efficient U4/U6 di-snRNP formation.

Rader, Stephen D; Guthrie, Christine
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2002 EN
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The assembly of the U4 and U6 snRNPs into the U4/U6 di-snRNP is necessary for pre-mRNA splicing, and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the splicing factor Prp24. We have identified a family of Prp24 homologs that includes the human protein SART3/p110nrb, which had been identified previously as a surface antigen in several cancers. Sequence conservation among the Prp24 homologs reveals the existence of a fourth previously unidentified RNA recognition motif (RRM) in Prp24, which we demonstrate is necessary for growth of budding yeast at 37 degrees C. The family is also characterized by a highly conserved 12-amino-acid motif at the extreme C terminus. Deletion of this motif in Prp24 causes a cold-sensitive growth phenotype and a decrease in base-paired U4/U6 levels in vivo. The mutant protein also has a reduced association with U6 snRNA in extract, and is unable to interact with the U6 Lsm proteins by two-hybrid assay. In vitro annealing assays demonstrate that deletion of the motif causes a defect in U4/U6 formation by reducing binding of Prp24 to its substrate. We conclude that the conserved C-terminal motif of Prp24 interacts with the Lsm proteins to promote U4/U6 formation.

Requirements for nuclear localization of Lsm2-8p and competition between nuclear and cytoplasmic Lsm complexes

Spiller, Michael P.; Reijns, Martin A. M.; Beggs, Jean D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Lsm proteins are ubiquitous, multifunctional proteins that are involved in the processing and/or turnover of many RNAs. In eukaryotes, a hetero-heptameric complex of Lsm proteins (Lsm2-8p) affects the processing of small stable RNAs and pre-mRNAs in the nucleus, while a different hetero-heptameric complex of Lsm proteins (Lsm1-7p) promotes mRNA decapping and decay in the cytoplasm. These two complexes have six constituent proteins in common, yet localize to separate cellular compartments and perform apparently disparate functions. Little is known about the biogenesis of the Lsm complexes, or how they are recruited to different cellular compartments. We show that in yeast, the nuclear accumulation of Lsm proteins depends on complex formation and that the Lsm8p subunit plays a crucial role. The nuclear localization of Lsm8p is itself most strongly influenced by Lsm2p and Lsm4p, its presumed neighbors in the Lsm2-8p complex. Furthermore, over-expression and depletion experiments imply that Lsm1p and Lsm8p act competitively with respect to the localization of the two complexes, suggesting a potential mechanism for co-regulation of nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA processing. A shift of Lsm proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm under stress conditions indicates that this competition is biologically significant.

Structure of yeast U6 snRNPs: Arrangement of Prp24p and the LSm complex as revealed by electron microscopy

Karaduman, Ramazan; Dube, Prakash; Stark, Holger; Fabrizio, Patrizia; Kastner, Berthold; Lührmann, Reinhard
Fonte: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press Publicador: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2008 EN
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Protein components of the U6 snRNP (Prp24p and LSm2–8) are thought to act cooperatively in facilitating the annealing of U6 and U4 snRNAs during U4/U6 di-snRNP formation. To learn more about the spatial arrangement of these proteins in S. cerevisiae U6 snRNPs, we investigated the structure of this particle by electron microscopy. U6 snRNPs, purified by affinity chromatography and gradient centrifugation, and then immediately adsorbed to the carbon film support, revealed an open form in which the Prp24 protein and the ring formed by the LSm proteins were visible as two separate morphological domains, while particles stabilized by chemical cross-linking in solution under mild conditions before binding to the carbon film exhibited a compact form, with the two domains in close proximity to one another. In the open form, individual LSm proteins were located by a novel approach employing C-terminal genetic tagging of the LSm proteins with yECitrine. These studies show the Prp24 protein at defined distances from each subunit of the LSm ring, which in turn suggests that the LSm ring is positioned in a consistent manner on the U6 RNA. Furthermore, in agreement with the EM observations, UV cross-linking revealed U6 RNA in contact with the LSm2 protein at the interface between Prp24p and the LSm ring. Further...

The Archaeal Lsm Protein Binds to Small RNAs*

Fischer, Susan; Benz, Juliane; Späth, Bettina; Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Straub, Julia; Granzow, Michaela; Raabe, Monika; Urlaub, Henning; Hoffmann, Jan; Brutschy, Bernd; Allers, Thorsten; Soppa, Jörg; Marchfelder, Anita
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.856206%
Proteins of the Lsm family, including eukaryotic Sm proteins and bacterial Hfq, are key players in RNA metabolism. Little is known about the archaeal homologues of these proteins. Therefore, we characterized the Lsm protein from the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii using in vitro and in vivo approaches. H. volcanii encodes a single Lsm protein, which belongs to the Lsm1 subfamily. The lsm gene is co-transcribed and overlaps with the gene for the ribosomal protein L37e. Northern blot analysis shows that the lsm gene is differentially transcribed. The Lsm protein forms homoheptameric complexes and has a copy number of 4000 molecules/cell. In vitro analyses using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and ultrasoft mass spectrometry (laser-induced liquid bead ion desorption) showed a complex formation of the recombinant Lsm protein with oligo(U)-RNA, tRNAs, and an small RNA. Co-immunoprecipitation with a FLAG-tagged Lsm protein produced in vivo confirmed that the protein binds to small RNAs. Furthermore, the co-immunoprecipitation revealed several protein interaction partners, suggesting its involvement in different cellular pathways. The deletion of the lsm gene is viable, resulting in a pleiotropic phenotype, indicating that the haloarchaeal Lsm is involved in many cellular processes...

Arabidopsis thaliana LSM proteins function in mRNA splicing and degradation

Golisz, Anna; Sikorski, Pawel J.; Kruszka, Katarzyna; Kufel, Joanna
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Sm-like (Lsm) proteins have been identified in all organisms and are related to RNA metabolism. Here, we report that Arabidopsis nuclear AtLSM8 protein, as well as AtLSM5, which localizes to both the cytoplasm and nucleus, function in pre-mRNA splicing, while AtLSM5 and the exclusively cytoplasmic AtLSM1 contribute to 5′–3′ mRNA decay. In lsm8 and sad1/lsm5 mutants, U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) was reduced and unspliced mRNA precursors accumulated, whereas mRNA stability was mainly affected in plants lacking AtLSM1 and AtLSM5. Some of the mRNAs affected in lsm1a lsm1b and sad1/lsm5 plants were also substrates of the cytoplasmic 5′–3′ exonuclease AtXRN4 and of the decapping enzyme AtDCP2. Surprisingly, a subset of substrates was also stabilized in the mutant lacking AtLSM8, which supports the notion that plant mRNAs are actively degraded in the nucleus. Localization of LSM components, purification of LSM-interacting proteins as well as functional analyses strongly suggest that at least two LSM complexes with conserved activities in RNA metabolism, AtLSM1-7 and AtLSM2-8, exist also in plants.

Lsm proteins and Hfq: Life at the 3′ end

Wilusz, Carol J.; Wilusz, Jeffrey
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The bacterial Hfq protein is a versatile modulator of RNA function and is particularly important for regulation mediated by small non-coding RNAs. Hfq is a bacterial Sm protein but bears more similarity to the eukaryotic Sm-like (Lsm) family of proteins than the prototypical Sm proteins. Hfq and Lsm proteins share the ability to chaperone RNA-RNA and RNA/protein interactions and an interesting penchant for protecting the 3′ end of a transcript from exonucleolytic decay while encouraging degradation through other pathways. Our view of Lsm function in eukaryotes has historically been informed by studies of Hfq structure and function but mutational analyses and structural studies of Lsm sub-complexes have given important insights as well. Here, we aim to compare and contrast the roles of these evolutionarily related complexes and to highlight areas for future investigation.

An Experimental and Modelling Study of Oxygen Reduction in Porous LSM/YSZ Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

Kenney, BENJAMIN
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical devices that can convert a variety of fuels directly into electricity. Their commercialization requires efficient operation of its components. The sluggish kinetics for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the SOFC cathode contributes to the loss in the fuel cell efficiency. In this work, the ORR was investigated for the strontium-doped lanthanum manganite cathode (LSM) and yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte (YSZ) system. A combined mathematical modelling and experimental framework was developed to estimate, for the first time, the kinetics of the elementary processes of the ORR for porous LSM cathodes. The kinetics of each process was then analyzed to identify the contribution to the cathode resistance. The steady state and impedance response for polarized and unpolarized LSM cathodes was collected over a temperature range between 750C and 850C and two different oxygen partial pressure (pO2) ranges: (i) between 0.0001atm and 0.001atm, where LSM is considered to be stoichiometric with respect to oxygen and (ii) between 0.01atm and 0.21atm, where LSM is considered to be superstoichiometric with respect to oxygen. A mathematical model was developed to analyze both the steady state and impedance data. Two pathways for the ORR were considered: one where oxygen is transported in the gas phase and one where oxygen is transported along the surface of the LSM cathode. Rate constants...

The 5' and 3' domains of yeast U6 snRNA: Lsm proteins facilitate binding of Prp24 protein to the U6 telestem region.

Ryan, Daniel E; Stevens, Scott W; Abelson, John
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2002 EN
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27.436763%
The 5' and 3' domains of yeast U6 snRNA contain sequences that are thought to be important for binding to Prp24 and Lsm proteins. By extensive mutational analysis of yeast U6 snRNA, we confirmed that the 3' terminal uridine tract of U6 snRNA is important for U6 binding to Lsm proteins in yeast. Binding of Prp24 protein to U6 RNA is dependent on or is strongly enhanced by U6 binding of Lsm proteins. This supports a model for U6 snRNP assembly in which U6 RNA binds to the Lsm2-8 core prior to binding Prp24 protein. Using compensatory base-pairing analysis, we show that at least half of the recently identified U6 telestem as well as a nucleotide sequence in the other half of the telestem are important for binding of U6 RNA to Prp24 protein. Surprisingly, disruption of base pairing in the unconfirmed half of the telestem enhanced U6-Prp24 binding. Truncation of the entire 3' terminal domain or nearly the entire 5' terminal domain of yeast U6 allowed for detectable levels of splicing to proceed in vitro. In addition to gaining knowledge of the function of the 5' and 3' domains of yeast U6, our results help define the minimal set of requirements for yeast U6 RNA function in splicing. We present a revised secondary structural model of yeast U6 snRNA in free U6 snRNPs.

Sm/Lsm Genes Provide a Glimpse into the Early Evolution of the Spliceosome

Veretnik, Stella; Wills, Christopher; Youkharibache, Philippe; Valas, Ruben E.; Bourne, Philip E.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The spliceosome, a sophisticated molecular machine involved in the removal of intervening sequences from the coding sections of eukaryotic genes, appeared and subsequently evolved rapidly during the early stages of eukaryotic evolution. The last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) had both complex spliceosomal machinery and some spliceosomal introns, yet little is known about the early stages of evolution of the spliceosomal apparatus. The Sm/Lsm family of proteins has been suggested as one of the earliest components of the emerging spliceosome and hence provides a first in-depth glimpse into the evolving spliceosomal apparatus. An analysis of 335 Sm and Sm-like genes from 80 species across all three kingdoms of life reveals two significant observations. First, the eukaryotic Sm/Lsm family underwent two rapid waves of duplication with subsequent divergence resulting in 14 distinct genes. Each wave resulted in a more sophisticated spliceosome, reflecting a possible jump in the complexity of the evolving eukaryotic cell. Second, an unusually high degree of conservation in intron positions is observed within individual orthologous Sm/Lsm genes and between some of the Sm/Lsm paralogs. This suggests that functional spliceosomal introns existed before the emergence of the complete Sm/Lsm family of proteins; hence...

Visualizing the Structural Evolution of LSM/xYSZ Composite Cathodes for SOFC by in-situ Neutron Diffraction

Chen, Yan; Yang, Ling; Ren, Fei; An, Ke
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/06/2014 EN
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Thermal stability of composite cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells, the mixtures of (La0.8Sr0.2)0.95MnO3−δ (LSM) and (Y2O3)x(ZrO2)1−x (xYSZ, x = 3, 6, 8 and 10), is determined using in-situ neutron diffraction. Thanks to the most advanced high flux neutron source, our work highlights the visualization of the phase evolutions in heterogeneous material systems at high temperatures, along with the analysis of the diffusion activities of transition metal ions that reveal the reaction mechanism and kinetics. It is found that the tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition in YSZ at T > 900°C leads to a heterogeneous redistribution of Mn ions. The subsequent reaction of LSM and YSZ occurring at T > 1100°C is revealed as a three-stage kinetic process, yielding La2Zr2O7, SrZrO3 and MnO. The diffusion activities of Y, Mn and La ions in the heterogeneous systems at elevated temperatures are derived by the structural analysis, and the three-stage reaction of YSZ and LSM is found strongly correlated to ions' behaviors as functions of temperature.

The 5' and 3' domains of yeast U6 snRNA: Lsm proteins facilitate binding of Prp24 protein to the U6 telestem region

Ryan, Daniel E.; Stevens, Scott W.; Abelson, John
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia da Califórnia Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia da Califórnia
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/2002
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.436763%
The 5' and 3' domains of yeast U6 snRNA contain sequences that are thought to be important for binding to Prp24 and Lsm proteins. By extensive mutational analysis of yeast U6 snRNA, we confirmed that the 3' terminal uridine tract of U6 snRNA is important for U6 binding to Lsm proteins in yeast. Binding of Prp24 protein to U6 RNA is dependent on or is strongly enhanced by U6 binding of Lsm proteins. This supports a model for U6 snRNP assembly in which U6 RNA binds to the Lsm2-8 core prior to binding Prp24 protein. Using compensatory base-pairing analysis, we show that at least half of the recently identified U6 telestem as well as a nucleotide sequence in the other half of the telestem are important for binding of U6 RNA to Prp24 protein. Surprisingly, disruption of base pairing in the unconfirmed half of the telestem enhanced U6-Prp24 binding. Truncation of the entire 3' terminal domain or nearly the entire 5' terminal domain of yeast U6 allowed for detectable levels of splicing to proceed in vitro. In addition to gaining knowledge of the function of the 5' and 3' domains of yeast U6, our results help define the minimal set of requirements for yeast U6 RNA function in splicing. We present a revised secondary structural model of yeast U6 snRNA in free U6 snRNPs.

Vodacom and MTN's brand positioning based on the brand Associations of Principal Estate Agents in Gauteng

Mentz,Hennie; Strydom,Johan W; Rudansky-Kloppers,Sharon
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.436763%
This article investigates Vodacom and MTN's brand positioning based on the perceptions of a group of LSM seven to ten respondents who are principal estate agents in Gauteng. An empirical study was conducted. The profile of the sample in terms of access to telecommunication-related services confirmed that of individuals in the LSM seven to ten groups with a skew towards LSM ten. As a minimum requirement for the target market brands in the category should be strongly associated with the statements market leader, local brand, technologically sophisticated brand, trusted brand, South African brand and prestigious/upmarket brand. At an overall level, Vodacom has established a more favourable brand positioning compared to MTN. However, both Vodacom and MTN have failed to establish a personal brand relationship with the target market.

A dispersion model of an open microstrip-line using the LSM propagation mode

Galo Durango,Augusto
Fonte: Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad del Zulia Publicador: Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad del Zulia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2004 ES
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Se presenta en este trabajo el estudio de uno de los modos de propagación, en el rango de frecuencias de microondas, de una línea de transmisión de dos conductores planos conocida en la literatura pertinente como microcinta abierta o "microstrip-line". Abierta en el sentido en que uno de los dos conductores está expuesto al vacío. Así, este dispositivo está conformado, teniendo en cuenta la tecnología de películas delgadas o "thin films", de dos planos conductores paralelos y de dos dieléctricos y el cual ha evolucionado de la línea de transmisión clásica para frecuencias bajas. El conductor superior es de dimensiones mucho menores con respecto al conductor inferior. En el campo de la Teoría de Variable Compleja es posible estudiar el modo de propagación LSM en un plano transformado P, el cual se obtuvo del plano físico (semiplano Z) de la microcinta mediante dos transformaciones sucesivas Schwarz-Christoffel. También es posible encontrar en el mismo la constante de fase Г, los campos Elйctrico y Magnйtico, y, finalmente, las ecuaciones para el modo LSM. Una vez que se obtenga dicha informaciуn se realizarбn grбficos para la constante dielйctrica efectiva Îeff (w)...