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Sisal, sugarcane bagasse and microcrystalline celluloses: Influence of the composition of the solvent system N,N-dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride on the solubility and acetylation of these polysaccharides

CIACCO, Gabriela T.; ASS, Beatriz A. P.; RAMOS, Ludmila A.; FROLLINI, Elisabete
Fonte: EUROPEAN POLYMER FEDERATION Publicador: EUROPEAN POLYMER FEDERATION
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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694.21984%
The present work describes an investigation concerning the acetylation of celluloses extracted from short-life-cycle plant sources (i.e. sugarcane bagasse and sisal fiber) as well as microcrystalline cellulose. The acetylation was carried out under homogeneous conditions using the solvent system N,N-dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride. The celluloses were characterized, and the characterizations included an evaluation of the amount of hemicellulose present in the materials obtained from lignocellulosics sources (sugarcane and sisal). The amount of LiCl was varied and its influence on the degree of acetate substitution was analyzed. It was found that the solvent system composition and the nature of the cellulose influenced both the state of chain dissolution and the product characteristics. The obtained results demonstrated the importance of developing specific studies on the dissolution process as well as on the derivatization of celluloses from various sources.

Comparison of lithium chloride-phenylethanol-moxalactam and modified Vogel Johnson agars for detection of Listeria spp. in retail-level meats, poultry, and seafood.

Buchanan, R L; Stahl, H G; Bencivengo, M M; Del Corral, F
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1989 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
494.21984%
The effectiveness of Modified Vogel Johnson agar and lithium chloride-phenylethanol-moxalactam agar for detection of Listeria spp. in foods was compared by using the media to analyze retail-level meat, poultry, and seafood both by direct plating and in conjunction with a three-tube most-probable-number enrichment. The most-probable-number protocol detected Listeria species, including Listeria monocytogenes, in a substantial portion of the fresh meat and seafood samples. In most instances the Listeria levels were less than 2 CFU/g, which precluded detection by direct plating. Modified Vogel Johnson agar performed as well as did lithium chloride-phenylethanol-moxalactam agar and was considerably easier to use because of its ability to differentiate Listeria spp. from other microorganisms.

Differential Effects of Lithium Chloride on In Vitro Growth of Clavibacter michiganense subsp. nebraskense Depending upon Inoculum Source †

Smidt, Mary L.; Vidaver, Anne K.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1986 EN
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506.37723%
The bacterium Clavibacter michiganense subsp. nebraskense (Corynebacterium michiganense subsp. nebraskense) was grown in broth cultures and inoculated into corn plants. The plating efficiency of cells from broth cultures was essentially the same on nutrient broth-yeast extract and the semiselective medium for this bacterium, CNS. However, when cells were isolated from Goss bacterial wilt- and blight-infected corn, very few were recovered on CNS compared with the amount recovered on nutrient broth-yeast extract agar. When lithium chloride was omitted from the CNS, recoveries from infected corn were nearly the same as on nutrient broth-yeast extract agar. No other ingredient of CNS was inhibitory, nor did substitution of other salts for lithium chloride cause equal inhibition. The amount of inhibition was proportional to lithium chloride concentration. The inhibition by lithium chloride occurred with several strains of the bacterium isolated from one corn cultivar and with one of the strains recovered from three different cultivars of infected corn.

Preparation of ribosome-free membranes from rat liver microsomes by means of lithium chloride

Scott-Burden, T.; Hawtrey, A. O.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1969 EN
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499.74594%
1. Treatment of washed rat liver microsomes in a medium containing 0·12m-sucrose, 12·5mm-potassium chloride, 2·5mm-magnesium chloride and 25mm-tris–hydrochloric acid buffer, pH7·6, with 2m-lithium chloride at 5° for 16hr. leads to the formation of membranes free of ribosomes and ribosomal subunits. 2. Confirmation of the absence of ribosomes from lithium chloride-prepared membranes was obtained by treatment of the membranes with sodium deoxycholate, followed by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation, which showed the complete absence of ribosomes. 3. Treatment of membranes with phenol, followed by sucrose-density-gradient analysis of the isolated RNA, showed the presence of a small amount of 4s material. Repetition of the phenol extraction procedure in the presence of liver cell sap as a ribonuclease inhibitor again showed the presence of only 4s material. The 4s RNA was shown to be transfer RNA by the fact that it had the same capacity for accepting 14C-labelled amino acids as isolated transfer RNA from rat liver pH5 enzyme. 4. Analysis showed that microsomes and membranes possessed similar glucose 6-phosphatase, NADH–2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol reductase, NADH–neo-tetrazolium reductase, NADH–cytochrome c reductase and ribonuclease activities. 5. 3H-labelled ribosomal RNA binds to membranes. However...

Lrp5-independent activation of Wnt signaling by lithium chloride increases bone formation and bone mass in mice

Clément-Lacroix, Philippe; Ai, Minrong; Morvan, Frederic; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Vayssière, Béatrice; Belleville, Cecille; Estrera, Kenneth; Warman, Matthew L.; Baron, Roland; Rawadi, Georges
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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502.34637%
One of the well characterized cell biologic actions of lithium is the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and the consequent activation of canonical Wnt signaling. Because deficient Wnt signaling has been implicated in disorders of reduced bone mass, we tested whether lithium could improve bone mass in mice. We gavage-fed lithium chloride to 8-week-old mice from three different strains (Lrp5-/-, SAMP6, and C57BL/6) and assessed the effect on bone metabolism after 4 weeks of therapy. Lrp5-/- mice lack the Wnt coreceptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 and have markedly reduced bone mass. Lithium, which is predicted to act downstream of this receptor, restored bone metabolism and bone mass to near wild-type levels in these mice. SAMP6 mice have accelerated osteoporosis due to inadequate osteoblast renewal. Lithium significantly improved bone mass in these mice and in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. We found that lithium activated canonical Wnt signaling in cultured calvarial osteoblasts from Lrp5-/- mice ex vivo and that lithium-treated mice had increased expression of Wnt-responsive genes in their bone marrow cells in vivo. These data lead us to conclude that lithium enhances bone formation and improves bone mass in mice and that it may do so via activation of the canonical Wnt pathway. Lithium has been used safely and effectively for over half a century in the treatment of bipolar illness. Prospective studies in patients receiving lithium should determine whether it also improves bone mass in humans.

The effect of lithium chloride on one-trial passive avoidance learning in rats.

Johnson, F N
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1976 EN
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500.8511%
1 Expression of a one-trial passive avoidance learning response in rats was examined following injections of lithium chloride or sodium chloride before and after initial training and before the first day of testing. Five tests were given at daily intervals, 24 h after training being the time of the first test. 2. Lithium given before the first day of testing impaired response expression on the first and all subsequent days of testing; the rate of extinction was unaffected. 3. Given both before and immediately after initial training, lithium impaired response expression on the first day of testing but slowed down the subsequent rate of extinction, leading eventually to improved performance on the fifth day, as compared with placebo-treated control subjects. 4. The results are interpreted in the light of the hypothesis that lithium impaired the central processing of sensory information.

C-fos expression in the rat brain following lithium chloride induced-illness

St. Andre, Justin; Albanos, Katie; Reilly, Steve
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
488.8664%
The present study examined c-Fos expression in selected brain areas consequent to administration of lithium chloride, the typical illness-inducing agent used in laboratory studies of conditioned taste aversion. The results replicated previous findings of significant c-Fos expression in the parabrachial nucleus, the central nucleus of the amygdala and the basolateral amygdala. New findings indicate significant lithium-induced c-Fos in the gustatory region of the thalamus and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis but not in the insular cortex. The results are discussed with respect to the neural substrates of conditioned taste aversion.

The effect of lithium chloride on tumour appearance and survival of melanoma-bearing mice.

Ballin, A.; Aladjem, M.; Banyash, M.; Boichis, H.; Barzilay, Z.; Gal, R.; Witz, I. P.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1983 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
509.77375%
The possible effect of lithium chloride, a compound which reduces the incidence of infection in cancer patients, was investigated on murine melanoma. C57 BL syngeneic mice were inoculated i.p. with B16 melanoma cells. The animals were divided into 4 groups, receiving daily i.p. treatment with saline--group 1, controls; lithium chloride--group 2, bleomycin and vinblastine--group 3, and lithium chloride with bleomycin and vinblastine--group 4. Animals in group 4 had a significant delay in tumour appearance, a higher degree of tumour necrosis, and a longer survival rate. In addition a significant reduction of serum lithium concentration was noted in animals of this group in comparison with animals in group 2, treated with lithium chloride alone. There was no lithium-induced leukocytosis.

Estradiol and Lithium Chloride Specifically Alter NMDA Receptor Subunit NR1 mRNA and Excitotoxicity in Primary Cultures

Valdés, James J.; Weeks, Ophelia I.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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492.81965%
Glutamate facilitates calcium influx via NMDAR, and excess calcium influx increases excitotoxicity – a pathological characteristic of neurological diseases. Both 17β-estradiol (E2) and lithium influence NMDAR expression/signaling and excitotoxicity. This led us to hypothesize that combined E2 and lithium will alter NMDAR expression and excitotoxicity. We tested this hypothesis using primary cell cultures from the cortex and hippocampus of C57BL/6J fetal mice pretreated with E2, lithium chloride (LiCl) and combined E2/LiCl for 12, 24 or 48 h. We examined cultures for brain cell type and changes in cell type caused by experimental procedures using glia and neuron gene specific primers. These cultures expressed increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mRNA with low neurofilament-heavy chain (NF-H) mRNA expression. Subsequent analysis of cortical cell cultures indicated that combined E2/LiCl decreased NR1 mRNA expression after a 12 and 48 h treatment period. Combined E2/LiCl also reduced NR1 mRNA expression in hippocampal cultures but only after a 48 h treatment period. LiCl-treated hippocampal cultures also reduced NR1 mRNA expression after a 24 and 48 h treatment. We next examined the response of 48 h pretreated cultures to a toxic level of glutamate. Excitotoxicity was measured using fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide (FDA/PI) cell viability assay. Results from FDA/PI assay revealed that LiCl pretreatment increased viability for cortical cultures while E2 and combined E2/LiCl reduced viability. All pretreatments for hippocampal cultures failed to increase viability. Our results showed combined E2/LiCl reduced NR1 mRNA and prevented protection against glutamate excitotoxicity in glial primary cultures.

Regioselective Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiation of 1-Chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzene: Role of Autocatalysis, Lithium Chloride Catalysis, and Reversibility

Hoepker, Alexander C.; Gupta, Lekha; Ma, Yun; Faggin, Marc F.; Collum, David B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
492.81965%
Ortholithiation of 1-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzene with lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in tetrahydrofuran at −78 °C displays characteristics of reactions in which aggregation events are rate limiting. Metalation with lithium chloride-free LDA involves a rate-limiting deaggregation via dimer-based transition structures. The post-rate-limiting proton transfers are suggested to involve highly solvated triple ions. Autocatalysis by the resulting aryllithiums or catalysis by traces (<100 ppm) of LiCl divert the reaction through di- and trisolvated monomer-based pathways for metalation at the two and six positions, respectively. The regiochemistry is dictated by a combination of kinetically controlled metalations overlayed by an equilibration involving diisopropylamine that is shown to occur by the microscopic reverse of the monomer-based metalations.

Combined Treatment of Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Cell Line DU145 with Chemotherapeutic Agents and Lithium Chloride: Effect on Growth Arrest and/or Apoptosis

Hossein, Ghamartaj; Zavareh, Vajihe Azimian; Fard, Parissa Sahranavard
Fonte: Avicenna Research Institute Publicador: Avicenna Research Institute
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
521.494%
Hormone-independent prostate cancer cell lines are resistant to antineoplastic drugs, this study sought to determine the usefulness of lithium chloride as an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β to increase the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin, etoposide or vinblastine antineoplastic drugs on DU145 cells. Combination effect was assessed by using low and IC50 doses of drugs + lithium chloride. Subsequently, cell cycle analysis and p53 levels and its subcellular localization as a key regulator of cell cycle were assessed. Lithium chloride showed cytotoxic effect in a dose and time dependent manner (p<0.001). Both drugs doxorubicin and etoposide in combination with lithium chloride (LiCl) showed higher percent of cells in SubG1 compared to control (p<0.001). Combination of IC50 dose of doxorubicin and lithium chloride led to S phase arrest (p<0.001, compared to control, lithium chloride or doxorubicin alone). Moreover, G2/M arrest was significantly increased when low dose of doxorubicin and vinblastine were combined with lithium chloride (p<0.001, compared to control and lithium chloride alone). DU145 cells were highly sensitive to vinblastine and no significant changes were observed when combined with lithium chloride. The IC50 doses of all three drugs combined with lithium chloride demonstrated decreased cell percent in G1 phase compared to control or lithium chloride alone (p<0.001). Moreover...

Lithium Chloride Inhibits Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration and Alleviates Injury-Induced Neointimal Hyperplasia via Induction of PGC-1α

Wang, Zhuyao; Zhang, Xiwen; Chen, Siyu; Wang, Danfeng; Wu, Jun; Liang, Tingming; Liu, Chang
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/01/2013 EN
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492.81965%
The proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes importantly to the development of in-stent restenosis. Lithium has recently been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, but its actions in VSMCs and the direct molecular target responsible for its action remains unknown. On the other hand, PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator which negatively regulates the pathological activation of VSMCs. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to determine if lithium chloride (LiCl) retards VSMC proliferation and migration and if PGC-1α mediates the effects of lithium on VSMCs. We found that pretreatment of LiCl increased PGC-1α protein expression and nuclear translocation in a dose-dependent manner. MTT and EdU incorporation assays indicated that LiCl inhibited serum-induced VSMC proliferation. Similarly, deceleration of VSMC migration was confirmed by wound healing and transwell assays. LiCl also suppressed ROS generation and cell cycle progression. At the molecular level, LiCl reduced the protein expression levels or phosphorylation of key regulators involved in the cell cycle re-entry, adhesion, inflammation and motility. In addition, in vivo administration of LiCl alleviated the pathophysiological changes in balloon injury-induced neointima hyperplasia. More importantly...

Dose-Dependent Protective Effect of Lithium Chloride on Retinal Ganglion Cells Is Interrelated with an Upregulated Intraretinal BDNF after Optic Nerve Transection in Adult Rats

Wu, Ming-Mei; Zhu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Peng; Kuang, Fang; Hao, Ding-Jun; You, Si-Wei; Li, Yao-Yu
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
498.89418%
Neuroprotection of lithium for axotomized retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is attributed to upregulated intraretinal Bcl-2. As lithium also upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) which can rescue axotomized RGCs, it is hypothesized that lithium could protect RGCs through BDNF. This study investigated this hypothesis and a possible relationship between the dose and protection of lithium. All adult experimental rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of lithium chloride (LiCl) at 30, 60 or 85 mg/kg·bw until they were euthanized 2, 7 or 14 days after left intraorbital optic nerve (ON) transection. Our results revealed that RGC densities promoted and declined with increased dose of LiCl and the highest RGC densities were always in the 60 mg/kg·bw LiCl group at both 7 and 14 day points. Similar promotion and decline in the mRNA and protein levels of intraretinal BDNF were also found at the 14 day point, while such BDNF levels increased in the 30 mg/kg·bw LiCl group but peaked in the 60 and 85 mg/kg·bw LiCl groups at the 7 day point. These findings suggested that lithium can delay the death of axotomized RGCs in a dose-dependent manner within a certain period after ON injury and such beneficial effect is interrelated with an upregulated level of intraretinal BDNF.

Mixed Aggregates of 1-Methoxyallenyllithium with Lithium Chloride

Pratt, Lawrence M; Dixon, Darryl D; Tius, Marcus A
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
494.21984%
A combined computational and 13C NMR study was used to investigate the formation of mixed aggregates of 1-methoxyallenyllithium and lithium chloride in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution. The observed and calculated chemical shifts, as well as the calculated free energies of mixed aggregate formation (MP2/6-31+G(d)), are consistent with the formation of a mixed dimer as the major species in solution. Free energies of mixed dimer, trimer, and tetramer formation were calculated by using the B3LYP and MP2 methods and the 6-31+G(d) basis set. The two methods generated different predictions of which mixed aggregates will be formed, with B3LYP/6-31+G(d) favoring mixed trimers and tetramers in THF solution, and MP2/6-31+G(d) favoring mixed dimers. Formation of the sterically unhindered mixed dimers is also consistent with the enhanced reactivity of these compounds in the presence of lithium chloride. The spectra are also consistent with some residual 1-methoxyallenyllithium tetramer, as well as small amounts of higher mixed aggregates. Although neither computational method is perfect, for this particular system, the calculated free energies derived using the MP2 method are in better agreement with experimental data than those derived using the B3LYP method.

Possible beneficial effects of lithium chloride on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice

Abed, A.; Minaiyan, M.; Mahzouni, P.
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
507.54203%
One of the most important and serious disorders of gastrointestinal tract is acute pancreatitis which in severe form is associated with high mortality rate particularly in the presence of systemic inflammatory response and multiple organ failure. Apoptosis linked to oxidative stress has been shown in the pancreas of the patients with acute pancreatitis. Lithium, one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of bipolar disorder, also has dramatic effects on preventing cell damage and apoptosis. Also lithium has shown anti-inflammatory effects in some animal studies. This study was designed to investigate the possible effect of lithium chloride in acute pancreatitis. Induction of acute pancreatitis was performed in male mice (25-30 g) by five intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cerulein (50 μg/kg) with 1 h intervals. Lithium chloride (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg) was administered i.p. 15 min before the induction of pancreatitis. Six h after the last injection of cerulein, the animals were sacrificed and biochemical as well as histopathological analysis was performed. Pretreatment with 20 mg/kg i.p. of lithium chloride reduced significantly the inflammatory response in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis by ameliorating pancreatic edema and leukocyte infiltration...

Scorpion ethanol extract and valproic acid effects on hippocampal glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in a rat model of chronic-kindling epilepsy induced by lithium chloride-pilocarpine★

Liang, Yi; Sun, Hongbin; Yu, Liang; He, Baoming; Xie, Yan
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/02/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
494.21984%
The present study analyzed the effects of ethanol extracts of scorpion on epilepsy prevention and hippocampal expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in a lithium chloride-pilocarpine epileptic rat model. Results were subsequently compared with valproic acid. Results showed gradually-increased hippocampal glial fibrillary acidic protein expression following model establishment; glial fibrillary acidic protein mRNA expression was significantly increased at 3 days, reached a peak at 7 days, and then gradually decreased thereafter. Ethanol extracts of scorpion doses of 580 and 1 160 mg/kg, as well as 120 mg/kg valproic acid, led to a decreased number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells and glial fibrillary acidic protein mRNA expression, as well as decreased seizure grades and frequency of spontaneously recurrent seizures. The effects of 1 160 mg/kg ethanol extracts of scorpion were equal to those of 120 mg/kg valproic acid. These results suggested that the anti-epileptic effect of ethanol extracts of scorpion were associated with decreased hippocampal glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in a rat model of lithium chloride-pilocarpine induced epilepsy.

Differential Effects of Sodium Butyrate and Lithium Chloride on Rhesus Monkey Trophoblast Differentiation

Kumar, Priyadarsini; Thirkill, Twanda L.; Ji, Jennifer; Monte, Louise H.; Douglas, Gordon C.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/08/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
494.21984%
Trophoblast differentiation during early placental development is critical for successful pregnancy and aberrant differentiation causes preeclampsia and early pregnancy loss. During the first trimester, cytotrophoblasts are exposed to low oxygen tension (equivalent to~2%-3% O2) and differentiation proceeds along an extravillous pathway (giving rise to invasive extravillous cytotrophoblasts) and a villous pathway (giving rise to multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast). Interstitial extravillous cytotrophoblasts invade the decidua, while endovascular extravillous cytotrophoblasts are involved in re-modelling uterine spiral arteries. We tested the idea that sodium butyrate (an epigenetic modulator) induces trophoblast differentiation in early gestation rhesus monkey trophoblasts through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results show that syncytiotrophoblast formation was increased by butyrate, accompanied by nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, and increased expression of EnvV2 and galectin-1 (two factors thought to be involved in trophoblast fusion). Surprisingly, the expression of GCM1 and syncytin-2 was not affected by sodium butyrate. When trophoblasts were incubated with lithium chloride, a GSK3 inhibitor that mimics Wnt activation...

Estrogen and Lithium: Facilitating Factors Involved in Brain Cell Signaling Pathways

Valdes, James J
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
489.81848%
Learning and memory in adult females decline during menopause and estrogen replacement therapy is commonly prescribed during menopause. Post-menopausal women tend to suffer from depression and are prescribed antidepressants – in addition to hormone therapy. Estrogen replacement therapy is a topic that engenders debate since several studies contradict its efficacy as a palliative therapy for cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. Signaling transduction pathways can alter brain cell activity, survival, and morphology by facilitating transcription factor DNA binding and protein production. The steroidal hormone estrogen and the anti-depressant drug lithium interact through these signaling transduction pathways facilitating transcription factor activation. The paucity of data on how combined hormones and antidepressants interact in regulating gene expression led me to hypothesize that in primary mixed brain cell cultures, combined 17beta-estradiol (E2) and lithium chloride (LiCl) (E2/LiCl) will alter genetic expression of markers involved in synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. Results from these studies indicated that a 48 h treatment of E2/LiCl reduced glutamate receptor subunit genetic expression, but increased neurotrophic factor and estrogen receptor genetic expression. Combined treatment also failed to protect brain cell cultures from glutamate excitotoxicity. If lithium facilitates protein signaling pathways mediated by estrogen...

The influence of lithium chloride on experimental autoimmune thyroid disease.

Hassman, R A; Lazarus, J H; Dieguez, C; Weetman, A P; Hall, R; McGregor, A M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1985 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
501.7145%
Lithium administration is known to be associated with the development of thyroid dysfunction; it also exerts an effect on the immune system. The effect of lithium on experimental autoimmune thyroid disease was studied in female August rats. Following immunization with rat thyroglobulin in Freund's complete adjuvant, lithium chloride was administered i.p. for 30 days to four groups at varying stages of the disease. Control animals received i.p. saline. Anti-thyroglobulin antibody levels (measured by ELISA) were significantly increased in rats given lithium immediately post-immunization (group B) compared to control animals (661 +/- 42 OD vs 448 +/- 68; mean +/- s.e., P less than 0.02). In contrast, animals which received lithium during the spontaneous resolution of the disease (group D) showed a significant fall in anti-TG antibody compared to controls (99 +/- 15 vs 27 +/- 15; P less than 0.001). Anti-TG antibody levels remained undetectable in animals which received lithium but were not immunized. The splenic T cell blastogenic response (as measured following phytohaemagglutinin stimulation) was significantly increased in rats receiving lithium prior to and during immunization (group A) (stimulation index 63.4 +/- 6.9 vs 10.2 +/- 2.4; P less than 0.001). Spontaneous cell proliferation of splenic lymphocytes was decreased in two lithium treated groups (group A P less than 0.005...

Staying at the crossroads: assessment of the potential of serum lithium monitoring in predicting an ideal lithium dose

Lima,Thiago Zaqueu; Blanco,Miriam Marcela; Santos Júnior,Jair Guilherme dos; Coelho,Carolina Tesone; Mello,Luiz Eugênio
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
609.4472%
OBJECTIVE: Lithium has been successfully employed to treat bipolar disorder for decades, and recently, was shown to attenuate the symptoms of other pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, Down's syndrome, ischemic processes, and glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. However, lithium's narrow therapeutic range limits its broader use. Therefore, the development of methods to better predict its dose becomes essential to an ideal therapy. METHOD: the performance of adult Wistar rats was evaluated at the open field and elevated plus maze after a six weeks treatment with chow supplemented with 0.255%, or 0.383% of lithium chloride, or normal feed. Thereafter, blood samples were collected to measure the serum lithium concentration. RESULTS: Animals fed with 0.255% lithium chloride supplemented chow presented a higher rearing frequency at the open field, and higher frequency of arms entrance at the elevated plus maze than animals fed with a 50% higher lithium dose presented. Nevertheless, both groups presented similar lithium plasmatic concentration. DISCUSSION: different behaviors induced by both lithium doses suggest that these animals had different lithium distribution in their brains that was not detected by lithium serum measurement. CONCLUSION: serum lithium concentration measurements do not seem to provide sufficient precision to support its use as predictive of behaviors.