In this work, the effect of cerium (IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN) addition on the polymerization of bis-[triethoxysilyl]ethane (BTSE) film applied on carbon steel was studied. The electrochemical characterization of the films was carried out in 0.1 mol L(-1) NaCl solution by open-circuit potential measurements, anodic and cathodic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Morphological and chemical characterization were performed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurements, infrared-spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and thermogravimetric analysis. The results have clearly shown the improvement on the protective properties of the Ce(4+) modified film as a consequence of the formation of a more uniform and densely reticulated silane film. A mechanism is proposed to explain the accelerating role of Ce(4+) ions on the cross-linking of the silane layer. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cr3C2-NiCr and WC-Ni coatings are widely used for wear applications at high and room temperature, respectively. Due to the high corrosion resistance of NiCr binder, Cr3C2-NiCr coatings are also used in corrosive environments. The application of WC-Ni coatings in corrosive media is 14 not recommended due to the poor corrosion resistance of the (pure Ni) metallic matrix. It is well known that the addition of Cr to the metallic binder improves the corrosion properties. Erosion-corrosion performance of thermal spray coatings is widely influenced by ceramic phase composition, the size of ceramic particles and also the composition of the metallic binder. In the present work, two types of HVOF thermal spray coatings (Cr3C2-NiCr and WC-Ni) obtained with different spray conditions were studied and compared with conventional micro-cracked hard chromium coatings. Both as-sprayed and polished samples were tested under two erosion-corrosion conditions with different erosivity. Tungsten carbide coatings showed better performance under the most erosive condition, while chromium carbide coatings were superior under less erosive conditions. Some of the tungsten carbide coatings and hard chromium showed similar erosion-corrosion behaviour under more and less erosive conditions. The erosion-corrosion and electrochemical results showed that surface polishing improved the erosion-corrosion properties of the thermally sprayed coatings. The corrosion behaviour of the different coatings has been compared using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization curves. Total material loss due to erosion-corrosion was determined by weight loss measurements. An estimation of the corrosion contribution to the total weight loss was also given. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
We present an efficient expression for the analytic continuation to arbitrary
complex frequencies of the complex optical and AC conductivity of a homogeneous
superconductor with arbitrary mean free path. Knowledge of this quantity is
fundamental in the calculation of thermodynamic potentials and dispersion
energies involving type-I superconducting bodies. When considered for imaginary
frequencies, our formula evaluates faster than previous schemes involving
Kramers--Kronig transforms. A number of applications illustrates its
efficiency: a simplified low-frequency expansion of the conductivity, the
electromagnetic bulk self-energy due to longitudinal plasma oscillations, and
the Casimir free energy of a superconducting cavity.; Comment: 20 pages, 7 figures, calculation of Casimir energy added