Página 7 dos resultados de 294 itens digitais encontrados em 0.009 segundos

## Selective and asymmetric molecular transport across electroporated cell membranes.

Tekle, E; Astumian, R D; Chock, P B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/11/1994 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
284.73818%
Transport of a divalent cation (Ca2+) and three DNA indicators [ethidium bromide (EB), propidium iodide (PI), and ethidium homodimer (EthD-1)] across electroporated membranes of several mammalian cell lines was found to be selective and asymmetrical. In low salt medium, Ca2+ and EB were preferentially transported across the anodefacing cell membrane while PI and EthD-1 predominately entered at the site facing the cathode. In high salt medium, the entry site for Ca2+ and EB was reversed to the cathode-facing hemisphere while it remained unchanged for PI and EthD-1. In all these experiments, the observed transport patterns remained unaffected whether the dyes (or ion) were present during or added after the electroporating pulse. The data suggest that asymmetric pores are created on both sides of the membrane facing the electrodes, with smaller pore size (but greater in number) on the anode side and larger pores (with a lower population) on the cathode side. Furthermore, the rate of resealing of the membrane pores is significantly enhanced in high ionic strength medium, thus affecting the entry site. The asymmetric transport pattern is neither caused by electrophoresis induced by the externally applied electric field nor due to one-sided membrane breakdown as previously believed.

## Giant multilevel cation channels formed by Alzheimer disease amyloid beta-protein [A beta P-(1-40)] in bilayer membranes.

Arispe, N; Pollard, H B; Rojas, E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/11/1993 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
284.01393%
We have recently shown that the Alzheimer disease 40-residue amyloid beta-protein [A beta P-(1-40)] can form cation-selective channels when incorporated into planar lipid bilayers by fusion of liposomes containing the peptide. Since A beta P-(1-40) comprises portions of the putative extracellular and membrane-spanning domains of the amyloid precursor protein (APP751), we suggested that the channel-forming property could be the underlying cause of amyloid neurotoxicity. The peptide has been proposed to occur in vivo in both membrane-bound and soluble forms, and we now report that soluble A beta P-(1-40) can also form similar channels in solvent-free lipid bilayers formed at the tip of a patch pipet, as well as in the planar lipid bilayer system. As in the case of liposome-mediated incorporation, the amyloid channel activity in the patch pipet exhibits multiple conductance levels between 40 and 400 pS, cation selectivity, and sensitivity to tromethamine (Tris). Further studies with A beta P channels incorporated into planar lipid bilayers from the liposome complex have also revealed that the channel activity can express spontaneous transitions to a much higher range of conductances between 400 and 4000 pS. Under these conditions, the amyloid channel continues to be cation selective. Amyloid channels were insensitive to nitrendipine at either conductance range. We calculate that if such channels were expressed in cells...

## Cytosine substituted calix[4]pyrroles: Neutral receptors for 5′-guanosine monophosphate

Sessler, Jonathan L.; Král, Vladimír; Shishkanova, Tatiana V.; Gale, Philip A.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
288.23314%
The synthesis and characterization of two cytosine-substituted calix[4]pyrrole conjugates, bearing the appended cytosine attached at either a β- or meso-pyrrolic position, is described. These systems were tested as nucleotide-selective carriers and as active components of nucleotide-sensing ion-selective electrodes at pH 6.6. Studies of carrier selectivity were made using a Pressman-type model membrane system consisting of an initial pH 6.0 aqueous phase, an intervening dichloromethane barrier containing the calix[4]pyrrole conjugate, and a receiving basic aqueous phase. Good selectivity for the Watson–Crick complementary nucleotide, 5′-guanosine monophosphate (5′-GMP), was seen in the case of the meso-linked conjugate with the relative rates of through-membrane transport being 7.7:4.1:1 for 5′-GMP, 5′-AMP, and 5′-CMP, respectively. By contrast, the β-substituted conjugate, while showing a selectivity for 5′-GMP that was enhanced relative to unsubstituted calix[4]pyrrole, was found to transport 5′-CMP roughly 4.5 times more quickly than 5′-GMP. Higher selectivities were also found for 5′-CMP when both the β- and meso-substituted conjugates were incorporated into polyvinyl chloride membranes and tested as ion selective electrodes at pH 6.6...

## Electrophysiological Analysis of Cloned Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Ion Channels1

Leng, Qiang; Mercier, Richard W.; Hua, Bao-Guang; Fromm, Hillel; Berkowitz, Gerald A.
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
284.7914%
Electrophysiological studies were conducted on the cloned plant cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels AtCNGC2 and AtCNGC1 from Arabidopsis, and NtCBP4 from tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum). The nucleotide coding sequences for these proteins were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes or HEK 293 cells. Channel characteristics were evaluated using voltage clamp analysis of currents in the presence of cAMP. AtCNGC2 was demonstrated to conduct K+ and other monovalent cations, but exclude Na+; this conductivity profile is unique for any ion channel not possessing the amino acid sequence found in the selectivity filter of K+-selective ion channels. Application of cAMP evoked currents in membrane patches of oocytes injected with AtCNGC2 cRNA. Direct activation of the channel by cyclic nucleotide, demonstrated by application of cyclic nucleotide to patches of membranes expressing such channels, is a hallmark characteristic of this ion channel family. Voltage clamp studies (two-electrode configuration) demonstrated that AtCNGC1 and NtCBP4 are also cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. Addition of a lipophilic analog of cAMP to the perfusion bath of oocytes injected with NtCBP4 and AtCNGC1 cRNAs induced inward rectified, noninactivating K+ currents.

## Aerolysin of Aeromonas sobria: evidence for formation of ion-permeable channels and comparison with alpha-toxin of Staphylococcus aureus.

Chakraborty, T; Schmid, A; Notermans, S; Benz, R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1990 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
284.9804%
Aerolysin from Aeromonas sobria AB3 was isolated and purified. The pure toxin formed sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble oligomers in a lipidic environment. The addition of aerolysin to the aqueous phase bathing lipid bilayer membranes resulted in the formation of ion-permeable channels which had a single-channel conductance of about 70 pS in 0.1 M KCl. This defines the toxin as a channel-forming component similar to other toxins but without any indication for an association-dissociation reaction, since the channels had a long lifetime at low voltages. At voltages higher than 50 mV, the aerolysin channel switched into a closed state with a low residual conductance. The single-channel conductance was a linear function of the total aqueous conductance, which suggested that the toxin oligomers formed aqueous channels with an estimated minimal diameter of about 0.7 nm. The aerolysin pores were found to be slightly anion selective. The pore-forming properties of aerolysin were compared with those of alpha-toxin of Staphylococcus aureus. Both aerolysin and alpha-toxin share secondary structure features, must oligomerize to form pores in lipid bilayer membranes, and form channels with similar properties.

## Insulin stimulates the generation from hepatic plasma membranes of modulators derived from an inositol glycolipid.

Saltiel, A R; Cuatrecasas, P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1986 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
284.31674%
Insulin binding to plasma membrane receptors results in the generation of substances that acutely mimic the actions of the hormone on certain target enzymes. Two such substances, which modulate the activity of the high-affinity cAMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.17), have been purified from hepatic plasma membranes. The two have similar properties and activities but can be resolved by ion-exchange chromatography and high-voltage electrophoresis. They exhibit a net negative charge, even at pH 1.9, and an apparent molecular weight of approximately 1400. The generation of these substances from membranes by insulin can be reproduced by addition of a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C purified from Staphylococcus aureus. This enzyme is known to selectively hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol and release from membranes several proteins that are covalently linked to phosphatidylinositol by a glycan anchor. Both enzyme-modulating substances appear to be generated by the phosphodiesterase cleavage of a phosphatidylinositol-containing glycolipid precursor that has been characterized by thin-layer chromatography. Some of the chemical properties of these substances have been examined. They appear to be related complex carbohydrate-phosphate substances containing glucosamine and inositol. These findings suggest that insulin may activate a selective phospholipase activity that hydrolyzes a membrane phospholipid...

## H+/solute-induced intracellular acidification leads to selective activation of apical Na+/H+ exchange in human intestinal epithelial cells

Thwaites, David T.; Ford, Dianne; Glanville, Michael; Simmons, Nicholas L.
Fonte: American Society for Clinical Investigation Publicador: American Society for Clinical Investigation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
288.36%
The intestinal absorption of many nutrients and drug molecules is mediated by ion-driven transport mechanisms in the intestinal enterocyte plasma membrane. Clearly, the establishment and maintenance of the driving forces — transepithelial ion gradients — are vital for maximum nutrient absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine the nature of intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in response to H+-coupled transport at the apical membrane of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Using isoform-specific primers, mRNA transcripts of the Na+/H+ exchangers NHE1, NHE2, and NHE3 were detected by RT-PCR, and identities were confirmed by sequencing. The functional profile of Na+/H+ exchange was determined by a combination of pHi, 22Na+ influx, and EIPA inhibition experiments. Functional NHE1 and NHE3 activities were identified at the basolateral and apical membranes, respectively. H+/solute-induced acidification (using glycylsarcosine or β-alanine) led to Na+-dependent, EIPA-inhibitable pHi recovery or EIPA-inhibitable 22Na+ influx at the apical membrane only. Selective activation of apical (but not basolateral) Na+/H+ exchange by H+/solute cotransport demonstrates that coordinated activity of H+/solute symport with apical Na+/H+ exchange optimizes the efficient absorption of nutrients and Na+...

## An ion-channel forming protein produced by Entamoeba histolytica.

Lynch, E C; Rosenberg, I M; Gitler, C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1982 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
284.7914%
We have identified a remarkable ion-channel forming material in virulent strains of Entamoeba histolytica that may be responsible for many of the symptoms associated with amoebic dysentery. A polypeptide that we refer to as amoebapore is shed into the growth media and is also found within the amoeba in a high speed sedimentable fraction. Amoebapore has the distinctive property of spontaneously incorporating into lipid bilayers, liposomes, and cells, leading to progressive and irreversible changes in the ion conductance of the target membranes. Exposure of planar lipid bilayers to amoebapore -containing fractions under voltage clamp conditions results in an almost immediate and progressive incorporation of ion channels which continues in an irreversible manner leading to a fall in membrane impedance of up to five orders of magnitude. The ion-channel conductance is moderately cation-selective, voltage dependent, and displays a unit size of 1.6 +/- 0.2 nanoSiemens in 1 M KCl at -10 mV. In the bilayer, the amoebapore -induced conductance exhibits an in situ sensitivity to protease. Amoebapore is mainly concentrated in a fraction sedimenting at 150 000 g. It is insoluble in Triton X-100 but can be dissociated in an active state in 1% SDS. Under these conditions it has an apparent mol. wt. of 13 000 daltons.

## Permeability and electrical properties of planar lipid membranes from thylakoid lipids.

Fuks, B; Homblé, F
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1994 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
286.28666%
Electrical measurements were carried out on planar lipid membranes from thylakoid lipids. The specific capacitance of membranes formed from decane-containing monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), which accounts for 57% of the total lipid content of thylakoids, showed that it adopted a bilayer structure. Solvent-free bilayers of MGDG were not formed, with very rare exceptions, indicating that decane is required to stabilize the planar conformation. However, this cone-shaped lipid produces bilayer structures in combination with other cylindrical thylakoid lipids even in the absence of organic solvent. We compared the properties of solvent-free and decane-containing bilayers from MGDG, soybean lecithin, and the quaternary mixture of lipids similar to that found in vivo. The conductance of decane-MGDG was 26 times higher than that of decane-lecithin. The flux through the decane-lecithin bilayer was found to be slightly dependent on pH, whereas the decane-MGDG membrane was not. The specific conductance of bilayers formed from the quaternary mixture of lipids was 5 to 10 times larger than lecithin (with alkane or not). Further experiments with bilayers made in the presence of a KCl gradient showed that decane-MGDG, decane-MGDG/DGDG/SQDG/PG...

## Coupling of water and ion fluxes in a K+-selective channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum.

Miller, C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1982 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
284.73818%
Streaming potentials arising across a K+-selective channel from fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum were measured by incorporating the channel into planar bilayer membranes and imposing osmotic gradients across the membranes by addition of sorbitol or urea to only one side. Single-channel zero-current potentials were determined, and dilution artifacts were corrected for by addition of valinomycin to the bilayer. The streaming potentials were found to be unusually small, 1.1 mV per osmolal. The potentials were linearly related to the osmotic gradient across the bilayer, and were identical for sorbitol and urea. The results imply that the channel cannot be envisioned as a long tube, like gramicidin, but rather as a short constriction of less than 10 A in length opening out into wider mouths on either side of the membrane.

## Monolayer and Interfacial Permeation

Blank, Martin
Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/1968 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
286.28666%
Transport across physical-chemical interfaces is considered in connection with three particular problems of biological interfaces: the structure and properties of cell membranes, the properties of the lung surfactant, and the effects of ionic currents across excitable membranes. With regard to cell membranes, studies of monolayer permeation suggest that permselectivity on the basis of size is a property of bilayer structure and probably gives rise to the observed dependence of the permeability on partition coefficients. The permeabilities of lipid and protein monolayers are consistent with the bimolecular leaflet (BML) model of the membrane and not with mosaic models. Experiments with the lung surfactant indicate that, in addition to its surface tension-lowering properties, it is unusual in its ability to form a strong two-dimensional network, which probably contributes to alveolar stability. Finally, the results of studies of interfacial ionic transference suggest a new way of accounting for the ionic fluxes in excitable membranes during an action potential without assuming ion-selective pores or carriers. In the suggested mechanism, it is possible to account for the change in ionic selectivity and the proper phasing of the fluxes...

## Biophysical and ion channel functional characterization of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in varying detergent-lipid environments

Asmar-Rovira, Guillermo A.; Asseo-García, Aloysha M.; Quesada, Orestes; Hanson, Michael A.; Nogueras, Carlos; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A.; Stevens, Raymond C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
284.7914%
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of Torpedo electric rays has been extensively characterized over the last three decades. However, the molecular mechanisms by which detergents influence membrane protein stability and function remain poorly understood, and elucidation of the dynamic detergent-lipid-protein interactions of solubilized membrane proteins is a largely unexplored research field. This study examined nine detergents upon nAChR solubilization and purification, to assess receptor lipid composition using GC (Gas Chromatography)-FID (Flame Ionization) and/or GC-MSD (Mass Selective Detectors), stability and aggregation state using A-SEC (Analytical Size-Exclusion Chromatography) and EM (Electron Microscopy), and planar lipid bilayers to measure ion channel function. Detergent solubilization of nAChR-enriched membranes did not result in significant native lipid depletion or destabilization. Upon purification, native lipid depletion occurred in all detergents, with lipid-analog detergents [CHAPS (3-[(3-Cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate), FC-12 (n-Dodecylphosphocholine) and sodium cholate (3α,7α,12α-Trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid)] maintaining stability and supporting ion channel function, while non-lipid analog detergents [Cymal-6 (6-Cyclohexyl-1-hexyl-β-d-maltoside)...

## Minocycline chelates Ca2+, binds to membranes, and depolarizes mitochondria by formation of Ca2+-dependent ion channels

Antonenko, Yuri N.; Rokitskaya, Tatyana I.; Cooper, Arthur J. L.; Krasnikov, Boris F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
284.9804%
Minocycline (an anti-inflammatory drug approved by the FDA) has been reported to be effective in mouse models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington disease. It has been suggested that the beneficial effects of minocycline are related to its ability to influence mitochondrial functioning. We tested the hypothesis that minocycline directly inhibits the Ca2+-induced permeability transition in rat liver mitochondria. Our data show that minocycline does not directly inhibit the mitochondrial permeability transition. However, minocycline has multiple effects on mitochondrial functioning. First, this drug chelates Ca2+ ions. Secondly, minocycline, in a Ca2+-dependent manner, binds to mitochondrial membranes. Thirdly, minocycline decreases the proton-motive force by forming ion channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Channel formation was confirmed with two bilayer lipid membrane models. We show that minocycline, in the presence of Ca2+, induces selective permeability for small ions. We suggest that the beneficial action of minocycline is related to the Ca2+-dependent partial uncoupling of mitochondria, which indirectly prevents induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition.

## Solid-contact potentiometric polymer membrane microelectrodes for the detection of silver ions at the femtomole level

Rubinova, Nastassia; Chumbimuni-Torres, Karin; Bakker, Eric
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/11/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
288.23314%
In recent years, ion-selective electrodes based on polymer membranes have been shown to exhibit detection limits that are often in the nanomolar concentration range, and thus drastically lower than traditionally accepted. Since potentiometry is less dependent on scaling laws that other established analytical techniques, their performance in confined sample volumes is explored here. Solid-contact silver-selective microelectrodes, with a sodium-selective microelectrode as a reference, were inserted into a micropipette tip used as a 50-μl sample. The observed potential stabilities, reproducibilities and detection limits were attractive and largely matched that for large 100-ml samples. This should pave the way for further experiments to detecting ultra-small total ion concentrations by potentiometry, especially when used as a transducer after an amplification step in bioanalysis.

## Non-selective Ion Channel Activity of Polymorphic Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (Amylin) Channels

Zhao, Jun; Hu, Rundong; Sciacca, Michele F.M.; Brender, Jeffrey R.; Chen, Hong; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Zheng, Jie
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
288.36%
Fundamental understanding of ion channel formation by amyloid peptides, which is strongly linked to cell toxicity, is very critical for (pre)clinical treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we combine atomistic simulations and experiments to demonstrate a broad range of conformational states of hIAPP double channels in lipid membranes. All individual channels display high selectivity of Cl− ions over cations, but the co-existence of polymorphic double channels of different conformations and orientations with different populations determines the non-ionic selectivity nature of the channels, which is different from the typical amyloid-β channels that exhibit Ca2+ selective ion-permeable characteristics. This work provides a more complete physicochemical mechanism of amyloid-channel-induced toxicity.

## Inversion of membrane surface charge by trivalent cations probed with a cation-selective channel

Gurnev, Philip A.; Bezrukov, Sergey M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
284.73818%
We demonstrate that the cation-selective channel formed by gramicidin A can be used as a reliable sensor for studying the multivalent ion accumulation at the surfaces of charged lipid membranes and the “charge inversion” phenomenon. In asymmetrically charged membranes with the individual leaflets formed from pure negative and positive lipids bathed by 0.1 M CsCl solutions the channel exhibits current rectification which is comparable to that of a typical n/p semiconductor diode. We show that even at these highly asymmetrical conditions the channel conductance can be satisfactorily described by the electrodiffusion equation in the constant field approximation but, due to predictable limitations, only when the applied voltages do not exceed 50 mV. Analysis of the changes in the voltage-dependent channel conductance upon addition of trivalent cations allows us to gauge their interactions with the membrane surface. The inversion of the sign of the effective surface charge takes place at the concentrations which correlate with the cation size. Specifically, these concentrations are close to 0.05 mM for lanthanum, 0.25 mM for hexaamminecobalt, and 4 mM for spermidine.

## Tuning ion coordination preferences to enable selective permeation

Varma, Sameer; Rempe, Susan B.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
288.9973%
Potassium (K-) channels catalyze K+ ion permeation across cellular membranes while simultaneously discriminating their permeation over Na+ ions by more than a factor of a thousand. Structural studies show bare K+ ions occupying the narrowest channel regions in a state of high coordination by all 8 surrounding oxygen ligands from the channel walls. As in most channels, the driving force for selectivity occurs when one ion is preferentially stabilized or destabilized by the channel compared to water. In the common view of mechanism, made vivid by textbook graphics, the driving force for selectivity in K- channels arises by a fit, whereby the channel induces K+ ions to leave water by offering an environment like water for K+, in terms of both energy and local structure. The implication that knowledge of local ion coordination in a liquid environment translates to design parameters in a protein ion channel, producing similar energetic stabilities, has gone unchallenged, presumably due in part to lack of consensus regarding ion coordination structures in liquid water. Growing evidence that smaller numbers and different arrangements of ligands coordinate K+ ions in liquid water, however, raises new questions regarding mechanism: how and why should ion coordination preferences change...

## Direct and Scalable Chemical Vapor Deposition of Ultrathin Low-Noise MoS2 Membranes on Apertures

Waduge, Pradeep; Bilgin, Ismail; Larkin, Joseph; Goodfellow, Kenneth; Graham, Adam C.; Bell, David C.; Vamivakas, Nick; Kar, Swastik; Wanunu, Meni
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
286.28666%
We show that atomically thin molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) crystals can grow without any underlying substrates into free-standing atomically-thin layers, maintaining their planar 2D form. Using this property, we present a new mechanism for 2D crystal synthesis, i.e. reagent-limited nucleation near an aperture edge followed by reactions that allow crystal growth into the free-space of the aperture. Such an approach enables us, for the first time, the direct and selective growth of freestanding membranes of atomically thin MoS2 layers across micrometer-scale pre-fabricated solid-state apertures in SiNx membranes. Under optimal conditions, MoS2 grows preferentially across apertures, resulting in sealed membranes that are one to a few atomic layers thick. Since our method involves free-space growth and is devoid of either substrates or transfer, it is conceivably the most contamination-free method for obtaining 2D crystals reported so far. The membrane quality was investigated using atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and low-noise ion-current recordings through nanopores fabricated in such membranes.; Comment: This paper is withdrawn by the author due to critical errors in the data and incomplete data in the paper

## Generalized microscopic theory of ion selectivity in voltage-gated ion channels

Arulsamy, Andrew Das
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Ion channels are specific proteins present in the membranes of living cells. They control the flow of specific ions through a cell, initiated by an ion channel's electrochemical gradient. In doing so, they control important physiological processes such as muscle contraction and neuronal connectivity, which cannot be properly activated if these channels go haywire, leading to life-threatening diseases and psychological disorders. Here, we will develop a generalized microscopic theory of ion selectivity applicable to KcsA, Na$_{\rm v}$Rh and Ca$_{\rm v}$ (L-type) ion channels. We unambiguously expose why and how a given ion-channel can be highly selective, and yet has a conductance of the order of one million ions per second, or higher. We will identify and prove the correct physico-biochemical mechanisms that are responsible for the high selectivity of a particular ion in a given ion channel. The above mechanisms consist of five conditions, which can be directly associated to these parameters - (i) dehydration energy, (ii) concentration of the "correct" ions (iii) Coulomb-van-der-Waals attraction, (iv) pore and ionic sizes, and indirectly to (v) the thermodynamic stability and (vi) the "knock-on" assisted permeation.; Comment: 22 pages...