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Interfacial interactions in concretes with silica fume and SBR latex

ROSSIGNOLO, Joao Adriano
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
817.6304%
This paper deals with the effect of silica fume and styrene-butadiene latex (SBR) on the microstructure of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between Portland cement paste and aggregates (basalt). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis system (EDX) was used to determine the ITZ thickness. In the plain concrete a marked ITZ around the aggregate particles (55 mu m) was observed, while in concretes with silica fume or latex SBR the ITZ was less pronounced (35-40 mu m). However, better results were observed in concretes with silica fume and latex SBR (20-25 mu m). (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; Research Sponsoring Foundation of Sao Paulo State (Fundacao de Apoio a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo - FAPESP); Civil Engineering National Laboratory (Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil - LNEC) in Lisbon, Portugal

"Propriedades da pasta de cimento portland com adições do copolímero Va/VeoVa e fibras de poliamida - estudo da interface fibra-matriz" ; properties of va/veova copolymer modified cement pastes reinforced by polyamide fibers - study of interface fiber-matrix

Gomes, Carlos Eduardo Marmorato
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/09/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
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O crescente emprego de compósitos fibrosos pela indústria da construção civil, nos últimos anos, comprova a eficiência da adoção de fibras como reforço de matrizes frágeis, a exemplo das pastas, argamassas e concreto de cimento Portland. Com o desenvolvimento de novas fibras sintéticas em suas propriedades, com custo similar ao das fibras comuns, faz-se supor que os produtos reforçados por essas fibras tenham grande avanço nos próximos anos. Especificamente em relação à fibra poliamida 6.6, constata-se que a mesma possui módulo de elasticidade menor em relação às matrizes de cimento Portland convencionais e pobre interface fibra/matriz. O incremento do módulo de elasticidade dessas fibras constitui grande desafio à industria têxtil devido às características de seu processo de fabricação, especificamente no que se refere à fiação, porém, isso não bastaria, havendo também a necessidade de aumentar sua aderência com as matrizes cimenticias. Dessa maneira, o presente trabalho buscou, pela adição de um copolímero redispersável (Va/VeoVa – vinil acetato/ vinil éster do ácido versático), tornar compatível o valor do módulo de elasticidade da matriz cimentícia ao das fibras de poliamida...

"Concreto leve de alto desempenho modificado com SB para pré-fabricados esbeltos - dosagem, produção, propriedades e microestrutura" ; High performance latex-modified lightweight aggregate concrete for thin precast components - dosage, production, properties and microstructure

Rossignolo, João Adriano
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/01/2003 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
421.3721%
Esta tese aborda a aplicação da tecnologia dos concretos leves de alto desempenho (CLAD) para a produção de elementos construtivos esbeltos pré-fabricados, tais como painéis estruturais e de vedação e peças para cobertura, apresentando um concreto com propriedades especiais em função da utilização conjunta de látex de estireno butadieno (SB), sílica ativa, superplastificante acelerador e agregados leves nacionais, denominado concreto leve de alto desempenho modificado com SB. Desenvolveu-se um amplo programa experimental para a análise dos concretos, tendo como objetivos o estudo dos processos de dosagem e produção, caracterização das propriedades dos concretos nos estados fresco e endurecido, análise da ductilidade de elementos construtivos esbeltos pré-fabricados submetidos à flexão, assim como a obtenção de informações microestruturais sobre a matriz de cimento e a zona de transição entre o agregado e a matriz de cimento. Os resultados do programa experimental demonstraram que os concretos leves de alto desempenho modificados com SB são extremamente adequados à produção de elementos pré-fabricados esbeltos, devido essencialmente à redução da massa específica e ao excelente desempenho das propriedades relacionadas à resistência mecânica e durabilidade. Nos estudos microestruturais...

Aderência de chapiscos em concretos estruturais - melhoria da microestrutura da zona de interface pela adição da sílica da casca de arroz; Adherence of slurry mortars in structural concretes – microstructure improvement of the interfacial transition zone through addition of silica obtained from rice husk

Silva, Vanessa Silveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/02/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
737.03305%
Avaliação da aderência de chapiscos em substratos de concretos estruturais. Com o objetivo de aprimorar a microestrutura da zona de interface argamassa/concreto e aumentar a resistência de aderência do revestimento, utilizou-se chapisco com baixa relação água/aglomerante e adição da sílica ativa extraída da casca de arroz como tratamento da zona de interface da argamassa e substrato. Para avaliar a aderência do revestimento realizaram-se ensaios de determinação da resistência de aderência à tração. Utilizou-se a técnica de microscopia eletrônica de varredura associada à espectrografia por dispersão de energia para analisar a microestrutura da zona de interface do chapisco e concreto. Os resultados do programa experimental evidenciaram que, quando se utiliza a sílica extraída da casca de arroz no chapisco, em teores de 5% em relação à massa de cimento, há aumentos significativos de resistência de aderência do revestimento. Nos estudos microestruturais, foi possível observar que devido às ações físicas e químicas da sílica da casca de arroz, formou-se uma microestrutura densa, de baixa porosidade e com a presença de produtos hidratados pouco cristalinos na interface chapisco/concreto. A implementação de uma ponte de ligação constituída por chapiscos com sílica ativa...

Concretos e pastas de elevado desempenho: contribuição aos estudos de reparos estruturais e ligações entre concretos novo e velho, com tratamento da zona de interface.; High-performance concrete and pastes: contribution to the studies of structural repairs and new-to-old concretes bonding, with interfacial zone treatment.

Fagury, Samir Costa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/03/2002 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A ligação entre concretos com cimento Portland de diferentes idades, composições e resistências é um dos problemas da tecnologia dos concretos estruturais. A continuidade desta ligação é prejudicada por uma diversidade de fatores que implicam desde a retomada de uma concretagem (junta fria) até a recuperação de estruturas de concreto deterioradas. Sob esse ponto de vista apresenta−se neste trabalho uma análise do comportamento de um sistema de reparos aplicados à recuperação de estruturas, ligações concretos velhos x concretos novos (caso das ampliações) e continuidades de concretagens. Um dos pontos mais frágeis de uma estrutura é a zona de interface, tanto dos materiais que a compõe quanto da transição entre os diferentes concretos. Utilizou−se como substrato corpos−de−prova prismáticos executados com concretos (fck=15MPa, 18MPa, 21MPa, 25MPa, 30MPa, 40MPa e 50MPa), que após ruptura completa através de ensaios de tração na flexão foi posteriormente executada ligação com concretos de reparo, e corpos−de−prova cilíndricos de concretos convencionais apresentando ninhos de concretagem. Com a finalidade de melhorar a zona de transição citada, utilizou−se como sistema de reparo...

Investigations of tungsten mine waste geopolymeric binder : strength and microstructure

Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gomes, J. P. Castro; Jalali, Said
Fonte: Elsevier Science Ltd Publicador: Elsevier Science Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
377.2368%
This paper reports some results of a research project related to the development of a new binder using mineral waste mud from the Portuguese mine. Some aspects related to the effect of aggregates in the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of tungsten mine waste geopolymeric binder are reported in the present study. Test results showed that the aggregate type influences strength development.

Vegetable fibre reinforced concrete composites : a review

Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Jalali, Said
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /04/2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
377.2368%
The current manuscript deals with the subject of natural fiber reinforced concrete. It includes fiber characteristics, properties and the description of the treatments that improve their performance; it covers the compatibility between the fibers and the cement matrix and also how their presence influences cement properties like setting time or the interfacial transition zone. It also includes the properties and durability performance of concrete reinforced with natural fibers. Future research trends are also presented.

Compósitos avançados reforçados com fibras naturais para construção

Pinheiro, Manuel Filipe de Carvalho Alves
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
377.2368%
A utilização de fibras naturais para reforço de compósitos poliméricos tem despertado grande interesse como substituto das fibras sintéticas, com vantagens em termos ambientais e económicos. Este trabalho investiga a utilização de fibras de pinho e faia como agentes de reforço na preparação de compósitos de matriz epoxidica. Procedeu-se à optimização dos principais parâmetros envolvidos no processo de preparação destes materiais, como a definição do tipo de molde a utilizar, forma de aplicação da pressão, método de mistura da matriz/fibras e comprimento (granulometria) das fibras de madeira a utilizar como agente de reforço. As fibras de madeira foram em seguida submetidas a um tratamento químico, com a aplicação de uma solução aquosa de hidróxido de sódio 10% com a finalidade de intensificar as interacções na interface fibra-matriz, melhorando assim a adesão da matriz à fibra e diminuindo a absorção de água por parte das fibras de madeira. Finalmente foram realizados ensaios para determinação de densidades, ensaios de flexão, difracção de raio-X e ensaios de absorção de água aos provetes obtidos. Os resultados obtidos indicam que o tratamento aplicado às fibras diminui a capacidade de absorção de água. A maior adesão da matriz à fibra...

Effect of silica fume and SBR latex on the pasteaggregate interfacial transition zone

Rossignolo,João Adriano
Fonte: ABM, ABC, ABPol Publicador: ABM, ABC, ABPol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
1021.3721%
This paper deals with the effect of silica fume and styrene-butadiene latex (SBR) on the microstructure of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between Portland cement paste and aggregates (basalt). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive x ray analysis system (EDX) was used to determine the ITZ thickness. In the plain concrete a marked ITZ around the aggregate particles (55 µm) was observed, while in concretes with silica fume or latex SBR the ITZ was less pronounced (35-40 µm). However, better results were observed in concretes with silica fume and latex SBR (20-25 µm).

Doping technique in the interfacial transition zone between paste and lateritic aggregate for the production of structural concretes

Trigo,Ana Paula Moreno; Liborio,Jefferson Benedicto Libardi
Fonte: ABM, ABC, ABPol Publicador: ABM, ABC, ABPol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
1021.3721%
This paper discusses the use of doping technique in the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between Portland cement paste and lateritic aggregates with the objective of promoting the implementation of structural concrete. Doping technique consists of establishing the initial impregnation of the aggregate with a high performance paste in order to improve its binding to the matrix. A Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis system is used to observe the results of the technique in the ITZ. The results are observed through an analysis of the cement hydration products formed in the ITZ. An ITZ with high concentration of large crystals of calcium hydroxide (CH) is observed in plain concrete, whereas in concrete prepared with doping technique the ITZ is rich in calcium silicate hydrate (CSH). This result confirms the possibility of using this material, which has no commercial value nowadays, as an alternative aggregate for elaborating structural concrete.

Chemomechanics of calcium leaching of cement-based materials at different scales : the role of CH-dissolution and C-S-H degradation on strength and durability performance of materials and structures

Heukamp, Franz H. (Franz Hoyte), 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 380 p.; 16345201 bytes; 16345001 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
377.2368%
Calcium leaching is a durability threat for cement-based materials employed in critical infrastructures, such as Nuclear Waste Storage Systems. This thesis presents a comprehensive study of the material and structural consequences of calcium leaching on the strength and deformation behavior of cementitious materials. Starting from a three-level microstructural division of the heterogeneous microstructure of cement-based materials, a series of experimental and theoretical investigations is conducted leading to the development of a novel constitutive model and model-based simulations of the long-term mechanical performance of concrete structures subjected to calcium leaching. A chemically accelerated leaching device is developed using an ammonium nitrate solution to obtain asymptotically leached specimens in short times. An acceleration rate of 300 compared to natural leaching is obtained. The strength domain of leached cement pastes and mortars is evaluated through triaxial compression tests and uniaxial tension tests, revealing an important strength loss and an increased pressure sensitivity of the materials at failure, associated with leaching. A micromechanical approach for the homogenization of the elastic properties and the strength properties based on the three microstructural levels is developed. These developments allow estimating the relations between the microstructural changes and poroelastic properties including Biot-coefficient and Biot-modulus. In addition...

Modelling of the concrete compressive failure mechanism

Su, Y.; Wu, C.; Oehlers, D.
Fonte: Institution of Engineers Australia Publicador: Institution of Engineers Australia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
377.2368%
There has been an extensive amount of research into determining the compressive stress-strain properties of concrete for design. Difficulty has arisen in quantifying the softening or descending stress-strain relationship as it has been found to depend on the size and shape of the specimen being tested as well as on the confinement and eccentricity of compressive load applied to the specimen. This difficulty has restricted the development of design rules for reinforced concrete members not only for strength but also for ductility particularly for confined members. In this paper, a meso-scale model, which divides concrete into a three phase composite material consisting of the mortar matrix, aggregate and interfacial transition zone, is used to explain and quantify the softening mechanism of concrete specimens. It is shown that this meso-scale model can both simulate the cracking patterns and deformations which are seen to occur in concrete while softening and also quantify and explain the effects of size, shape, confinement and eccentricity of load. This realistic simulation of the softening mechanism should allow a better understanding and quantification of the compressive failure mechanism of concrete which should lead to the development of better design rules particularly for confined concrete.; Y Su...

Determining the fine structure of the entrainment zone in cloud-topped boundary layers

Horner, Michael S.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
299.9227%
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; The objective of this thesis is to obtain a better understanding of cloud-top entrainment through an in-depth analysis of entrainment-zone structure. In situ aircraft measurements taken during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) were used for this purpose. Using data collected from multiple cloud-top penetrations, the presence of an interfacial layer in-between the top of the cloud mixed-layer and the base of the free atmosphere is identified and consequently defined as the entrainment zone. The depth of the entrainment zone is on the order of tens of meters, where turbulence and sometimes cloud droplets are detectable. Inhomogeneous mixing was found to occur within the entrainment zone. Parcels of inversion-layer air and boundary-layer air are identified within the entrainment zone. Analyses suggest that turbulence intensity and cloud amount in the entrainment zone vary depending on the distribution of entrainment mixing fraction. Furthermore, continuous mixing in the entrainment zone appears to dissipate the upper-cloud layer. However, continuous dissipation of the upper-cloud layer has not been observed. Further study is needed to determine the interaction between cloud-top entrainment and the full integration of boundary-layer dynamics.

Determining the fine structure of the entrainment zone in cloud-topped boundary layers

Horner, Michael S.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
299.9227%
Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.; The objective of this thesis is to obtain a better understanding of cloud-top entrainment through an in-depth analysis of entrainment-zone structure. In situ aircraft measurements taken during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) were used for this purpose. Using data collected from multiple cloud-top penetrations, the presence of an interfacial layer in-between the top of the cloud mixed-layer and the base of the free atmosphere is identified and consequently defined as the entrainment zone. The depth of the entrainment zone is on the order of tens of meters, where turbulence and sometimes cloud droplets are detectable. Inhomogeneous mixing was found to occur within the entrainment zone. Parcels of inversion-layer air and boundary-layer air are identified within the entrainment zone. Analyses suggest that turbulence intensity and cloud amount in the entrainment zone vary depending on the distribution of entrainment mixing fraction. Furthermore, continuous mixing in the entrainment zone appears to dissipate the upper-cloud layer. However, continuous dissipation of the upper-cloud layer has not been observed. Further study is needed to determine the interaction between cloud-top entrainment and the full integration of boundary-layer dynamics.

Superconducting gap anisotropy in monolayer FeSe thin film

Zhang, Y.; Lee, J. J.; Moore, R. G.; Li, W.; Yi, M.; Hashimoto, M.; Lu, D. H.; Devereaux, T. P.; Lee, D. -H.; Shen, Z. -X.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/12/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
177.2368%
Fermi surface topology and pairing symmetry are two pivotal characteristics of a superconductor. Superconductivity in one monolayer (1ML) FeSe thin film has attracted great interest recently due to its intriguing interfacial properties and possibly high superconducting transition temperature (Tc) over 77 K. Here, we report high-resolution measurements of the Fermi surface and superconducting gaps in 1ML FeSe using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Two ellipse-like electron pockets are clearly resolved overlapping with each other at the Brillouin zone corner. The superconducting gap is nodeless but moderately anisotropic, which put strong constraints on determining the pairing symmetry. The gap maxima locate along the major axis of ellipse, which cannot be explained by a single d-wave, extended s-wave, or s$\pm$ gap function. Four gap minima are observed at the intersection of electron pockets suggesting the existence of either a sign change or orbital-dependent pairing in 1ML FeSe.; Comment: 15 pages, 4 figures

Coarse-grained description of thermo-capillary flow

Jasnow, David; Vinals, Jorge
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/01/1996
Relevância na Pesquisa
289.73984%
A mesoscopic or coarse-grained approach is presented to study thermo-capillary induced flows. An order parameter representation of a two-phase binary fluid is used in which the interfacial region separating the phases naturally occupies a transition zone of small width. The order parameter satisfies the Cahn-Hilliard equation with advective transport. A modified Navier-Stokes equation that incorporates an explicit coupling to the order parameter field governs fluid flow. It reduces, in the limit of an infinitely thin interface, to the Navier-Stokes equation within the bulk phases and to two interfacial forces: a normal capillary force proportional to the surface tension and the mean curvature of the surface, and a tangential force proportional to the tangential derivative of the surface tension. The method is illustrated in two cases: thermo-capillary migration of drops and phase separation via spinodal decomposition, both in an externally imposed temperature gradient.; Comment: To appear in Phys. Fluids. Also at http://www.scri.fsu.edu/~vinals/dj1.ps

A micromechanics-based model for stiffness and strength estimation of cocciopesto mortars

Nežerka, Václav; Zeman, Jan
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
377.2368%
The purpose of this paper is to propose an inexpensive micromechanics-based scheme for stiffness homogenization and strength estimation of mortars containing crushed bricks, known as cocciopesto. The model utilizes the Mori-Tanaka method to determine the effective stiffness, combined with estimates of quadratic invariants of the deviatoric stresses inside phases to predict the compressive strength. Special attention is paid to the representation of C-S-H gel layer around bricks and interfacial transition zone around sand aggregates, which renders the predictions sensitive to particle sizes. Several parametric studies are performed to demonstrate that the method correctly reproduces data and trends reported in available literature. Moreover, the model is based exclusively on parameters with clear physical or geometrical meaning and as such it provides a convenient framework for its further experimental validation.; Comment: 12 pages, 6 figures, 1 table, v2: moderate revisions after the first round of review

The Evolution of Galaxies by the Incompatibility between Dark Matter and Baryonic Matter

Chung, Ding-Yu
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
177.2368%
In this paper, the evolution of galaxies is by the incompatibility between dark matter and baryonic matter. Due to the structural difference, baryonic matter and dark matter are incompatible to each other as oil droplet and water in emulsion. In the interfacial zone between dark matter and baryonic matter, this incompatibility generates the modification of Newtonian dynamics to keep dark matter and baryonic matter apart. The five periods of baryonic structure development in the order of increasing incompatibility are the free baryonic matter, the baryonic droplet, the galaxy, the cluster, and the supercluster periods. The transition to the baryonic droplet generates density perturbation in the CMB. In the galaxy period, the first-generation galaxies include elliptical, normal spiral, barred spiral, irregular, and dwarf spheroidal galaxies. In the cluster period, the second-generation galaxies include modified giant ellipticals, cD, evolved S0, dwarf elliptical, BCD, and tidal dwarf galaxies. The whole observable expanding universe behaves as one unit of emulsion with increasing incompatibility between dark matter and baryonic matter. The properties of dark matter and baryonic matter are based on cosmology derived from the two physical structures: the space structure and the object structure. Baryonic matter can be described by the periodic table of elementary particles.; Comment: 43 pages...

Crack stability in the fracture of cementitious materials

Tandon, S.; Faber, K. T.; Bazant, Z. P.
Fonte: Materials Research Society Publicador: Materials Research Society
Tipo: Book Section; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1995
Relevância na Pesquisa
377.2368%
The aim of the present study is to investigate the stability of crack propagation in cementitious materials. Tests were conducted on bend specimens in three-point and four-point loading conditions. Three-point bend specimens showed stable crack growth for mortar, normal strength and high strength concrete specimens. Alternatively, four-point bend specimens showed catastrophic failure for mortar and quasi-catastrophic failure for normal strength and high strength concrete specimens. Results will be discussed in relation to brittleness number model and specific microstructural features including the interfacial transition zone between the cement paste and the aggregate and the attendant toughening mechanisms.

by the finite element method to the preferential chloride diffusion through interfacial transition zone in concrete

Villagrán Zaccardi,Y.A.; Taus,V.L.
Fonte: Latin American applied research Publicador: Latin American applied research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
821.6606%
Chloride diffusion in concrete is a main aspect of reinforced concrete durability. It defines the time required for reinforcement corrosion in marine structures. Concrete porosity is one of the main concerns involved in the process of chloride ingress from the environment into concrete. However, concrete can hardly be considered homogeneous in the meso-level. Natural coarse aggregates are usually less porous than the cementitious matrix, whereas interfacial zones between aggregates and the matrix are the most porous phase in concrete. This aspect is difficult to be experimentally studied, as very small samples need to be collected and analyzed. As an approach, the diffusion process can be simulated with the Finite Element Method (FEM). In this paper, chloride diffusion into concrete is simulated with a 2D FEM model, distinguishing three phases with different porosities in the material. Interfacial zone is identified as preferential path for chloride ingress. The study reveals a significant influence of particle inclusion on the chloride diffusion into concrete, and the effect of the particle shape