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Effect of Cholecalciferol as Adjunctive Therapy With Insulin on Protective Immunologic Profile and Decline of Residual beta-Cell Function in New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Gabbay, Mônica A. L.; Sato, Maria Notomi; Finazzo, Claudia; Duarte, Alberto Jose da Silva; Dib, Sergio A.
Fonte: AMER MEDICAL ASSOC; CHICAGO Publicador: AMER MEDICAL ASSOC; CHICAGO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Objective: To evaluate the effect of vitamin D-3 on cytokine levels, regulatory T cells, and residual beta-cell function decline when cholecalciferol (vitamin D-3 administered therapeutically) is given as adjunctive therapy with insulin in new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Design and Setting: An 18-month (March 10, 2006, to October 28, 2010) randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at the Diabetes Center of Sao Paulo Federal University, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Participants: Thirty-eight patients with new-onset T1DM with fasting serum C-peptide levels greater than or equal to 0.6 ng/mL were randomly assigned to receive daily oral therapy of cholecalciferol, 2000 IU, or placebo. Main Outcome Measure: Levels of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, regulatory T cells, hemoglobin A(1c), and C-peptide; body mass index; and insulin daily dose. Results: Mean (SD) chemokine ligand 2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) levels were significantly higher (184.6 [101.1] vs 121.4 [55.8] pg/mL) at 12 months, as well as the increase in regulatory T-cell percentage (4.55%[1.5%] vs 3.34%[1.8%]) with cholecalciferol vs placebo. The cumulative incidence of progression to undetectable (<= 0.1 ng/mL) fasting C-peptide reached 18.7% in the cholecalciferol group and 62.5% in the placebo group; stimulated C-peptide reached 6.2% in the cholecalciferol group and 37.5% in the placebo group at 18 months. Body mass index...

Indução de tolerância nasal com colágeno tipo V em modelo experimental de esclerodermia; Collagen V- induced nasal tolerance in scleroderma experimental model

Velosa, Ana Paula Pereira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/05/2007 PT
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Objetivo: Verificar o remodelamento da pele e produção de anticorpos em modelo experimental de esclerodermia em coelhos, após indução de tolerância nasal com colágeno tipo V. Métodos: Coelhas Nova Zelândia (N=12) foram imunizadas com 1mg/ml de colágeno V (Col V) em adjuvante completo de Freund e dois reforços com adjuvante incompleto de Freund. Seis coelhas imunizadas receberam uma dose diária de 25ug de Col V, iniciado via nasal (grupo tolerado) 150 dias do começo das imunizações e seis animais foram somente imunizadas (grupo imunizado). Um grupo imunizado com adjuvante de Freund serviu como controle. Biopsias de pele foram coletadas em 0, 75, 120, 150 e 210 dias e coradas pelo H&E, tricrômico de Masson e Sírius red para analise morfológica e morfométrica. Os colágenos I, III e V, além de TGFbeta e PDGF foram imunomarcados por imunofluorescência. Os soros dos animais foram coletados em 0, 150 e 210 dias para determinar anticorpos anti-colágenos I, III, IV e V e anti-nucleares. Resultados: Os animais imunizados mostraram progressivo decréscimo da derme papilar, atrofia de anexos, aumento no depósito dos colágenos I, III e V e aumento da expressão de TGFbeta e PDGF. Os tolerados apresentaram aumento dos anexos cutâneos e significante diminuição no depósito dos colágenos I...

Avaliação do BCG como adjuvante na imunoterapia específica para asmáticos; Assessment of BGC as an adjuvant in specific immunotherapy in asthmatic patients

Cohon, Andréa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/07/2004 PT
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O aumento da prevalência de doenças alérgicas como a asma, tem sido atribuído à falta de estímulos infecciosos. A atopia, que embasa as manifestações alérgicas, caracteriza-se por uma disfunção imune com predomínio da resposta do tipo Th2. Experimentos em modelos animais com micobactérias e seus produtos têm demonstrado resultados promissores na proteção e reversão de resposta imune do tipo Th2. A imunoterapia para alérgenos inalatórios tem mostrado resultados positivos e o uso do BCG como adjuvante poderia trazer benefícios adicionais. Em estudo randomizado duplo cego foram avaliados 21 indivíduos de ambos os sexos, com idades de 8 a 17 anos sensibilizados ao Dermatophagoides pteronissynus (Dpt) e portadores de asma leve ou moderada persistentes. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos e tratados com imunoterapia específica (ITE) para Dpt. O Grupo A recebeu como adjuvante, no início da ITE, uma aplicação do diluente do BCG e o Grupo B uma dose da vacina BCG. Na avaliação realizada após o período de indução da ITE constatou-se nos dois grupos diminuição significativa dos sintomas, da necessidade de medicação para asma, da hiperreatividade brônquica inespecífica, da reatividade cutânea ao Dpt juntamente com a melhora da função pulmonar. Houve uma redução no índice de estimulação da cultura de células mononucleares do sangue periférico estimuladas com Dpt...

Aplicabilidade de sílica mesoporosa ordenada como adjuvante imunológico; Applicability of ordered mesoporous silica as immunologic adjuvant

Mariano Neto, Francisco
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/09/2008 PT
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Este trabalho consistiu numa avaliação, sob um ponto de vista físico, da aplicabilidade da sílica mesoporosa ordenada tipo SBA-15 como adjuvante imunológico. Inicialmente foi estudado o método de preparação e reprodutibilidade das propriedades do material, condição necessária para a síntese de grandes quantidades (N 100g). Mostrou-se que a calcinação em vácuo, comparada com o processo em N2 e ar, resulta em material com estrutura mesoporosa mais bem ordenada. Para aplicações biológicas foi analisado o potencial de encapsulação de antígerios no material, através de estudos de incorporação de Albumina Bovina (BSA) e vacina contra Hepatite A. Foi observada uma incorporação bem-sucedida de BSA na sílica, com essa proteína alojando-se dentro da estrutura de poros. Resultado semelhante foi observado para a vacina contra hepatite A. O processo mais eficiente de incorporação foi determinado para uma mistura em repouso e seca através de evaporação. A aplicabilidade da sílica como adjuvante para uso animal foi avaliada através de análises, pelo método PIXE, da acumulação do material no organismo de camundongos. A sílica foi administrada a camundongos Swiss por via oral e intra-muscular, e o teor de silício em diferentes órgáos foi comparado aos teores em um grupo controle. Foi detectada a presença de sílica em determinados órgãos dos camundongos...

Influência da imunização inicial com a vacina codificando epítopos para linfócitos T CD4 + do HIV na resposta imune direcionada a proteína env; Influence of an HIV derived CD4+ T cell epitopes DNA vaccine priming in the immune responses against env protein

Apostolico, Juliana de Souza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/11/2013 PT
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A epidemia causada pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) é a mais importante das ultimas décadas. A despeito dos avanços no conhecimento da patogenia do vírus e da resposta imune à infecção, até o momento não existe uma vacina eficaz contra a aquisição do HIV. Diversas linhas de evidência indicam que anticorpos neutralizantes ou ligadores, linfócitos T CD4+ e T CD8+ desempenham um papel importante na imunidade contra o HIV. Os anticorpos que são capazes de neutralizar o HIV são direcionados principalmente à glicoproteína do envelope do vírus (env), mas os candidatos vacinais baseados na proteína de envelope gp120 monomérica testados até hoje falharam em induzir proteção nos ensaios de eficácia. Avanços no entendimento da estrutura e função da glicoproteína env tem facilitado o desenvolvimento de uma nova geração de imunógenos baseada em trímeros mais estáveis e solúveis da glicoproteína gp140. Em uma formulação vacinal além da escolha do antígeno, os adjuvantes desempenham um papel fundamental. Os adjuvantes são conhecidos por aumentar a imunogenicidade das vacinas, e nos últimos anos vários compostos, incluindo agonistas de receptores do tipo Toll (TLR) e NOD (NLR) têm demonstrado eficácia em ensaios clínicos. Em estudos prévios...

Terapia adjuvante pós tratamento cirúrgico no carcinoma renal : revisão sistemática da literatura com meta-análise; Adjuvant therapy after surgical treatment in renal carcinoma : systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis

Adolfo José de Oliveira Scherr
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/01/2013 PT
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Pacientes com câncer renal localmente avançado são de alto risco para recidiva após ressecção cirúrgica com intuito curativo. Muitos estudos têm sido realizados na tentativa de se descobrir alguma intervenção adjuvante capaz de reduzir este risco. No entanto, até o momento não foi observado nenhum benefício clínico nas intervenções avaliadas nos estudos. O objetivo desta revisão sistemática foi avaliar o exato papel da terapia adjuvante nos pacientes com câncer renal localmente avançado após cirurgia. Foram selecionados estudos clínicos randomizados que comparavam terapia adjuvante (quimioterapia, vacinas, imunoterapia, bioquimioterapia, hormonioterapia) versus nenhum tratamento ativo após cirurgia em pacientes com câncer renal. Os desfechos clínicos avaliados foram sobrevida global (SG), sobrevida livre de doença (SLD) e toxicidades severas. A análise dos dados extraídos foi realizada no programa estatístico Review Manager 5.0 (RevMan 5; Cochrane Collaboration Software). As diferentes estratégias de tratamento adjuvante foram avaliadas em conjunto e separadamente. Dez estudos (2609 pacientes) foram incluídos. Terapia adjuvante não mostrou benefício em termos de SG (HR 1.07; IC95% 0.89 a 1.28; P = 0.48 I2= 0%) ou SLD (HR 0...

Autoimmunity to collagen in adjuvant arthritis of rats.

Trentham, D E; McCune, W J; Susman, P; David, J R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1980 EN
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Arthritis can be induced in rats by intradermal injection of oil containing bacterial derivatives (adjuvant-induced arthritis) or cartilage collagen (type II collagen-induced arthritis). It was of interest, therefore, to determine whether collagen functions as an autoantigen in rats with adjuvant arthritis. Blood mononuclear cells from the majority of rats with adjuvant arthritis exhibited enhanced thymidine incorporation to homologous types I and II collagens, as well as to purified protein derivative of tuberculin. In contrast, cells from rats remaining nonarthritic after injection of adjuvant did not respond to collagen, although they did react to tuberculin. Similar results were obtained with a radiometric ear assay used to quantify intradermal delayed-type hypersensitivity in vivo. Using passive hemagglutination, autoantibodies to these collagens and their denatured alpha-chains were frequently detected in the sera of rats late in the course of adjuvant arthritis. Rats with inflammation of a hindlimb induced by turpentine did not acquire sensitivity to collagen. These data indicate that autoimmunity to collagen is a common feature of adjuvant- and collagen-induced arthritis, both of which are considered to be mediated by immunologic mechanisms.

Adjuvant effect of Ubenimex on a DNA vaccine for HIV-1

Sasaki, S; Fukushima, J; Hamajima, K; Ishii, N; Tsuji, T; Xin, K-Q; Mohri, H; Okuda, K
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1998 EN
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Enhancement of DNA vaccine immunogenicity is a current topic of high priority in the field of applied immunology, especially as a means of controlling HIV infection. The adjuvant effect of Ubenimex (UBX), an anti-cancer immunomodulator, on a DNA AIDS vaccine which we developed was examined in a murine model. UBX was formulated into a preparation containing DNA plasmids encoding env and rev genes of HIV-1 strain IIIB, and was inoculated intramuscularly into BALB/c mice. The sera obtained with this mixture had 23–25 times higher specific IgG titres than those obtained without the use of the adjuvant. UBX also elicited both a stronger HIV-1-specific DTH reaction, as measured by the footpad swelling test, and stronger cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity, as assayed by the 51Cr-release method, compared with responses using DNA alone. The cytokine secretion profile of restimulated immune lymphoid cells showed that UBX raised IL-2 and interferon-gamma levels and decreased IL-4 production. HIV-1-specific immunoglobulin subtype analysis demonstrated that UBX stimulated IgG2a production but suppressed synthesis of IgG1 and IgE. These results indicate that activation of the T-helper type 1 subset was induced by UBX, suggesting a mechanism of immunomodulation mediated by this agent. We conclude that UBX acts as an immunologic adjuvant for DNA vaccination against HIV-1. UBX may be a suitable adjuvant for clinical use because of its lack of antigenicity and low toxicity.

Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis produced in the rabbit by the adjuvant effect of inhaled muramyl dipeptide (MDP).

Richerson, H. B.; Suelzer, M. T.; Swanson, P. A.; Butler, J. E.; Kopp, W. C.; Rose, E. F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1982 EN
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An established rabbit model of acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis was used to evaluate adjuvant properties of synthetic muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the minimal adjuvant-active structure of mycobacteria. The authors studied MDP as a substitute for mycobacteria in immunization and as adjuvant during repeated inhalation of antigen (ovalbumin). They found that MDP could substitute successfully for mycobacteria in sensitizing animals for acute alveolitis following subsequent inhalation of a combination of ovalbumin and MDP aerosol for 4 to 14 weeks resulted in the development of chronic granulomatous pneumonitis, characterized by alveolar wall thickening, granulomas, and infiltrations with lymphocytes and macrophages. In addition, MDP boosted systemic and local IgG and IgA antigen-specific antibodies. Inhaled MDP, itself neither antigenic nor mitogenic, acted therefore as adjuvant for continued immunologic inflammatory effector mechanisms in the rabbit lung, which are ordinarily suppressed when antigen alone is inhaled. Possible mechanisms include stimulation of effector T cells and macrophages or the failure of suppressive mechanisms, with or without participation of immune complexes. This is the first successful model of chronic granulomatous alveolitis produced by inhalation of soluble materials. Further exploration of adjuvant mechanisms in this system should help clarify the pathogenesis of immunologic lung diseases in man.

PASSIVE TRANSFER OF ADJUVANT ARTHRITIS BY LYMPH NODE OR SPLEEN CELLS

Pearson, Carl M.; Wood, Fae D.
Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/1964 EN
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All adjuvant-induced arthritis has been passively transferred in a highly inbred strain of rats by transfer of viable lymph node or spleen cells, but not thymus cells, to normal recipients. After an interval averaging 4.3 days recipients developed arthritis, whereas animals actively sensitized with adjuvant never developed disease before the 9th day (average 11.3 days). The transferred disease had all of the gross and pathological characteristics of primary disease, except for a lesser severity. Control studies using non-viable cells either of lymphoidal or other tissue origin were always negative. It is concluded that adjuvant arthritis is the result of an immunologic reaction which is perhaps similar to delayed hypersensitivity. The antigen in this reaction so far remains obscure.

Immunologic properties of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). III. Genetic linkage between the in vitro mitogenic and in vivo adjuvant properties of LPS

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/1976 EN
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The mechanism was investigated underlying the activity of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an adjuvant of antibody formation as assessed by its capacity to modulate the induction of tolerance in mice to the antigen human Ig G (HGG) into a state of immunity to HGG. The adjuvant activity of LPS was found to be closely correlated with its ability to function as a B-cell mitogen. This correlation was revealed by an analysis of the genetic control of the mitogenic and adjuvant properties of LPS utilizing the refractory state inherent in the C3H/HeJ mouse strain to these activities of LPS. Thus, mice that were the progeny of a backcross between the nonresponder C3H/JeJ parent and the responder (C3H/HeJ X CWB) F1 hybrid were individually typed for responsiveness to LPS, as an adjuvant and as a B-cell mitogen. It was found that LPS interfered with tolerance induction to HGG in vivo only in those backcross progeny whose spleen cells were also capable of responding mitogenically to LPS in vitro, demonstrating that the adjuvant and B-cell mitogenic properties of LPS are genetically linked. In contrast, these properties were observed to segregate independently from either H-2 or heavy chain allotype loci, and were not sex linked. These results are compatible with the concepts that...

Mammalian cell ganglioside-binding specificities of E. coli enterotoxins LT-IIb and variant LT-IIb(T13I)

Berenson, Charles S; Nawar, Hesham F; Yohe, Herbert C; Castle, Sherry A; Ashline, David J; Reinhold, Vernon N; Hajishengallis, George; Connell, Terry D
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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LT-IIb, a type II heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli, is a potent immunologic adjuvant with high affinity binding for ganglioside GD1a. Earlier study suggested that LT-IIb bound preferentially to the terminal sugar sequence NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc. However, studies in our laboratory suggested a less restrictive binding epitope. LT-IIb(T13I), an LT-IIb variant, engineered by a single isoleucine-threonine substitution, retains biological activity, but with less robust inflammatory effects. We theorized that LT-IIb has a less restrictive binding epitope than previously proposed and that immunologic differences between LT-IIb and LT-IIb (T13I) correlate with subtle ganglioside binding differences. Ganglioside binding epitopes, determined by affinity overlay immunoblotting and enzymatic degradation of ganglioside components of RAW264.7 macrophages, indicated that LT-IIb bound to a broader array of gangliosides than previously recognized. Each possessed NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc, although not necessarily as a terminal sequence. Rather, each had a requisite terminal or penultimate single sialic acid and binding was independent of ceramide composition. RAW264.7 enterotoxin-binding and non-binding ganglioside epitopes were definitively identified as GD1a and GM1a...

Near-Infrared Laser Adjuvant for Influenza Vaccine

Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Yuan, Jianping; Forbes, Benjamin; Hibert, Mathew L.; Lee, Eugene L. Q.; Whicher, Laura; Goudie, Calum; Yang, Yuan; Chen, Tao; Edelblute, Beth; Collette, Brian; Edington, Laurel; Trussler, James; Nezivar, Jean; Leblanc, Pierre; Bronson,
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/12/2013 EN
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Safe and effective immunologic adjuvants are often essential for vaccines. However, the choice of adjuvant for licensed vaccines is limited, especially for those that are administered intradermally. We show that non-tissue damaging, near-infrared (NIR) laser light given in short exposures to small areas of skin, without the use of additional chemical or biological agents, significantly increases immune responses to intradermal influenza vaccination without augmenting IgE. The NIR laser-adjuvanted vaccine confers increased protection in a murine influenza lethal challenge model as compared to unadjuvanted vaccine. We show that NIR laser treatment induces the expression of specific chemokines in the skin resulting in recruitment and activation of dendritic cells and is safe to use in both mice and humans. The NIR laser adjuvant technology provides a novel, safe, low-cost, simple-to-use, potentially broadly applicable and clinically feasible approach to enhancing vaccine efficacy as an alternative to chemical and biological adjuvants.

Near-Infrared Laser Adjuvant for Influenza Vaccine

Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Yuan, Jianping; Forbes, Benjamin; Hibert, Mathew L.; Lee, Eugene L. Q.; Whicher, Laura; Goudie, Calum; Yang, Yuan; Chen, Tao; Edelblute, Beth; Collette, Brian; Edington, Laurel; Trussler, James; Nezivar, Jean; Leblanc, Pierre; Bronson,
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Safe and effective immunologic adjuvants are often essential for vaccines. However, the choice of adjuvant for licensed vaccines is limited, especially for those that are administered intradermally. We show that non-tissue damaging, near-infrared (NIR) laser light given in short exposures to small areas of skin, without the use of additional chemical or biological agents, significantly increases immune responses to intradermal influenza vaccination without augmenting IgE. The NIR laser-adjuvanted vaccine confers increased protection in a murine influenza lethal challenge model as compared to unadjuvanted vaccine. We show that NIR laser treatment induces the expression of specific chemokines in the skin resulting in recruitment and activation of dendritic cells and is safe to use in both mice and humans. The NIR laser adjuvant technology provides a novel, safe, low-cost, simple-to-use, potentially broadly applicable and clinically feasible approach to enhancing vaccine efficacy as an alternative to chemical and biological adjuvants.

C-di-GMP is an effective immunomodulator and vaccine adjuvant against pneumococcal infection

Ogunniyi, A.; Paton, J.; Kirby, A.; McCullers, J.; Cook, J.; Hyodo, M.; Hayakawa, Y.; Karaolis, D.
Fonte: Elsevier Sci Ltd Publicador: Elsevier Sci Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
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Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a unique bacterial intracellular signaling molecule capable of stimulating enhanced protective innate immunity against various bacterial infections. The effects of intranasal pretreatment with c-di-GMP, or intraperitoneal coadministration of c-di-GMP with the pneumolysin toxoid (PdB) or pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) before pneumococcal challenge, were investigated in mice. We found that c-di-GMP had no significant direct short-term effect on the growth rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae either in vitro or in vivo. However, intranasal pretreatment of mice with c-di-GMP resulted in a significant decrease in bacterial load in lungs and blood after serotypes 2 and 3 challenge, and a significant decrease in lung titers after serotype 4 challenge. Potential cellular mediators of these enhanced protective responses were identified in lungs and draining lymph nodes. Intraperitoneal coadministration of c-di-GMP with PdB or PspA before challenge resulted in significantly higher antigen-specific antibody titers and increased survival of mice, compared to that obtained with alum adjuvant. These findings demonstrate that local or systemic c-di-GMP administration stimulates innate and adaptive immunity against invasive pneumococcal disease. We propose that c-di-GMP can be used as an effective broad spectrum immunomodulator and vaccine adjuvant to prevent infectious diseases.; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30521/description#description; Abiodun D. Ogunniyi...

Improving vaccines by incorporating immunological coadjuvants

Fraser, C.; Diener, K.; Brown, M.; Hayball, J.
Fonte: Future Drugs Ltd. Publicador: Future Drugs Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
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While vaccination continues to be the most successful interventionist health policy to date, infectious disease remains a significant cause of death worldwide. A primary reason that vaccination is not able to generate effective immunity is a lack of appropriate adjuvants capable of initiating the desired immune response. Adjuvant combinations can potentially overcome this problem; however, the possible permutations to consider, which include the route and kinetics of vaccination, as well as combinations of adjuvants, are practically limitless. This review aims to summarize the current understanding of adjuvants and related immunological processes and how this knowledge can and has been applied to the strategic selection of adjuvant combinations as components of vaccines against human infectious disease.; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17669010; Fraser, CK; Diener, KR; Brown, MP. and Hayball, JD.

An empirical approach towards the efficient and optimal production of influenza-neutralizing ovine polyclonal antibodies demonstrates that the novel adjuvant CoVaccine HT™ is functionally superior to Freund's adjuvant; An empirical approach towards the efficient and optimal production of influenza-neutralizing ovine polyclonal antibodies demonstrates that the novel adjuvant CoVaccine HT(TM) is functionally superior to Freund's adjuvant

Stevens, N.; Fraser, C.; Alsharifi, M.; Brown, M.; Diener, K.; Hayball, J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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Passive immunotherapies utilising polyclonal antibodies could have a valuable role in preventing and treating infectious diseases such as influenza, particularly in pandemic situations but also in immunocompromised populations such as the elderly, the chronically immunosuppressed, pregnant women, infants and those with chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to optimise current methods used to generate ovine polyclonal antibodies. Polyclonal antibodies to baculovirus-expressed recombinant influenza haemagglutinin from A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 H1N1 (PR8) were elicited in sheep using various immunisation regimens designed to investigate the priming immunisation route, adjuvant formulation, sheep age, and antigen dose, and to empirically ascertain which combination maximised antibody output. The novel adjuvant CoVaccine HT™ was compared to Freund’s adjuvant which is currently the adjuvant of choice for commercial production of ovine polyclonal Fab therapies. CoVaccine HT™ induced significantly higher titres of functional ovine anti-haemagglutinin IgG than Freund’s adjuvant but with fewer side effects, including reduced site reactions. Polyclonal hyperimmune sheep sera effectively neutralised influenza virus in vitro and, when given before or after influenza virus challenge...

Human Flt-3 ligand-mobilized dendritic cells, require additional activation to drive effective immune responses

Diener, K.; Moldenhauer, L.; Lyons, A.; Brown, M.; Hayball, J.
Fonte: Elsevier Science Inc Publicador: Elsevier Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
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OBJECTIVE: Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the induction of immunity in response to pathogenic challenge or vaccination. As such, the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3-ligand (Flt-3L) has been used to increase DC populations in vivo, with contrasting outcomes, which include an increase in immunity, tolerance induction, or expansion of regulatory cells. This study examines the adjuvant role that human Flt-3L (hFL) administration has in generating immune responses upon immunization with a poorly immunogenic and soluble protein antigen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were immunized with the nominal antigen, ovalbumin, alone or with antigen emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), with or without prior hFL-mediated expansion of DC subsets. The maturation of DC subsets and activation status of antigen-specific T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, with effector function assessed in cytolytic T-lymphocyte assays. RESULTS: hFL treatment expanded both conventional DC and plasmacytoid DC in vivo, resulting in increased antigen presentation by both direct and cross-presentation pathways. However, it was only in the context of CFA that antigen immunization could mature DCs and subsequently fully activate antigen-specific T cells with enhanced cytolytic activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies reveal that hFL essentially acts as a coadjuvant...

Pathogenetic difference between collagen arthritis and adjuvant arthritis

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/05/1984 EN
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Daily treatment with cyclosporin at a dose of 25 mg/kg for 14 d gave complete suppression of the development of collagen arthritis and adjuvant arthritis in Sprague-Dawley rats during an observation period of 45 d. To study whether the immunologic unresponsiveness produced by cyclosporin is antigen specific, we rechallenged the cyclosporin- protected rats with either type II collagen or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) after discontinuation of cyclosporin treatment. Type II collagen-immunized, cyclosporin-protected rats did not develop arthritis in response to reimmunization with type II collagen, but, they did develop arthritis in response to a subsequent injection of CFA. Similarly, CFA-injected, cyclosporin-protected rats showed a suppressed arthritogenic reaction in response to reinjection of CFA, whereas their response to a subsequent immunization with type II collagen was unaffected. On the other hand, the rats that were treated with cyclosporin without any prior antigenic challenge could develop arthritis in response to a subsequent injection of CFA or type II collagen after cessation of cyclosporin treatment. These results indicate that specific immunologic unresponsiveness can be induced by cyclosporin in the two experimental models of polyarthritis...

EXPERIMENTAL IMMUNOLOGIC ADRENAL INJURY : A RESPONSE TO INJECTIONS OF AUTOLOGOUS AND HOMOLOGOUS ADRENAL ANTIGENS IN ADJUVANT

Steiner, Jan W.; Langer, B.; Schatz, D. L.; Volpe, R.
Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/1960 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.610076%
Twenty-three unilaterally adrenalectomized guinea pigs were injected with autologous and homologous adrenal tissue homogenates respectively, in Freund's adjuvant. Widespread adrenal lesions were found in 10 of 12 animals receiving auto-antigen and to a lesser extent in 6 of 11 animals injected with homologous pooled antigen. Widespread systemic lesions were present in both these and in control animals receiving Freund's adjuvant alone. These latter animals showed no adrenal involvement. The early changes within the adrenal consisted of perisinusoidal cellular proliferations in the deeper layers of the cortex. Focal granulomata developing at a later stage tended to become confluent and to displace cortical cells. Some loss of these cells was attributable to ischemic injury. The localization in the deep fasciculata and reticularis was thought to depend (a) on the varying antigenicity of adrenal cortical components, (b) the possible inhibitory effect of antiphlogistic adrenal cortical hormones on the development of lesions in the outer cortex, and (c) the presence of littoral cells in the deep cortex. These cells are thought to be involved in the mediation of the stimulus initiating differentiation of primitive mesenchymal cells in response to a circulating auto-antigen. The medullary lesions may be related to the presence of ectopic reticularis cells in this location. It was suggested that the cellular response in the target organ to injections of adrenal homogenates may denote a specific "organ-self" recognition mechanism involving an immune (i.e. defensive) reaction. It was postulated that this may be an accentuation of the physiological function of immunologically competent cells. Their proliferation...