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Influence of different silica derivatives in the immobilization and stabilization of a Bacillus licheniformis protease (Subtilisin Carlsberg)

Ferreira, L.; Ramos, M. A.; Dordick, J. S.; Gil, M. H.
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: aplication/PDF
ENG
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Alcalase 2T, a commercial preparation of Subtilisin Carlsberg, was covalent immobilized onto physiochemically characterized silica supports. The effect of mean pore diameter and surface chemistry on enzyme activity in the hydrolysis of casein has been examined. Two sets of chemically distinct silica supports were used presenting terminal amino (SAPTES) or hydroxyl groups (STESPM-pHEMA). The percentage of immobilized protein was smaller in SAPTES (31-39%) than in STESPM-pHEMA (62-71%), but presented higher total and specific activity. Silicas with large pores (S1000, 130/1200 Å) presented higher specific activities relative to those with smaller pore sizes (S300, 130/550 Å). The influence of glutaraldehyde concentration and the time of enzyme coupling to the S1000SAPTES supports was examined. The apparent Km value for the S1000SAPTES immobilized enzyme is lower than the soluble one which may be explained by the partitioning effects of the substrate. No intraparticle diffusion limitations were observed for the immobilized enzyme and therefore the substrate diffusion does not influence the observable kinetics. Finally, the optimum pH, optimum temperature, thermal stability, operational stability, and storage stability of the immobilized and freely soluble enzymes were compared.; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TGN-474GMGX-1/1/0290e258556b50c850666bbf8a94cf83

Immobilization of glucose oxidase enzyme (GOD) in large pore ordered mesoporous cage-like FDU-1 silica

Silva, Luis Carlos Cides da; INFANTE, C. M. C.; LIMA, A. W. O.; COSENTINO, I. C.; Fantini, Marcia Carvalho de Abreu; ROCHA, F. R. P.; MASINI, J. C.; MATOS, J. R.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Large pore ordered mesoporous silica FDU-1 with three-dimensional (3D) face-centered cubic, Fm3m arrangement of rnesopores, was synthesized under strong acid media using B-50-6600 poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer (EO(39)BO(47)EO(39)), tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and trimethyl-benzene (TMB). Large pore FDU-1 silica was obtained by using the following gel composition 1TEOS:0.00735B50-6600:0.00735TMB:6HCl:155H(2)O. The pristine material exhibited a BET specific surface area of 684 m(2) g(-1), total pore volume of 0.89 cm(3) g(-1), external surface area of 49 m(2) g(-1) and microporous volume of 0.09 cm(3) g(-1). The enzyme activity was determined by the Flow Injection Analysis-Chemiluminescence (FIA-CL) method. For GOD immobilized on the FDU-1 silica, GOD supernatant and GOD solution, the FIA-CL results were 9.0, 18.6 and 34.0 U, respectively. The value obtained for the activity of the GOD solution with FIA-CL method is in agreement with the 35 U, obtained by spectrophotometry. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); FAPESP[2007/07646-2]; FAPESP[2008/09284-3]; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); CNPq; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); CAPES; Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)

Catalytic properties of thioredoxin immobilized on superparamagnetic nanoparticles

NETTO, Caterina G. C. M.; NAKAMATSU, Eduardo H.; NETTO, Luis E. S.; NOVAK, Miguel A.; ZUIN, Andre; NAKAMURA, Marcelo; ARAKI, Koiti; TOMA, Henrique E.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Thioredoxin (Trx1), a very important protein for regulating intracellular redox reactions, was immobilized on iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles previously coated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) via covalent coupling using the EDC (1-ethyl-3-{3-dimethylaminopropyl}carbodiimide) method. The system was extensively characterized by atomic force microscopy, vibrational and magnetic techniques. In addition, gold nanoparticles were also employed to probe the exposed groups in the immobilized enzyme based on the SERS (surface enhanced Raman scattering) effect, confirming the accessibility of the cysteines residues at the catalytic site. For the single coated superparamagnetic nanoparticle, by monitoring the enzyme activity with the Ellman reagent, DTNB=5,5`-dithio-bis(2-15 nitrobenzoic acid), an inhibitory effect was observed after the first catalytic cycle. The inhibiting effect disappeared after the application of an additional silicate coating before the AFTS treatment, reflecting a possible influence of unprotected iron-oxide sites in the redox kinetics. In contrast, the doubly coated system exhibited a normal in-vitro kinetic activity, allowing a good enzyme recovery and recyclability. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.; Brazilian Agency FAPESP; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Brazilian Agency FAPERJ; Brazilian Agency FAPERJ; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Brazilian Agency CNPq; PETROBRAS; PETROBRAS

Mudanças na interface de nanopartículas de Au/Ag e lipases: seus efeitos na atividade enzimática; Changes in the interface of nanoparticles of gold / silver and lipases: their effects on enzyme activity

Kisukuri, Camila de Menezes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/02/2014 PT
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Nesta dissertação estão descritos os resultados obtidos sobre a preparação de nanocascas funcionalizadas (nanopartículas ocas) de ouro/prata de diâmetro de 50 nm e imobilização de diferentes lipases (Burkholderia cepacia (BCL) e pâncreas de porco (PPL)). [Obs.: A imagem do esquema pode ser visto no arquivo PDF] Inicialmente as nanocascas de ouro/prata (NSs AgAu) foram sintetizadas e caracterizadas, através de imagens de MEV e MET. Através destas imagens algumas características das NSs AgAu foram elucidadas, como seu tamanho e sua característica oca. Em seguida, a funcionalização das NSs AgAu com diferentes moléculas mercapto-alcanóicas e uma molécula mercapto-amina foi realizada. Depois de funcionalizadas as NSs-funcionalizadas foram ativadas, com glutaraldeído ou EDC, para que assim elas ficassem aptas à imobilização das lipases, via ligação covalente. Para a BCL foi possível imobilizar 0,155-0,282 mg de proteína/3 mg do suporte. No caso da PPL uma menor quantidade de enzima foi imobilizada (0,035-0,048 mg/3 mg do suporte). A atividade da enzima imobilizada foi testada frente à reação de acetilação enantiosseletiva do (R,S)-1-feniletanol com acetato de vinila (RCE, resolução cinética enzimática). Excelentes resultados de conversão (50%) e seletividade (E > 200) foram conseguidos com a BCL imobilizada em todos os suportes. A PPL livre não catalisava a acetilação deste substrato e quando esta enzima foi imobilizada nas diferentes NSs-funcionalizadas...

Immobilization of lipases and assay in continuous fixed bed reactor

Dos Reis-Costa, Leonice; Soares, Andreimar M.; França, Suzelei C.; Trevisan, Henrique C.; Roberts, Timothy John C.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 619-628
ENG
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Lipases are versatile enzymes regarding the range of reactions they catalyse and substrates on which they act. They are as well important as catalyst in organic synthesis. Their immobilization on appropriate supports confer them greater stability besides the possibility of operating in continuous reactors. In order to explore these abilities, the reactions involving hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA) and transesterification of PNPA with n-butanol were chosen. Lipases from two different sources were assayed, namely: microbial (Candida rugosa, CRL, Sigma Type VII) and pancreatic (PPL, Sigma, Type 11). Two immobilization methods were also used, namely: 1) adsorption, using as support the following silica derivatives (150-300μm e 450μ): phenyl, epoxy, amino and without derivation, and 2) covalent binding, using glutaraldehyde as binding agent and silica amino as support. This later method led to better results. Hydrolytic activity was 6.1 U/gsupport for CRL and 0.97U/gsupport for PPL, and of transesterification, 2,8U/gsupport for CRL and 1,9U/gsupport for PPL. Stability of the immobilized enzyme as a function of temperature was evaluated for CRL at 40°C and 50°C and for PPL at 32°C and 40°C. The assays were initially carried out batchwise...

Production of xylo-oligosaccharides by immobilized-stabilized derivatives of endo-xylanase from Streptomyces halstedii

Aragon, Caio C.; Mateo, Cesar; Ruiz-Matute, Ana I.; Corzo, Nieves; Fernandez-Lorente, Gloria; Sevillano, Laura; Díaz, Margarita; Monti, Rubens; Santamaría, Ramón I.; Guisan, Jose M.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 478-483
ENG
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An endoxylanase from Streptomyces halstedii was stabilized by multipoint covalent immobilization on glyoxyl-agarose supports. The immobilized enzyme derivatives preserved 65% of the catalytic activity corresponding to the one of soluble enzyme that had been immobilized. These immobilized derivatives were 200 times more stable 200 times more stable than the one-point covalently immobilized derivative in experiments involving thermal inactivation at 60 °C. The activity and stability of the immobilized enzyme was higher at pH 5.0 than at pH 7.0. The optimal temperature for xylan hydrolysis was 10 °C higher for the stabilized derivative than for the non-stabilized derivative. On the other hand, the highest loading capacity of activated 10% agarose gels was 75 mg of enzyme per mL of support. To prevent diffusional limitations, low loaded derivatives (containing 0.2 mg of enzyme per mL of support) were used to study the hydrolysis of xylan at high concentration (close to 1% (w/v)). 80% of the reducing sugars were released after 3 h at 55 °C. After 80% of enzymatic hydrolysis, a mixture of small xylo-oligosaccharides was obtained (from xylobiose to xylohexose) with a high percentage of xylobiose and minimal amounts of xylose. The immobilized-stabilized derivatives were used for 10 reaction cycles with no loss of catalytic activity. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Optimization of the immobilization of sweet potato amylase using glutaraldehyde-agarose support. Characterization of the immobilized enzyme

Tavano, Olga Luisa; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Goulart, Antonio José; Monti, Rubens
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1054-1058
ENG
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A simplified procedure for the preparation of immobilized beta-amylase using non-purified extract from fresh sweet potato tubers is established in this paper, using differently activated agarose supports. Beta-amylase glutaraldehyde derivative was the preparation with best features, presenting improved temperature and pH stability and activity. The possibility of reusing the amylase was also shown, when this immobilized enzyme was fully active for five cycles of use. However, immobilization decreased enzyme activity to around 15%. This seems to be mainly due to diffusion limitations of the starch inside the pores of the biocatalyst particles. A fifteen-fold increase in the Km was noticed, while the decrease of Vmax was only 30% (10.1 U mg-1 protein and 7.03 U mg-1 protein for free and immobilized preparations, respectively). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Enzymatic transesterification of soybean oil with ethanol using lipases immobilized on highly crystalline PVA microspheres

Bergamasco, Juliana; de Araujo, Marcelo V.; de Vasconcellos, Adriano; Luizon Filho, Roberto A.; Hatanaka, Rafael R.; Giotto, Marcus V.; Aranda, Donato A.G.; Nery, José G.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microspheres with different degree of crystallinity were used as solid supports for Rhizomucor miehei lipase immobilization, and the enzyme-PVA complexes were used as biocatalysts for the transesterification of soybean oil to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE). The amounts of immobilized enzyme on the polymeric supports were similar for both the amorphous microspheres (PVA4) and the high crystalline microspheres (PVA25). However, the enzymatic activity of the immobilized enzymes was depended on the crystallinity degree of the PVA microspheres: enzymes immobilized on the PVA4 microspheres have shown low enzymatic activity (6.13 U mg-1), in comparison with enzymes immobilized on the high crystalline PVA25 microspheres (149.15 U mg-1). A synergistic effect was observed for the enzyme-PVA25 complex during the transesterification reaction of soybean oil to FAEE: transesterification reactions with free enzyme with the equivalent amount of enzyme that were immobilized onto the PVA25 microspheres (5.4 U) have yielded only 20% of FAEE, reactions with the pure highly crystalline microsphere PVA25 have not yielded FAEE, however reactions with the enzyme-PVA25 complexes have yielded 66.3% of FAEE. This synergistic effect of an immobilized enzyme on a polymeric support has not been observed before for transesterification reaction of triacylglycerides into FAEE. Based on ATR-FTIR...

Modelagem cinética e simulação de processo de produção de frutooligossacarídeos por frutosiltransferase de Rhodotorula sp. livre e imobilizada; : Kinetic modelling and process simulation of fructooligosaccharides production by free and immobilized fructosyltransferase of Rhodotorula sp

Mónica Beatriz Alvarado Huallanco
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/12/2010 PT
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Os frutooligossacarídeos são considerados prebióticos, uma vez que promovem seletivamente o crescimento de micro-organismos probióticos como Lactobacillus acidophillus e Bifidobacterium bifidus. Novas enzimas, na forma livre ou imobilizada, representam uma das possibilidades para síntese destes compostos. Neste trabalho procedeu-se ao estudo da modelagem cinética e simulação da síntese de frutooligossacarídeos a partir de sacarose em diferentes tipos de reatores, pela enzima frutosiltransferase produzida pela levedura do gênero Rhodotorula, isolada em trabalhos prévios. Os estudos foram realizados sob condições de pH 4,5, 50°C e 5 UTF/mL de concentração da enzima. Tanto a enzima livre quanto a imobilizada mostraram seguir a cinética de Michaelis-Menten com inibição pelo substrato para concentrações acima de 70% e 60% (p/v), respectivamente. Observou-se inibição competitiva da glicose para os substratos sacarose, kestose e nistose. Por outro lado, considerou-se significativa a atividade hidrolítica da nistose, sendo incluída no modelo. Após a análise de sensibilidade dos parâmetros cinéticos, estes foram ajustados por simulação, e determinou-se seus valores intrínsecos. O modelo mostrou-se válido com desvios menores que 4% para a enzima livre (57% de FOS) e de 5% para enzima imobilizada (46% de FOS)...

Enzymatic activity of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase produced by Gordonia polyisoprenivorans

Silva,Andréa Scaramal; Camargo,Flávio Anastácio de Oliveira; Andreazza,Robson; Jacques,Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti; Baldoni,Daiana Bortoluzzi; Bento,Fátima M.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
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This study aimed to evaluate the environmental conditions for enzyme activity of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C1,2O) and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C2,3O) produced by Gordonia polyisoprenivorans in cell-free and immobilized extracts. The optimum conditions of pH, temperature, time course and effect of ions for enzyme activity were determined. Peak activity of C1,2O occurred at pH 8.0. The isolate exhibited the highest activity of C2,3O at pH 7.0 and 8.0 for the cell-free extract and immobilized extract, respectively. This isolate exhibited important characteristics such as broad range of pH, temperature and time course for enzyme activity.

The effects of trace elements, cations, and environmental conditions on protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase activity

Silva,Andréa Scaramal da; Jacques,Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti; Andreazza,Robson; Bento,Fátima Menezes; Camargo,Flávio Anastácio de Oliveira
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 EN
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Phenanthracene is a highly toxic organic compound capable of contaminating water and soils, and biodegradation is an important tool for remediating polluted environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of trace elements, cations, and environmental conditions on the activity of the protocatechol 3,4-dioxygenase (P3,4O) enzyme produced by the isolate Leifsonia sp. in cell-free and immobilized extracts. The isolate was grown in Luria Bertani broth medium (LB) amended with 250 mg L-1 of phenanthrene. Various levels of pH (4.0-9.0), temperature (5-80 °C), time (0-90 min), trace elements (Cu2+, Hg2+ and Fe3+), and cations (Mg2+, Mn2+, K+ and NH4+) were tested to determine which conditions optimized enzyme activity. In general, the immobilized extract exhibited higher enzyme activity than the cell-free extract in the presence of trace elements and cations. Adding iron yielded the highest relative activity for both cell-free and immobilized extracts, with values of 16 and 99 %, respectively. Copper also increased enzyme activity for both cell-free and immobilized extracts, with values of 8 and 44 %, respectively. Enzyme activity in the phosphate buffer was high across a wide range of pH, reaching 80 % in the pH range between 6.5 and 8.0. The optimum temperatures for enzyme activity differed for cell-free and immobilized extracts...

Thermal stability and energy of deactivation of free and immobilized cellobiase

Calsavara,L.P.V.; Moraes,F.F.; Zanin,G.M.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2000 EN
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Commercial cellobiase has been immobilized in controlled pore silica particles by covalent binding with the silane-glutaraldehyde method with protein and activity yields of 67% and 13.7%, respectively. Thermal stability of the free and immobilized enzyme (IE) was determined with 0.2% w/v cellobiose solution, pH 4.8, temperatures from 40 to 70°C for free enzyme and 40 to 75°C for IE. Free cellobiase maintained its activity practically constant for 240 min at temperatures up to 55°C. The IE has shown higher stability retaining its activity in the same test up to 60° C. Half-lives for free enzyme were 14.1, 2.1 and 0.17 h at 60, 65 and 70°C, respectively, whereas the IE at the same temperatures had half-lives of 245, 21.3 and 2.9 h. The energy of thermal deactivation was 80.6 kcal/mol for the free enzyme and 85.2 kcal/mol for the IE, confirming stabilization by immobilization.

Determination of the enzyme reaction rate in a differential fixed-bed reactor: a case study

Baruque Filho,E.A.; Baruque,M.G.A.; Sant’Anna Jr.,G.L.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2001 EN
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The reaction rate of starch hydrolysis catalyzed by a glucoamylase covalently bound to chitin particles was measured in a Differential Fixed-Bed Reactor (DFBR). Under selected test conditions the initial reaction rate may represent biocatalyst activity. Some aspects which influence measurement of the initial reaction rate of an immobilized enzyme were studied: the amount of desorbed enzyme and its hydrolytic activity, the extent of pore blockage of the biocatalyst caused by substrate solution impurities and the internal and external diffusional mass transfer effects. The results showed that the enzyme glucoamylase was firmly bound to the support, as indicated by the very low amount of desorbed protein found in the recirculating liquid. Although this protein was very active, its contribution to the overall reaction rate was negligible. It was observed that the biocatalyst pores were susceptible to being blocked by the impurities of the starch solution. This latter effect was accumulative, increasing with the number of sequential experiments carried out. When the substrate solution was filtered before use, very reliable determinations of immobilized enzyme reaction rates could be performed in the DFBR. External and internal diffusional resistences usually play a significant role in fixed-bed reactors. However...

Catalytic properties of immobilized tannase produced from Aspergillus aculeatus compared with the free enzyme

El-Tanash,A. B; Sherief,A. A; Nour,A
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2011 EN
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Aspergillus aculeatus tannase was immobilized on several carriers by entrapment and covalent binding with cross - linking. Tannase immobilized on gelatin with cross - linking agent showed the highest activity and immobilization yield. The optimum pH of the immobilized enzyme was shifted to a more acidic range compared with the free enzyme (from pH 5.5 to pH 5.0). The optimum temperature of the reaction was determined to be 50ºC for the free enzyme and 60ºC for the immobilized form. The thermal stability, as well as stability over a wide range of pH, was significantly improved by the immobilization process. The calculated Km of the immobilized tannase (11.8 mg ml-1) is higher than that of the free tannase (6.5 mg ml-1), while Vmax of the immobilized enzyme (0.32 U (µg protein)-1) is lower than that of the free tannase (2.7 U (µg protein)-1). The immobilized enzyme was able to retain 84 % of the initial catalytic activity after 5.0 cycles.

Biochemical studies on immobilized fungal β-glucosidase

Ahmed,S. A.; El-Shayeb,N. M. A.; Hashem,A. M.; Saleh,S. A.; Abdel-Fattah,A. F.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
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β-Glucosidase from Aspergillus niger was immobilized on sponge by covalent binding through a spacer group (glutaraldehyde). Sponge-immobilized enzyme had the highest immobilization yield (95.67%) and retained 63.66% of the original activity exhibited by the free enzyme. The optimum pH of the immobilized enzyme remains almost the same as for the free enzyme (pH 4.0). The optimum temperature for β-glucosidase activity was increased by 10 ºC after immobilization. The activation energy (Ea) of the immobilized β-glucosidase was lower than the free enzyme (3.34 and 4.55 kcal/mol), respectively. Immobilized β-glucosidase exhibited great thermal stability and retained all the initial activity after incubation at 55 ºC for 2 h; however, the free enzyme retained 89.25% under the same condition. The calculated half-life (t½) value of heat inactivation of immobilized enzyme at 60, 65 and 70 ºC was 213.62, 72.95 and 56.80 min, respectively, whereas at these temperatures the free enzyme was less stable (half-life of 200.0, 55.31 and 49.5 min, respectively). The deactivation rate constant at 65 ºC for the immobilized β-glucosidase is 9.5x10-3/ min, which was lower than that of the free form (12.53x10-3/ min). The immobilization process improved the pH stability of the enzyme (immobilized and free enzyme retained 69.35 and 39.86%...

Immobilization of puerarin glycosidase from Microbacterium oxydans CGMCC 1788 increases puerarin transformation efficiency

Liu,Guiyou; Sun,Lei; Wu,Xiuxiu; Zhang,Wen; Feng,Jianshu; Cui,Yi; Lu,Zhou; Shen,Jiaojiao; Liu,Zhonghua; Yuan,Sheng
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
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For immobilization of puerarin glycosidase from Microbacterium oxydans CGMCC 1788 on DEAE-52 cellulose, the optimal amount of enzyme protein was 12 mg protein: 1 g DEAE-52 cellulose; the optimal pH was 6.5; and the optimal immobilization time was 6 hr. The specific activity of immobilized enzyme was 36.67 mU.g-1 carrier with an immobilization yield of 98.87% and an enzyme recovery yield of 92.43%. The molar transformation rates of puerarin by immobilized enzyme and by the relative bacterial cell amount equal to the same amount of enzyme were 53.3% and 2.2%, respectively, after 1 hr of transformation. The former molar transformation rate, which was similar to that for free enzyme, was more than 24-fold greater than the latter. The immobilized puerarin glycosidase showed improved enzymatic properties and stability. The immobilized puerarin glycosidase retained 88% of its initial activity after being reused 10 times.

Properties of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase in the cell free extract and immobilized extract of Mycobacterium fortuitum

Silva,A.S.; Jacques,R.J.S.; Andreazza,R.; Bento,F.M.; Roesch,L.F.W.; Camargo,F.A.O.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are carcinogenic compounds which contaminate water and soil, and the enzymes can be used for bioremediation of these environments. This study aimed to evaluate some environmental conditions that affect the production and activity of the catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O) by Mycobacterium fortuitum in the cell free and immobilized extract in sodium alginate. The bacterium was grown in mineral medium and LB broth containing 250 mg L-1 of anthracene (PAH). The optimum conditions of pH (4.0-9.0), temperature (5-70 ºC), reaction time (10-90 min) and the effect of ions in the enzyme activity were determined. The Mycobacterium cultivated in LB shown higher growth and the C12O activity was two-fold higher to that in the mineral medium. To both extracts the highest enzyme activity was at pH 8.0, however, the immobilized extract promoted the increase in the C12O activity in a pH range between 4.0 and 8.5. The immobilized extract increased the enzymatic activity time and showed the highest C12O activity at 45 ºC, 20 ºC higher than the greatest temperature in the cell free extract. The enzyme activity in both extracts was stimulated by Fe3+, Hg2+ and Mn2+ and inhibited by NH4+ and Cu2+, but the immobilization protected the enzyme against the deleterious effects of K+ and Mg2+ in tested concentrations. The catechol 1...

Avaliação da atividade da invertase de Saccharomyces cerevisiae imobilizada em polianilina sobre o caldo de cana; Evaluation of the invertase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in polyaniline on sugarcane

BARBOSA, Eduardo Fernandes
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Biologia; Ciências Biolóicas Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Biologia; Ciências Biolóicas
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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This work describes the immobilization of invertase on chemically synthesized polyaniline and activated with glutaraldehyde (PANIG) for production of invert syrup from sugarcane juice. Free invertase activity present in crude extract (E.B.) obtained from cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was characterized for an evaluation of interferents present in the extract on enzyme activity (optimum conditions: temperature 50 ° C, pH of 4.5 in sodium acetate buffer 0.1 mol L-1 and reaction time of 10 minutes, with an activity of 11.31 ± 0.36 EU mL-1). We tested some parameters optimization of enzyme immobilization, such as amount of enzyme, immobilization time, pH and temperature of immobilization. The optimal immobilization was obtained in buffer sodium acetate 0.1 mol L-1 pH 4.5, immobilization time of 1 hour at 50°C and 169.55 EU mg-1 PANIG. The efficiency of immobilization was 0.86. The stability of the system PANIG-Invertase was tested against the storage time and thermostability, and after 75 days storage in buffer sodium acetate 0.1 mol L-1 pH 4.5 was obtained for 94% of initial activity with only 17% retained for the free enzyme. The immobilized invertase didn t change the optimal conditions compared to the free, but the immobilized was more stable in adverse conditions such as pH below and above optimum conditions showed an increase in thermostability. Some features of the hydrolysis product were evaluated (water activity...

Development of glucose oxidase-based bioanodes for enzyme fuel cell applications

Mecheri, Barbara; D'Epifanio, Alessandra; Geracitano, Antonio; Campana, Patricia Targon; Licoccia, Silvia
Fonte: Springer; Dordrecht Publicador: Springer; Dordrecht
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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We fabricated an enzyme fuel cell (EFC) device based on glucose as fuel and glucose oxidase (GOx) as biocatalyst. As a strategy to improve GOx stability, preserving at the same time the enzyme catalytic activity, we propose an immobilization procedure to entrap GOx in a polymer matrix based on Nafion and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra were recorded to study changes in the 3D structure of GOx that might be generated by the immobilization procedure. The comparison between the CD features of GOx immobilized and free in solution indicates that the shape of the spectra and position of peaks do not significantly change. The bioelectrocatalytic activity toward glucose oxidation of immobilized GOx was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry experiments. Such electrochemical experiments allow monitoring the rate of GOx-catalyzed glucose oxidation and extrapolating GOx kinetic parameters. Results demonstrate that immobilized GOx has high catalytic efficiency, due the maintaining of regular and well-ordered structure of the immobilized enzyme, as indicated by spectroscopic findings. Once investigated the electrode structure–property relationship, an EFC device was assembled using the GOx-based bioanode...

The effects of trace elements, cations, and environmental conditions on protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase activity

Silva, Andréa Scaramal da; Jacques, Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti; Andreazza, Robson; Bento, Fátima Menezes; Camargo, Flávio Anastácio de Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2013 ENG
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Phenanthracene is a highly toxic organic compound capable of contaminating water and soils, and biodegradation is an important tool for remediating polluted environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of trace elements, cations, and environmental conditions on the activity of the protocatechol 3,4-dioxygenase (P3,4O) enzyme produced by the isolate Leifsonia sp. in cell-free and immobilized extracts. The isolate was grown in Luria Bertani broth medium (LB) amended with 250 mg L-1 of phenanthrene. Various levels of pH (4.0-9.0), temperature (5-80 °C), time (0-90 min), trace elements (Cu2+, Hg2+ and Fe3+), and cations (Mg2+, Mn2+, K+ and NH4+) were tested to determine which conditions optimized enzyme activity. In general, the immobilized extract exhibited higher enzyme activity than the cell-free extract in the presence of trace elements and cations. Adding iron yielded the highest relative activity for both cell-free and immobilized extracts, with values of 16 and 99 %, respectively. Copper also increased enzyme activity for both cell-free and immobilized extracts, with values of 8 and 44 %, respectively. Enzyme activity in the phosphate buffer was high across a wide range of pH, reaching 80 % in the pH range between 6.5 and 8.0. The optimum temperatures for enzyme activity differed for cell-free and immobilized extracts...