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Análise da dinâmica da origem e destino das células trofoblásticas na interface materno-fetal do útero gestante do cobaio na elucidação da organização da placenta vitelina invertida; Analysis of the dynamic of origin and fate of trophoblast cells in the maternal-fetal interface of pregnant guinea pig uterus to elucidate inverted yolk sac organization

Kanashiro, Claudia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/03/2011 PT
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A implantação embrionária e a placentação em cobaios são caracterizadas pela presença trofoblastos que se destacam da placenta principal, semelhantes ao trofoblasto extra-viloso de humanos. Nestes animais ultrapassam os limites, e podem ser encontrados infiltrados no profundamente no endométrio e no em ambiente externo ultrapassando aos limites da parede uterina. A cobaia desenvolve uma importante estrutura fisiológica de troca materno-embrionária, denominada de placenta vitelina invertida, definidas como membrana fetal destituída parcial ou totalmente do revestimento trofoblástico que permite a exposição do endoderma extra-embrionário em contato direto com o tecido materno. Tais características denotam um mecanismo de controle da resposta imune materna distinta dos paradigmas estabelecidos na reprodução humana e de roedores, assim como ratos e camundongos. Sendo a mais intrigante, a destituição do trofoblasto como célula da interface-materno-fetal que controla a tolerância imune-materna.No presente trabalho, procurou-se estabelecer a organização da placenta vitelina de cobaios a partir da identificação das células que compõe esta membrana extra-embrionária e identificar em que momento ocorre à remoção das células trofoblásticas...

Effects of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid on histamine secretion in guinea pig lung mast cells

Ruiz, C. M.; Gomes, J. C.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 133-138
ENG
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We studied the direct effects of ethanol and its metabolites on the guinea pig lung mast cell, and the alterations caused in the histamine release induced by different stimuli. Guinea pig lungs cells dispersed by collagenase were used throughout. High concentrations of ethanol (100 mg/ml), acetaldehyde (0.3-3 mg/ml) and acetic acid (3 mg/ml) induced histamine release that was not inhibited by sodium cyanide (0.3 mM). Lower concentration of ethanol (10 mg/ml) and acetic acid (0.3 mg/ml), but not acetaldehyde, inhibited the histamine release induced by antigen and ionophore A23187. The histamine release induced by phorbol 12-miristate 13-acetate (1 mu M) was also inhibited by ethanol (10 mg/ml). Changes in the levels of calcium, glucose and phosphatidic acid did not influence the effect of ethanol. We conclude that high doses of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid cause a cytotoxic histamine release by independent mechanisms. Low concentrations of acetic acid inhibit the histamine release by pH reduction. Ethanol acts by a generalized effect that is independent of calcium and glucose suggesting a nonspecific effect that, nevertheless, is not cytotoxic since it can be reversed by washing the cells. (C) 2000 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The potentiation of the histamine release induced by adenosine in mast cells from guinea pig lung and heart: Sharp dependence on the time of preincubation

Campos, BGA; Ferreira, R. R.; Gomes, J. C.
Fonte: Academic Press Ltd Publicador: Academic Press Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 291-297
ENG
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We studied here the effect of a wide range of adenosine concentration and time of preincubation, on the histamine release induced in the guinea pig mast cells by different stimulus. Adenosine (10(-5)-10(-3) M) potentiated the histamine release induced by antigen in the guinea pig heart (isolated and dispersed tissue) and lung mast cells but not induced by ionophore A23197. The potentiation caused by adenosine (10(-4) M) was maximum after 1-3 min of preincubation and is probably an extracellular effect since it was not avoided by dipyridamol (3 x 10(-7)-10(-6) M) that inhibit the uptake of adenosine. Similar potentiation was also produced by the adenosine mimetic 2-chloroadenosine (10(-5) M) and both effects were inhibited by 8-phenyltheophylline indicating an effect on the type A receptors. It is suggested that the adenosine potentiation may not be related to changes on the cyclic AMP levels. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

Tissue remodeling in Guinea pig lateral prostate at different ages after estradiol treatment

Scarano, W. R.; Cordeiro, R. S.; Goes, R. M.; Carvalho, H. F.; Taboga, SR
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 778-784
ENG
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Estrogen seems to have an essential role in the fibromuscular growth characteristic of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This paper describes the effects of chronic estradiol treatment on Guinea pig prostatic stroma at different ages. Tissues from experimental animals were studied by histological and histochemical procedures, morphometric-stereological analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Marked fibromuscular hypertrophy was observed after estradiol treatment in animals of pre-pubertal and adult ages. Increases in the density and thickness of the collagen and elastic fibers were observed by histochemistry. TEM revealed wide distributions of collagen fibrils and large elastic fibers adjacent to the epithelial basal lamina and between the stromal cells, establishing contacts between them. These results indicate that the Guinea pig prostate simulates the stromal modifications observed in BPH in some aged animals after estrogen treatment at different ages, making it a good model for this disease. (c) 2005 International Federation for Cell Biology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Antagonism produced by hypertonic nutrient solutions on the depressive effect of carbofuran on isolated guinea pig atria

Nascimento, D. C.; Sakate, M.
Fonte: Academic Press Ltd Publicador: Academic Press Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 251-254
ENG
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The action of hyperosmotic nutrient solutions on the depressive effects of carbofuran was studied on spontaneously contracting guinea pig atria. The force and frequency of contraction were recorded using an isotonic lever. Carbofuran 33.0 mu g ml(-1) produced a gradual depressive effect. The time for stabilization of the depressive effect was 6.0+/-2.3 min. After the depressive effect of carbofuran was established, NaCI, mannitol, or urea were introduced into the organ bath to increase the osmolarity of the nutrient solution to about 100 mosmol kg(-1) of water. This resulted in a reversal of the contraction force and frequency to the initial levels. The addition of the osmotic agents at the same concentrations before the addition of 33.0 mu g ml(-1) carbofuran avoided its depressive effect on guinea pig atria. (C) 1996 the Italian Pharmacological Society.

Study of the contraction induced by norepinephrine and clonidine in the isolated guinea-pig ileum

Reis, C. C A
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 93-97
ENG
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Norepinephrine (NE) and clonidine produce a phasic, dose-dependent contraction of the isolated guinea-pig terminal ileum. The effect of NE was blocked by prazosin which produced a parallel rightward shift of the concentration-effect curve to NE, with a significant depression of maximum effects. Yohimbine and indomethacin noncompetitively blocked, whereas practolol potentiated, the contractile effect of NE. The contractile effect of clonidine was not antagonized by indomethacin or atropine. These results suggest that the isolated guinea-pig terminal ileum has excitatory receptors sensitive to clonidine stimulation and excitatory alpha receptors sensitive to blockade by prazosin, and that the activation of the latter may be related to the activation of endogenous prostaglandin synthesis.

A scanning electron microscopic study of the rete testis of the guinea pig

Orsi, Antonio Marcos; Gregorio, Elisa Aparecida; Beu, CCL; Matheus, SMM; Basso, N. A.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 194-198
ENG
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Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations of the structure of the rete testis (RT) of guinea pigs preceded by and complemented with stereomicroscopy and light-microscopic studies showed that the RT of this species is predominantly cavitary. An axial and labyrinth-like morphological pattern was also observed in the RT complex, with partially interconnected chambers and epithelium-lined channels accompanying a connective axis observed in the middle portion of the cranial end of the testis. Characteristics of the chordae retis and bullae retis were also visualized in the guinea pig RT and the results are discussed in terms of the morphological patterns observed in the RT of other mammals and of man.

Isolation induced changes in Guinea Pig Cavia porcellus pup distress whistles

Monticelli,Patrícia F.; Tokumaru,Rosana S.; Ades,César
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Ciências Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 EN
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Guinea Pig Cavia porcellus pups emit high-pitched distress whistles when separated from their mother. In order to assess the influence of the duration of a brief isolation period on whistle acoustic structure, werecorded the distress whistles of six 8-day old pups separated for 15 min from their group in a novel environment and compared the mean values of the first and last 30 whistle notes. Acoustic analysis revealed, throughout the session, a significant decrease in whistle duration, an increase in mean frequency and a tendency for a decrease in number of harmonics in the first part of the note. Results demonstrate that, throughout a brief isolation period, the vocal response of Guinea Pig pups to isolation undergoes structural changes possibly related to time-dependent changes in motivational state.

Binding sites and actions of Tx1, a neurotoxin from the venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, in guinea pig ileum

Santos,R.G.; Diniz,C.R.; Cordeiro,M.N.; De Lima,M.E.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/1999 EN
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Tx1, a neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the South American spider Phoneutria nigriventer, produces tail elevation, behavioral excitation and spastic paralysis of the hind limbs after intracerebroventricular injection in mice. Since Tx1 contracts isolated guinea pig ileum, we have investigated the effect of this toxin on acetylcholine release, as well as its binding to myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle membranes from the guinea pig ileum. [125I]-Tx1 binds specifically and with high affinity (Kd = 0.36 ± 0.02 nM) to a single, non-interacting (nH = 1.1), low capacity (Bmax 1.1 pmol/mg protein) binding site. In competition experiments using several compounds (including ion channel ligands), only PhTx2 and PhTx3 competed with [125I]-Tx1 for specific binding sites (K0.5 apparent = 7.50 x 10-4 g/l and 1.85 x 10-5 g/l, respectively). PhTx2 and PhTx3, fractions from P. nigriventer venom, contain toxins acting on sodium and calcium channels, respectively. However, the neurotoxin PhTx2-6, one of the isoforms found in the PhTx2 pool, did not affect [125I]-Tx1 binding. Tx1 reduced the [3H]-ACh release evoked by the PhTx2 pool by 33%, but did not affect basal or KCl-induced [3H]-ACh release. Based on these results, as well as on the homology of Tx1 with toxins acting on calcium channels (w-Aga IA and IB) and its competition with [125I]-w-Cono GVIA in the central nervous system...

Inotropic effects of extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava) leaves on the guinea pig atrium

Conde Garcia,E.A.; Nascimento,V.T.; Santiago Santos,A.B.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2003 EN
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Many pharmacological effects have been ascribed to extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava) leaves. However, in spite of its widespread use in Brazilian folk medicine and a reasonable number of scientific reports about it, we could not find any study dealing with its action on the mammalian myocardium. In the present study, by measuring isometric force, we observed that the crude extract of P. guajava (water-alcohol extract obtained by macerating dry leaves) depresses the guinea pig atrial contractility in a concentration-dependent fashion (N = 8 hearts, 15 trials). The compound with cardiac activity was concentrated by extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus using 17 M glacial acetic acid after removing the less polar fractions (hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and methanol), suggesting that this compound is a highly polar substance. In the isolated guinea pig left atrium the acetic acid fraction (10-800 mg/l) of P. guajava 1) reversibly decreased myocardial force in a concentration-dependent fashion (EC50 = 0.07g/l, N = 5 hearts, 9 trials, P<0.05), 2) increased the atrial relaxation time measured at 20% of the force amplitude up to 35% (91 ± 15 to 123 ± 30 ms, N = 3 hearts, 6 trials, P<0.05), 3) abolished the positive staircase effect (Bowditch phenomenon) in a concentration-dependent fashion suggesting a decrease of the cellular inward calcium current (N = 4 hearts...

Negative inotropic and chronotropic effects on the guinea pig atrium of extracts obtained from Averrhoa carambola L. leaves

Vasconcelos,C.M.L.; Araújo,M.S.; Silva,B.A.; Conde-Garcia,E.A.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2005 EN
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It has been reported that star fruit can lead to a fatal outcome in uremic patients. The intoxication syndrome consists of hiccups, mental confusion, dizziness, and vomiting. On the other hand, folk medicine uses teas and infusions of carambola leaves to treat headache, vomiting, cough, insomnia, and diabetes. This motivated us to determine if Averrhoa carambola can act on the contractility and automaticity of the guinea pig heart. We measured the atrial isometric force in stimulated left atria and determined the chronotropic changes in spontaneously beating right atria. The carambola leaf extracts (1.5 mg/ml) abolished the contractile force in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the crude, methanolic, ethanolic, aqueous, and acetic extracts, the aqueous one was the most potent (EC50 = 520 ± 94 µg/ml; flavonoids and tannins are the main constituents; Na+ and K+ contents in 1.0 mg/ml of aqueous extract were 0.12 ± 0.016 and 1.19 ± 0.15 mM, respectively). The aqueous extract abolished the positive Bowditch staircase phenomenon and reduced the inotropic response to CaCl2 (0.17-8.22 mM), events that are dependent on the cellular Ca2+ inward current. The adrenergic, muscarinic or opioid membrane receptors do not seem to participate in the mechanism of action of the cardioactive substance(s). In spontaneously beating atria...

Aqueous leaf extract of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) reduces both the inotropic effect of BAY K 8644 on the guinea pig atrium and the calcium current on GH3cells

Vasconcelos,Carla M. L.; Gondim,Antônio N. S.; Cruz,Jader S.; Mafra,Roberta A; Silva,Bagnólia A.; Conde-Garcia,Eduardo A.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2008 EN
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It was previously showed that aqueous leaf extract (AqEx) of Averrhoa carambola depresses the guinea pig atrial inotropism. Therefore, experiments were carried out on guinea pig left atrium and on pituitary GH3 cells in order to evaluate the effect of AqEx on the cellular calcium influx. The atrium was mounted in an organ chamber (5 mL, Tyrode, 27 ± 0.1 ºC, 95 % O2, 5 % CO2), stretched to 10 mN, and paced at 2 Hz (0.5 ms, 400 V) and GH3 cells were submitted to a whole cell voltage clamp configuration. In the atrium, the AqEx (1500 µg/mL) shifted to the right the concentration-effect curve of the positive inotropic effect produced by (±) BAY K 8644, an L-type calcium channel agonist. The AqEx increased EC50 (concentration required to promote 50% of the maximum effect) of the inotropic effect of BAY K 8644 from 7.8 ± 0.38 to 115.1 ± 0.44 nM (N = 3; p < 0.05). In GH3 cells assayed with 500 µg/mL of AqEx, the L-type calcium inward current declined 30 % (from 282 to 190 pA). Nevertheless, the extract did not change the voltage correspondent to the peak current. These data suggest that, at least in part, the negative inotropic effect of AqEx on the guinea pig atrium is due to a reduction of the L-type calcium current.

Effects of exposure to Diazinon on the lung and small intestine of Guinea pig, histological and some histochemical changes

Rady,Mohamed Ibrahim
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2009 EN
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The present study aimed to evaluate the histological changes and adverse effects on the total protein and general carbohydrates in the lung and small intestine of guinea pig "Cavia porcellus" induced by the exposure to sub lethal doses of the organophosphate insecticide diazinon. Primarily, diazinon insecticide oral LD50 was investigated after administrating orally different doses in guinea pig and was determined as 213 mg/Kg bw., the animals exposed to sub lethal doses of this insecticide revealed histological changes in both lung and intestine in a dose dependent manner. Also, significant decrease in the total protein and general carbohydrates in the lung and intestine were mostly observed, especially with the higher doses of the insecticide in comparison with control group.

Guinea Pig Adenovirus Infection Does Not Inhibit Cochlear Transfection with Human Adenoviral Vectors in a Model of Hearing Loss

Hankenson, F Claire; Wathen, Asheley B; Eaton, Kathryn A; Miyazawa, Toru; Swiderski, Donald L; Raphael, Yehoash
Fonte: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science Publicador: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Routine surveillance of guinea pigs maintained within a barrier facility detected guinea pig adenovirus (GPAdV) in sentinel animals. These guinea pigs served as models of induced hearing loss followed by regeneration of cochlear sensory (hair) cells through transdifferentiation of nonsensory cells by using human adenoviral (hAV) gene therapy. To determine whether natural GPAdV infection affected the ability of hAV vectors to transfect inner ear cells, adult male pigmented guinea pigs (n = 7) were enrolled in this study because of their prolonged exposure to GPAdV-seropositive conspecifics. Animals were deafened chemically (n = 2), received an hAV vector carrying the gene for green fluorescent protein (hAV-GFP) surgically without prior deafening (n = 2), or were deafened chemically with subsequent surgical inoculation of hAV-GFP (n = 3). Cochleae were evaluated by using fluorescence microscopy, and GFP expression in supporting cells indicated that the hAV-GFP vector was able to transfect inner ears in GPAdV-seropositive guinea pigs that had been chemically deafened. Animals had histologic evidence of interstitial pneumonia, attributable to prior infection with GPAdV. These findings confirmed that the described guinea pigs were less robust animal models with diminished utility for the overall studies. Serology tests confirmed that 5 of 7 animals (71%) were positive for antibodies against GPAdV at necropsy...

Maternal undernutrition alters fat cell size distribution, but not lipogenic gene expression, in the visceral fat of the late gestation guinea pig fetus

Nguyen, L.; Muhlhausler, B.; Botting, K.; Morrison, J.
Fonte: W B Saunders Co Ltd Publicador: W B Saunders Co Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
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This study investigated the development of adipose tissue in the guinea pig and the impact of maternal undernutrition on the structural and functional characteristics of perirenal adipose tissue in the dam and fetus. Date-mated guinea pigs were provided with either ad libitum feed (Control, C) or 85% of food intake per body weight of the Controls (Undernutrition, UN). Maternal (C, n = 6; UN, n = 7) perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) was collected at 60 d gestation and fetal PAT was collected at 50 d (C, n = 4) and 60 d (C, n = 8 and UN, n = 7) gestation (term, 69 d). The expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD-1), fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), leptin and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) mRNA and glucose transporters 1 and 4 (GLUT1 and GLUT4) was determined by Real Time PCR. There was no effect of maternal UN on total or relative PAT mass in the pregnant dam. There was an increase in G3PDH, but not LPL, leptin, FAS or GLUT4 mRNA expression, in UN dams compared to Controls (P < 0.05). In the fetal guinea pig there was no effect of maternal UN on total or relative PAT mass, however, the UN fetuses had a higher percentage of larger lipid locules in their PAT compared to Controls (P < 0.05). The expression of FAS...

Immunohistochemical localisation of pre-synaptic muscarinic receptor subtype-2 (M2r) in the enteric nervous system of guinea-pig ileum

Harrington, A.; Hutson, J.; Southwell, B.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
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The cholinergic muscarinic 2 receptor (M2r) is known to be present on smooth muscle cells in the intestine. Pharmacological studies also suggest that M2rs regulate transmitter release from nerves in the enteric nervous system. This study localised M2rs in the guinea-pig ileum using different antibodies and fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Double labelling with antibodies against neurochemical markers was used to identify the type of nerves bearing M2r. Guinea-pig ileum were fixed, prepared for sections and wholemounts and incubated with antisera against the M2r sequence. Tissue was double labelled with antibodies against neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), common choline acetyltransferase (cChAT), substance P (SP), synaptophysin and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Immunofluorescence was viewed using confocal microscopy. Abundant M2r-immunoreactivity (IR) was present on the surface of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle cells. M2r-IR was present in many but not all nerve fibres in the circular muscle and ganglia. M2r-IR was present in VAChT-IR and cChAT-IR cholinergic nerve fibres and SP-IR nerve fibres in the myenteric ganglia and submucosal ganglia. M2r-IR was present on a few nNOS-IR nerve fibres and around nNOS-IR neurons in the myenteric ganglia. In the circular muscle and deep muscular plexus...

Immunohistochemical localisation of substance P NK1 receptor in guinea pig distal colon

Harrington, A.; Hutson, J.; Southwell, B.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
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Background:  Neurokinin receptors facilitate tachykinin mediated intestinal motility and secretion. Distribution of Substance P (SP) neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r) immunoreactivity (IR) has been previously characterized in guinea pig ileum, but not colon. This study localizes NK1rs in guinea pig distal colon. Methods:  Neurons were double labelled for NK1r and either acetylcholine transferase (ChAT), calbindin (calb), neuropeptide Y (NPY), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) or SP. The NK1r endocytosis was induced by 10−5 mol L−1 SP, septide, [SarMet] SP or neurokinin A. Results:  In guinea pig distal colon, NK1r–IR was present on 70% of submucosal neurons. Sixty-threepercent of the NK1r–IR submucosal neurons were ChAT–IR, 16% calb/SP–IR, 19% NPY–IR and 14% NOS–IR neurons. The NK1r–IR was present on 5% of myenteric neurons. Of these 63% were ChAT–IR, 16% calb–IR neurons and 25% NOS–IR. The NK1rs were also on myenteric plexus interstitial cells of Cajal and on circular muscle. Conclusion:  In guinea pig distal colon, NK1rs were on 70% of submucosal neurons including all three secretomotor neuron subtypes and sensory neurons, suggesting NK1rs have a major role in neuronal control of mucosal reflexes. The NK1rs were on few myenteric neurons but were dense on muscle cells...

Spasmolytic activity of lapachol and its derivatives, α and β-lapachone, on the guinea-pig ileum involves blockade of voltage-gated calcium channels

Cavalcante,Fabiana A.; Silva,Joelmir L. V.; Carvalho,Viviane M. N.; Camara,Celso A.; Silva,Tania M. S.; Pinto,Ângelo C.; Vargas,Maria D.; Silva,Bagnólia A.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2008 EN
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Lapachol, α and β-lapachone are naphthoquinones extracted from species of Tabebuia that have shown antiinflammatory, antibacterial, anticancer and trypanosomicidal properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the spasmolytic effect of these naphthoquinones on the guinea-pig ileum, since other naphthoquinones are known to depress the contractile activity of smooth muscles. Lapachol, α and β-lapachone inhibited the phasic contractions induced by both carbachol (IC50 = 1.5 ± 0.2 x 10-4; 7.3 ± 0.9 x 10-5 and 3.2 ± 0.5 x 10-5 M, respectively) and histamine (IC50 = 3.6± 0.5; 3.6 ± 0.7 and 3.3 ± 0.6 x 10-5 M, respectively). These compounds also relaxed the ileum pre-contracted with KCl (EC50 = 1.2 ± 0.4; 4.3 ± 0.8 and 2.7 ± 0.2 x 10-5 M, respectively); carbachol (EC50 = 2.6 ± 0.7; 3.5 ± 0.5 and 2.2 ± 0.7 x 10-5 M, respectively) or histamine (EC50 = 3.0 ± 0.8; 1.1 ± 0.3 and 3.3 ± 0.6 x 10-5 M, respectively) in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect is probably due to inhibition of calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca v). β-lapachone antagonized (pD'2 = 5.73 ± 0.12; slope = 1.51 ± 0.05) CaCl2-induced contractions in depolarizing medium nominally without Ca2+. The finding that β-lapachone inhibited the tonic contractions induced by S-(-)-Bay K8644 (EC50 = 1.4 ± 0.1 x 10-5 M) is suggestive that the L-type CaV is involved. In conclusion...

Early microvascular changes in the preterm neonate: a comparative study of the human and guinea pig

Dyson, R.M.; Palliser, H.K.; Lakkundi, A.; de Waal, K.; Latter, J.L.; Clifton, V.L.; Wright, I.M.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
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Dysfunction of the transition from fetal to neonatal circulatory systems may be a major contributor to poor outcome following preterm birth. Evidence exists in the human for both a period of low flow between 5 and 11 h and a later period of increased flow, suggesting a hypoperfusion-reperfusion cycle over the first 24 h following birth. Little is known about the regulation of peripheral blood flow during this time. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative study between the human and guinea pig to characterize peripheral microvascular behavior during circulatory transition. Very preterm (≤28 weeks GA), preterm (29-36 weeks GA), and term (≥37 weeks GA) human neonates underwent laser Doppler analysis of skin microvascular blood flow at 6 and 24 h from birth. Guinea pig neonates were delivered prematurely (62 day GA) or at term (68-71 day GA) and laser Doppler analysis of skin microvascular blood flow was assessed every 2 h from birth. In human preterm neonates, there is a period of high microvascular flow at 24 h after birth. No period of low flow was observed at 6 h. In preterm animals, microvascular flow increased after birth, reaching a peak at 10 h postnatal age. Blood flow then steadily decreased, returning to delivery levels by 24 h. Preterm birth was associated with higher baseline microvascular flow throughout the study period in both human and guinea pig neonates. The findings do not support a hypoperfusion-reperfusion cycle in the microcirculation during circulatory transition. The guinea pig model of preterm birth will allow further investigation of the mechanisms underlying microvascular function and dysfunction during the initial extrauterine period.; Rebecca M. Dyson...

Comportamento anatômico das artérias umbilical (lig. redondo da bexiga) e urogenital na cobaia (Cavia porcellus, L., 1756); Anatomical pattern of the umbilical artery (round lig. of the urinary bladder) and urogenital artery in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, L., 1756)

Vicentini, Carlos Alberto; Orsi, Antonio Marcos; Silva, Z.; Campos, V. J. M.; Dias, Sidney Mello
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/03/1981 POR
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Foi realizado estudo anatômico dos ramos viscerais da a. ilíaca interna na cobaia. Foram utilizadas 20 cobaias (10 machos e 10 fêmeas), adultas, sacrificadas com éter etílico (saturação anestésica), injetadas com contraste na aorta abdominal (látex corado) e dissecadas sob lupa. Em resultados são descritas a origem e a perviedade da a. umbilical e a origem e a ramescência da a. urogenital. Estas observações na cobaia foram comparativamente discutidas com outras semelhantemente descritas em diferentes mamíferos incluindo: outros roedores de laboratório, gato, cão, coelho e Homem.; This work deals with the study of the visceral branches of the internal iliac artery in guinea pig. Twenty animals (10 males and 10 females), adults were sacrificed with ethylic ether, injected with contrasting substance into abdominal aorta and dissected through stereoscopic microscope. In results were described the origin and permeability of the umbilical artery and the origin and branching of the urogenital artery. These observations in the guinea pig were comparatively discussed with others similarly described in several mammalians including: another laboratorial rodents, cat, dog, rabbit and man.