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Práticas informais no ensino coletivo de sopros: um experimento no Guri; Informal learning practices in woodwind group lessons: an experiment at Guri program

Leme, Luis Santiago Malaga
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/10/2012 PT
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Este trabalho apresenta algumas contribuições para uma atualização metodológica e pedagógica do ensino de instrumentos de sopro em aulas coletivas inspirado pelas práticas informais de aprendizagem identificadas por Green (2008), Braga (2005) e Priest (1989) entre outros. As práticas informais são um conjunto de atividades identificadas pela literatura como típicas da música popular ou tradicional que possuem interesse para a educação musical formal. Suas características principais podem ser resumidas como: concessão de espaço e tempo para os alunos improvisarem e experimentarem; livre escolha do repertório e; maior uso de modelos visuais e sonoros dados pelo professor e por gravações trazidas à sala de aula. As práticas informais estão de acordo com a pedagogia de Paulo Freire na medida em que colocam a autonomia como meio de aprendizagem e não apenas como finalidade. A formalização das práticas musicais na direção da escrita e leitura de partituras é um processo antigo correlacionado ao desenvolvimento do racionalismo na história do pensamento ocidental em sua busca pela precisão, segundo Koellreutter (Brito, 2007). O caminho que as práticas musicais tomaram teve seu ápice no século XIX, sendo que o sistema de ensino dos conservatórios constituído nesta época perdura até os dias de hoje na educação musical...

Building Resilience : Integrating Climate and Disaster Risk into Development, The World Bank Group Experience

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This report presents the World Bank Group's experience in climate and disaster resilient development and contends that it is essential to eliminate extreme poverty and achieve shared prosperity by 2030. The report argues for closer collaboration between the climate resilience and disaster risk management communities through the incorporation of climate and disaster resilience into broader development processes. Selected case studies are used to illustrate promising approaches, lessons learned, and remaining challenges all in contribution to the loss and damage discussions under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The introduction provides an overview of the UNFCCC and also introduces key concepts and definitions relevant to climate and disaster resilient development. Section two describes the impacts of globally increasing weather-related disasters in recent decades. Section three summarizes how the World Bank Group's goals to end extreme poverty and boost shared prosperity are expected to be affected by rising disaster losses in a changing climate. Section four discusses the issue of attribution in weather-related disasters...

Helping South Asia Cope with Natural Disasters : The Role of Social Protection

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Addressing the social protection needs of households during emergencies is a major development issue. Without social protection measures, such as cash transfers for basic needs or workfare programs, many households faced with large economic and natural shocks might deplete their human and physical capital, reducing their ability to participate in economic development. Social protection measures (cash transfers, in particular) are therefore assuming a growing role in the World Bank to help the poor cope with the aftermath of a disaster. In South Asia, all three recent major emergency-related operations in South Asia (Sri Lanka, Maldives, and Pakistan) included cash transfers components. This discussion paper, an input to the South Asia region's social protection and hazard risk management strategies, describes the cash transfer instruments supported by the Bank in South Asia, evaluates their design and implementation, and suggests improvements to increase their effectiveness. Based on available evidence...

South Africa's Renewable Energy IPP Procurement Program : Success Factors and Lessons

Eberhard, Anton; Kolker, Joel; Leigland, James
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
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South Africa occupies a central position in the global debate regarding the most effective policy instruments to accelerate and sustain private investment in renewable energy. In 2009, the government began exploring feed-in tariffs (FITs) for renewable energy, but these were later rejected in favor of competitive tenders. The resulting program, now known as the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Program (REIPPPP), has successfully channeled substantial private sector expertise and investment into grid-connected renewable energy in South Africa at competitive prices. To date, a total of 64 projects have been awarded to the private sector, and the first projects are already on line. Private sector investment totaling US$14 billion has been committed, and these projects will generate 3922 megawatt (MW) of renewable power. Prices have dropped over the three bidding phases with average solar photovoltaic (PV) tariffs decreasing by 68 percent and wind dropping by 42 percent, in nominal terms. Most impressively...