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Controls on reservoir development and quality in a glacial sequence; a study of the late palaeozoic, Cooper Basin South Australia and Queensland, Australia : thesis submitted to the University of Adelaide in fullfillment [sic] of the requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, July 2000 / Chris Cubitt.

Cubitt, Chris; National Centre for Petroleum Geology & Geophysics (Australia)
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2120414 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2000 EN
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Studies the provenance and diagenesis of the Merrimelia Formation in South Australia and Queensland; a complex mosaic of glacial facies in which the Tirrawarra Sandstone and Merrimelia Formation exhibit an interfingering relationship, and defines the relationship further. Indicates that the Tirrawarra Sandstone should be included in the Merrimelia Formation as a "facies type" as both the Merrimelia and Tirrawarra sediments form an integrated suite of sediments.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Adelaide, Dept. of Geology, 2000?; At head of title: National Centre for Petroleum Geology and Geophysics.; CD-ROM contains Appendices (1-10) in PDF.; Includes copies of papers co-authored by the author.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves [471]-499 in vol. 2); System requirements for accompanying CD-ROM: Macintosh or IBM compatible computer with Windows NT. Other requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader.; 2 v. (various pagings) : ill. (some col.), maps, ports. ; 30 cm. + 1 CD-ROM (4 3/4 in.); Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library.

Glacial Sluiceways and Lacustrine Plains of Southern Indiana

Thornbury, William D.
Fonte: Indiana Division of Geology Publicador: Indiana Division of Geology
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 1956205 bytes; application/pdf
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Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 4; Lacustrine plains of two distinct ages and origins occur in southern Indiana. One system of lakes of Illinoian age developed as marginal lakes because of the ponding of the southwest drainage by the lobe of Illinoian ice which extended into southwestern Indiana. Another and more extensive system of Wisconsin glacial lakes developed south of the Shelbyville moraine as a result of the ponding of the tributary valleys by the extensive valley trains built down the streams which acted as sluiceways for Wisconsin melt-waters. Lacustrine plains of this origin are extensively developed along the tributaries of the Wabash, Ohio, and White Rivers. The lacustrine deposits are composed of calcareous clays and silts which generally are strongly laminated. Calcareous concretions are particularly abundant in the deposits adjacent to the sluiceways. Sand dunes and loess are associated with the valley trains and lacustrine plains. The dunes are restricted to the sluiceways, but the loess mantles the uplands between the adjacent lacustrine flats.; Indiana Department of Conservation. Indiana Division of Geology

Glacial Geology of Wabash County, Indiana

Wayne, William J.; Thornbury, William D.
Fonte: Indiana Geological Survey Publicador: Indiana Geological Survey
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 57259684 bytes; application/pdf
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Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 5; Most of the topographic features of Wabash County are of glacial origin or are glacial deposits eroded by postglacial streams. Shales, limestones, and dolomites, all Silurian, are exposed only along some of the deeper valleys. Four major rivers and six smaller streams in Wabash County flow in glacial sluiceways. Only the Eel and Wabash sluiceways carried large quantities of melt-water. The Eel River valley train occupies an interlobate position, and the Wabash Valley bears evidence of its roles as a sluiceway and as an outlet for glacial Lake Maumee in late Cary time. Three topographic areas comprise the upland part of Wabash County: the Tipton till plain, the Mississinewa terminal moraine, and the Packerton interlobate moraine. The buried bedrock surface of the county, as revealed by well records, suggests an old age topography which is correlated with the Lexington peneplain of Kentucky and southern Indiana. The preglacial and interglacial Teays River was the main stream across the county, and its associated "deep stage" was intrenched more than 300 feet below the upland. Where the "deep stage" is crossed by the Mississinewa moraine, the maximum thickness of drift is 410 feet. The present course of the Wabash River originated in late Tazewell time. Till of the Cary substage is heavier...

The Geology of Miami County, Indiana

Thornbury, William D.; Deane, Harold L.
Fonte: Indiana Geological Survey Publicador: Indiana Geological Survey
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 48144924 bytes; application/pdf
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Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 8; Most of the geomorphic features of Miami County are of glacial origin or are glacial deposits that were modified by postglacial erosion. Three major and nine smaller valleys were sluiceways for glacial melt waters. The Wabash and Eel Valleys carried glacial outwash during both the Tazewell and Cary subages of the Wisconsin. As a result, thick and extensive valley trains were developed down these valleys. During part of the Cary subage the Wabash sluiceway was the outlet for Lake Maumee. Glacial deposits older than Wisconsin have not been recognized positively in Miami County. Wisconsin deposits consist of till, outwash, lake silts and clays, and undifferentiated sands of the Tazewell substage and outwash and wind-blown sands of the Cary substage. The upland area of the county has within it parts of three distinct units: parts of the Tipton till plain and the Packerton and Union City moraines. The till of the Packerton moraine is more sandy than that of the ground moraine of the Tipton till plain to the south and has associated with it extensive sand deposits of uncertain origin. Devonian limestones of Hamilton age and the Silurian Kokomo limestone, Liston Creek limestone, Mississinewa shale...

An Introduction to the Geology of Parke County, Indiana

Wier, Charles E.; Wayne, William J.
Fonte: Indiana Geological Survey Publicador: Indiana Geological Survey
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 2805351 bytes; application/pdf
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Indiana Geological Survey Circular 2; Parke County, which is located about 50 miles west of Indianapolis, has an area of 447 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Fountain County, on the northeast by Montgomery County, on the east by Putnam County, on the south by Clay and Vigo Counties, and on the west by Vermillion County. This publication provides a summary of the glacial and bedrock geology of Parke County, Indiana, including information on landforms, bedrock geology and mineral resources.; Indiana Department of Conservation

Environmental Geology of Lake and Porter Counties, Indiana - An Aid to Planning

Hartke, Edwin J.; Hill, John R.; Reshkin, Mark
Fonte: Indiana Geological Survey Publicador: Indiana Geological Survey
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 5246090 bytes; application/pdf
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Indiana Geological Survey Special Report 11; Indiana Geological Survey Environmental Study 8; Lake and Porter Counties are subdivided into three physiographically and geologically distinct regions: (1) the Calumet Lacustrine Plain, (2) the ValparaisoMorainal Area, and (3) the Kankakee Outwash and Lacustrine Plain. The surficial deposits of these regions, which range in thickness from 40 feet near the Kankakee River to more than 250 feet near Valparaiso, Ind,. Are the products, either directly or indirectly, of the Wisconsinan Age of glaciation. The Calumet lake plain is characterized by low-lying complexly intermixed clay, sand, and silt deposits, mostly of glacial Lake Chicago origin , The Valparaiso Moraine forms high ground in the two counties and is composed of clay-rich to fine sandy till. Sand and fine gravel deposits constitute the bulk of the Kankakee Outwash and Lacustrine Plain, this area being the low-lying outwash and flood plain for the glacially derived rivers as well as for the present Kankakee River. The two-county area has an abundance of geologic and geologically related resources; some of the most important are: (1) groundwater of the Kankakee Outwash and Lacustrine Plain and Valparaiso Morainal Area, (2) sand deposits of glacial Lake Chicago and of recent origin...

Thickness of Drift and Bedrock Physiography of Indiana North of the Wisconsin Glacial Boundary

Wayne, William J.
Fonte: Indiana Geological Survey Publicador: Indiana Geological Survey
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 3769238 bytes; application/pdf
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Indiana Geological Survey Report of Progress 7; In recent years ground-water studies have shown that many large aquifers in glacial deposits in Indiana are localized along buried valleys. In these valleys, most of which served as sluiceways at various times during the Pleistocene epoch, large quantities of glacial outwash were deposited. Some of them, such as the Ohio, lower Wabash, and Whitewater, are only partly filled, but other equally large valleys are completely buried. This study is intended primarily to aid in locating the buried valleys within the region of Indiana that is covered by Wisconsin drift and in evaluating them as aquifers. The thickness of drift map should be of interest to geologists, engineers, well drillers, and others who are concerned with appraisal of water resources, cut-outs in coal or limestone, foundation materials for heavy construction, drilling operations, and similar work. In preparing this map an attempt was made to consider carefully the effects of present topographic variations as well as those of the buried surface. The abrupt 50- to 100-foot changes in elevation along present river valleys are shown by closing contour lines. Only in areas of rugged morainal topography where local relief is great and in areas where glacial drift is unusually thick and information is meager are the contours intentionally generalized. These parts of the map undoubtedly will require much revision as additional data become available. Only minor changes should be necessary in most of central Indiana...

Web-Based Glacial and Bedrock Geologic Map Products and Databases for Allen County, Indiana

Rupp, Robin F.; Olejnik, Jennifer; Hasenmueller, Nancy R.; Karaffa, Marni D.; Walls, A. Chris; Radhakrishnan, Premkrishna; Eaton, Nathan, K.
Fonte: Universidade de Indiana Publicador: Universidade de Indiana
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 15051440 bytes; application/pdf
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This poster was presented at the 2007 meeting of the North-Central and South-Central Sections of the Geological Society of America, 41th Annual Meeting, in Lawrence, Kansas, April 11-13, 2007.; The Internet is becoming the medium of choice for delivering geologic information to both technical users and the general public. The Indiana Geological Survey (IGS) is currently creating a Web-based glacial and bedrock geologic map site for Allen County in northeastern Indiana. Allen County is the site of Fort Wayne, Indiana’s second largest city, and lies within IGS mapping and outreach priority areas based on population density and transportation corridors. This Web site provides detailed geologic information in an area that continues to experience pressure on natural resources by a large population and expanding transportation network. It is anticipated that the information from the Web site will be widely used by the general public and by industry and government entities. The Allen County Web site includes an Internet map server (IMS), as well as illustrations, educational summaries, and discussions of geologic maps, terrain images, and databases that complement the IMS. The site provides a front-end to the IGS enterprise geodatabases...

Web-Based Glacial and Bedrock Geologic Map Products and Databases for Allen County, Indiana

Rupp, Robin F.; Olejnik, Jennifer; Hasenmueller, Nancy R.; Karaffa, Marni D.; Walls, A. Chris; Radhakrishnan, Premkrishnan; Eaton, Nathan K.
Fonte: Universidade de Indiana Publicador: Universidade de Indiana
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 15048891 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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This poster was presented at the 2007 meeting of the North-Central and South-Central Sections of the Geological Society of America, 41th Annual Meeting, in Lawrence, Kansas, April 11-13, 2007.; The Internet is becoming the medium of choice for delivering geologic information to both technical users and the general public. The Indiana Geological Survey (IGS) is currently creating a Web-based glacial and bedrock geologic map site for Allen County in northeastern Indiana. Allen County is the site of Fort Wayne, Indiana’s second largest city, and lies within IGS mapping and outreach priority areas based on population density and transportation corridors. This Web site provides detailed geologic information in an area that continues to experience pressure on natural resources by a large population and expanding transportation network. It is anticipated that the information from the Web site will be widely used by the general public and by industry and government entities. The Allen County Web site includes an Internet map server (IMS), as well as illustrations, educational summaries, and discussions of geologic maps, terrain images, and databases that complement the IMS. The site provides a front-end to the IGS enterprise geodatabases...

GIS-based Three-dimensional Geologic and Hydrogeologic Modeling of the Milan, Ohio 1:24,000 Quadrangle

Pavey, Richard R.; Olyphant, Greg A.; Letsinger, Sally L.
Fonte: Universidade de Indiana Publicador: Universidade de Indiana
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 10386472 bytes; application/pdf
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This poster was presented at the North-Central Geological Society of America meeting in Evansville, IN, April 23-25, 2008.; The Central Great Lakes Geologic Mapping Coalition (CGLGMC) is a partnership among the state geological surveys of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The mission of the CGLGMC is to produce detailed three-dimensional geologic maps and information, along with related digital databases, that support informed decision-making involving ground water, mineral-resource availability and distribution, geological hazards, and environmental management. The initial Ohio project for the CGLGMC was the geologic and ground-water modeling of the Milan Quadrangle in north-central Ohio. This area was modeled as ten lithologic units, including alluvium, beach ridges, lacustrine sand and clayey silt units, Wisconsinan till, and a significant pre-Wisconsinan buried valley aquifer. Tools in ESRI ArcGIS, including the Spatial Analyst extension, were used to analyze borehole and outcrop data, construct the bounding surfaces of each lithologic unit, and to produce raster data layers representing the three-dimensional framework of these units. We used the detailed three-dimensional geologic model and merged it with an equally detailed groundwater-flow model to produce a more realistic understanding of the controls that glacial geology and geomorphology exert on shallow ground-water flow systems. The top of the geologic model was the surface topography (digital elevation model)...

A GIS-Based Approach to Modeling Three-Dimensional Geology of Near-Surface Glacial Morphosequences: Huntertown Formation, Northeastern Indiana

Letsinger, Sally L.; Naylor, Shawn; Olyphant, Greg A.
Fonte: Universidade de Indiana Publicador: Universidade de Indiana
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
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This presentation was given at the Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America (GSA), held in Portland, Oregon, on October 12, 2009.; The Huntertown Formation (Quaternary) in Allen County, Indiana, is located in a continental interlobate landscape position characterized by complex glacial stratigraphy consisting of coarse-grained proglacial sediments and loamy till interbedded with glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine facies. The goal in this study area is to generate a three-dimensional depiction of the units represented on a traditional geologic map with emphasis on conceptual model(s) of unit relationships, position of bounding surfaces, and morphological characteristics of bounding surfaces. Because we are working in near-surface sediments (i.e., depths less than 200 feet), we are able to constrain the units using multiple data sources, such as borehole lithologic information from water well records and rotosonic cores, natural gamma-ray log data, shallow geophysical surveys, and interpreted cross sections. These data sources also provide information about units that underlie those shown on the geologic map and form the base units of the model. The model of the Huntertown Formation is being built by reconstructing each unit by building from georeferenced GIS layers representing the topography of each major bounding surface...

Web-based glacial and bedrock geologic map products and databases for Marion County, Indiana

Rupp, R. F.; Hasenmueller, N. R.; Walls, A. C.; Karaffa, M. D.; Brown, S. E.; Fleming, A. H.; Ferguson, V. R.; Hasenmueller, W. A.
Fonte: Geological Society of America Publicador: Geological Society of America
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
EN_US
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This poster was presented at the 2010 meeting of the North-Central and South-Central Sections of the Geological Society of America, 44th Annual Meeting, in Branson, MO, April 11-13, 2010.; The Internet has become a medium of choice for delivering geologic information to both technical users and the general public. The Indiana Geological Survey (IGS) is creating a Web-based glacial and bedrock geologic map site for Marion County in central Indiana to provide detailed geologic information needed to address environmental and resource management issues related to a growing population and land-use conflicts. Marion County is the location of Indianapolis, the state capital and largest city. The IGS anticipates that the information available via the Web site will be widely used by the general public, industry, and government entities concerned about the geology, groundwater, and other natural resources in this county. The Marion County Web site links an Internet map server (IMS) and database to provide a portal to the IGS’s enterprise geodatabases that allows users to efficiently create, manage, update, and distribute maps and data. The IMS site retrieves maps and cross sections of Marion County completed during earlier IGS mapping projects. Map layers pertaining to bedrock geology...

Developing a Web Site to Provide Geologic Data and Map Products for Allen County, Indiana

Rupp, Robin F.; Olejnik, Jennifer; Hasenmueller, Nancy R.; Walls, A. Chris; Radhakrishnan, Premkrishna; Karaffa, Marni D.; Eaton, Nathan K.
Fonte: U.S. Geological Survey Publicador: U.S. Geological Survey
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This poster was presented at the 2007 meeting of the Digital Mapping Techniques Conference in Columbia, South Carolina, May 20-23, 2007.; The Internet is becoming the medium of choice for delivering geologic information to both technical users and the general public. The Indiana Geological Survey (IGS) is currently creating a Web-based glacial and bedrock geologic map site for Allen County in northeastern Indiana. Allen County is the site of Fort Wayne, Indiana’s second largest city, and lies within IGS mapping and outreach priority areas based on population density and transportation corridors. This Web site provides detailed geologic information in an area that continues to experience pressure on natural resources by a large population and expanding transportation network. It is anticipated that the information from the Web site will be widely used by the general public and by industry and government entities. The Allen County Web site includes an Internet map server (IMS), as well as illustrations, educational summaries, and discussions of geologic maps, terrain images, and databases that complement the IMS. The site provides a front-end to the IGS enterprise geodatabases, which contain information used simultaneously for research and for viewing by the general public. The geodatabase systems allow maps and data to be efficiently created...

GIS Tools for 3-D Surficial Mapping in Ohio

McDonald, James; Pavey, Richard R.; Venteris, Erik R.; Wells, Joseph G.
Fonte: U.S. Geological Survey Publicador: U.S. Geological Survey
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This poster was presented at the 2007 meeting of the Digital Mapping Techniques Conference in Columbia, South Carolina, May 20-23, 2007.; The Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey is currently mapping the surficial geology of Ohio in three dimensions (3-D) using a modified version of the stack-mapping technique of Kempton (1981). The stack-mapping technique depicts the geology for an area in 3-D by listing the unconsolidated (mostly glacial) geologic units from the surface to bedrock, the thickness of each unit, and the underlying bedrock unit. The new mapping of the surficial geology is intended to replace the older and smaller-scale mapping that was based upon generalized, two-dimensional mapping techniques. Three ArcMap-based software applications were developed to assist with the stack-unit mapping program. The first software application used the lithologies from water wells to create on-screen graphics representing the stratigraphic columns for each well record. These stratigraphic columns are interpreted by the geologist to assign a generalized stack unit for each polygon. The second software application consists of two tools used to attribute and label the stack-map polygons, which will capture the information in the GIS and for cartographic display. The first tool attributes a one-to-many relationship between a surficial-geology polygon and the lithology table. The second tool labels the surficial-geology polygons with the stack text for use in map publishing. The third application performs custom queries against the lithology table that can be used to create derivative mapping products...

The Geology of Lake and Porter Counties

Blatchley, W.S.
Fonte: William B. Burford, Contractor for State Printing and Binding Publicador: William B. Burford, Contractor for State Printing and Binding
Tipo: Parte de Livro
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Millennial and Orbital Variations of El Nino/Southern Oscillation and High-Latitude Climate in the Last Glacial Period

Turney, Christian; Kershaw, Arnold Peter; Clemens, Steven C; Branch, N.; Moss, Patrick; Fifield, L Keith
Fonte: Macmillan Publishers Ltd Publicador: Macmillan Publishers Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon is believed to have operated continuously over the last glacial-interglacial cycle. ENSO variability has been suggested to be linked to millennial-scale oscillations in North Atlantic climate during that

Constraints on the Greenland ice sheet since the Last Glacial Maximum from sea-level observations and glacial-rebound models.

Fleming, Kevin; Lambeck, Kurt
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Geomorphological descriptions of changes in the extent of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) have been combined with glacial-isostatic-adjustment models to reproduce the sea-level history of Greenland since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The contribution to past sea-level change around Greenland due to ice-load changes outside of that region has been considerable (± 10's of meters), while still contributing a rise of several mm yr-1 today. The isostatic contribution to relative sea level around Greenland from changes in the GIS is found by iteratively perturbing preliminary ice models with different LGM extents and deglaciation starting times. The resulting first-order model that provides the best agreement between observed and predicted sea level contributes 3.1 and 1.9 m water-equivalent of additional ice relative to present-day ice volumes at the LGM and Younger Dryas, respectively. The GIS in most areas does not appear to have extended far onto the continental shelf, the exceptions being southern-most Southwest Greenland and northern East Greenland, as well as at the coalescence of the Northwest Greenland and Innuitian Ice Sheets. Changes in ice thickness since the LGM were >500 m along the present-day outer coast and >1500 m along some parts of the present-day ice margin. The observed mid- to late-Holocene fall in sea level to below the present-day level and the subsequent transgression seen in some areas implies that the GIS retreated behind the present-day margin by distances of the order of 40 km before readvancing.

Into and out of the Last Glacial Maximum: sea-level change during Oxygen Isotope Stages 3 and 2

Lambeck, Kurt; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Purcell, Anthony
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Sea-level data from seven different regions have been used to estimate the global change in ocean and ice volumes for the time interval leading into and out of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The estimates are earth-model dependent and parameters are chosen that minimize discrepancies between the individual estimates for each region. Good coherence between estimates from different localities has been found. The main conclusions are: (i) Ice volumes approached their maximum values 30 000 (calendar) years ago and remained nearly constant until 19 000 years ago. This defines the period of maximum global glaciation. (ii) The postLGM sea-level rise is marked by changes in rates with maximum rates of about 15 mm/year occurring from 16,000 to 12,500 years ago and again from 11,500 to 9000 years ago. Ice volumes in the interval between these two periods of rapid rise, corresponding to the Younger Dryas, is nearly constant. (iii) The melting at the end of the LGM is characterized by an initially high rate over about 500 years followed by about 2500 years of a comparatively slow increase in ocean volume. (iv) The lead into the LGM is characterized by a sea-level fall of about 50 m occurring within a few thousand years. Similar rates of falling and rising sea levels occur during the earlier part of the oxygen isotope stage 3 interval.

The Timing of the Last Glacial Maximum in Australia

Barrows, Timothy; Stone, John O; Fifield, L Keith; Cresswell, Richard
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Late Pleistocene glaciation of Australia was restricted to the Snowy Mountains and the Tasmanian highlands. Glaciers were most extensive in Tasmania where ice caps formed on the Central Plateau and West Coast Ranges, and systems of valley and cirque glaciers formed on surrounding mountains. To investigate the timing of maximum glacier advance during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), we dated boulders on 18 moraines in 8 glaciated areas using cosmogenic 36Cl and 10Be. We sampled moraines deposited by cirque and valley glaciers, in a range of climate types and lithologies over a 7° latitudinal and a 1430m altitudinal transect. Exposure ages for LGM moraine boulders group tightly in the range 17-20 ka. Boulders from the Hamilton moraine, often treated as the LGM type moraine, range in age from ∼190-350 ka, indicating that it was deposited well before the last glaciation. Collectively, the exposure ages show that southeastern Australia was glaciated briefly during and after the LGM, and deglaciated well before the Holocene. Ice retreated from the terminal moraines after the period of coldest sea-surface temperatures in the southwest Pacific Ocean. No evidence was found for readvance of glaciers during the Antarctic Cold Reversal or the Younger Dryas period.

Estimates of present-day glacial rebound in the Lambert Glacier region, Antarctica

Zwartz, D; Tregoning, Paul; Lambeck, Kurt; Johnston, Paul; Stone, John O
Fonte: American Geophysical Union Publicador: American Geophysical Union
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Changes in the ice load since the time of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) contribute to the present-day vertical motion of the Antarctic continent. The observation of these motions will reveal information on the ice load history. Predictions of uplift rates along a transect across the Lambert Glacier region, East Antarctica, from the coast to the southernmost rock outcrops of the Prince Charles Mountains have been computed for three deglaciation scenarios. The relative vertical velocities between sites on the transect are -7 to +7 mm/yr and are large enough to be detected from continuous GPS observations taken at permanent sites over several years. When available, such information will discriminate between the currently available models for deglaciation of East Antarctica.