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Influence of Post-Clearing Treatment on the Recovery of Herbaceous Plant Communities in Amazonian Secondary Forests

RIBEIRO, Maria Beatriz N.; BRUNA, Emilio M.; MANTOVANI, Waldir
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.91%
Secondary forests are an increasingly common feature in tropical landscapes worldwide and understanding their regeneration is necessary to design effective restoration strategies. It has previously been shown that the woody species community in secondary forests can follow different successional pathways according to the nature of past human activities in the area, yet little is known about patterns of herbaceous species diversity in secondary forests with different histories of land use. We compared the diversity and abundance of herbaceous plant communities in two types of Central Amazonian secondary forests-those regenerating on pastures created by felling and burning trees and those where trees were felled only. We also tested if plant density and species richness in secondary forests are related to proximity to primary forest. In comparison with primary forest sites, forests regenerating on non-burned habitats had lower herbaceous plant density and species richness than those on burned ones. However, species composition and abundance in non-burned stands were more similar to those of primary forest, whereas several secondary forest specialist species were found in burned stands. In both non-burned and burned forests, distance from the forest edge was not related to herbaceous density and species richness. Overall...

Redes de interação plantas-visitantes florais e a restauração de processos ecológicos em florestas tropicais; Flower- visitor networks and the restoration of ecological processes in tropical forests

Vosgueritchian, Simone Bazarian
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/09/2010 PT
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37.04%
A restauração da Mata Atlântica tem sido considerada prioridade nas iniciativas de manutenção da biodiversidade. Adicionalmente, há consenso de que os parâmetros para avaliação da restauração ecológica devem mensurar o retorno de funções ecológicas. O estudo de interações planta-visitante floral pode ser um caminho adequado para avaliar a eficiência das práticas de restauração, visto que estas interações desempenham função crítica na dinâmica e diversidade da comunidade. Variações na diversidade de espécies de plantas e de seus visitantes florais podem alterar a freqüência de interação entre as espécies, definir a estrutura das redes de interação, determinando os níveis de generalização e especialização na comunidade. Neste contexto, a tentativa de restaurar florestas tropicais pela adição de espécies arbóreas pode ter efeitos sobre a estrutura, estabelecimento de grupos funcionais e níveis de generalização na rede de interação entre flores e visitantes florais. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é o de comparar redes de interação planta-visitante floral em florestas tropicais restauradas após 5 anos do plantio das arbóreas, florestas regeneradas naturalmente e remanescentes de floresta atlântica em uma área sob domínio da Mata Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil. Para atingir esse objetivo...

Comunidades arbóreas em florestas de restinga: o papel das demandas conflitantes e dos inimigos naturais no nicho de regeneração; Tree communities in restinga forests: the role of trade-offs and natural enemies in the regeneration niche

Zanelato, Daniela
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/08/2012 PT
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36.89%
A presente dissertação teve como objetivo investigar se padrões presentes nas comunidades arbóreas adultas podem ser gerados por diferenças em aspectos relacionados ao nicho de regeneração das espécies. Nosso modelo de estudo foram duas florestas de restinga localizadas na Ilha do Cardoso, litoral sul do estado de São Paulo. A floresta de restinga alta (RA) é uma formação geologicamente mais antiga e possui dossel mais fechado que a floresta de restinga baixa (RB). No Capítulo 1, investigamos se as inversões de abundância das árvores adultas entre RA e RB podem ser geradas devido ao desempenho diferenciado destas espécies ainda na fase de plântula, devido à atuação do filtro ambiental luminosidade. Hipotetizamos que as espécies apresentem pior desempenho no estágio de plântula na floresta em que são menos abundantes como adultos, devido a uma demanda conflitante entre crescimento e sobrevivência. Esperávamos também que a mortalidade por patógenos fosse a principal causa de mortalidade das plântulas na floresta mais sombreada. Realizamos um experimento manipulativo em campo com seis espécies arbóreas, no qual plântulas com um mês após a germinação foram transplantadas nas duas florestas e no viveiro. Acompanhamos o desempenho destas plântulas durante nove meses. Não houve diferenças no desempenho das espécies entre as duas florestas estudadas...

Diversidade florística e estrutura vegetacional das tipologias florestais ocorrentes em diferentes sub-biomas de planície costeira e baixa encosta de bertioga (SP); Floristic diversity and vegetation structure of forests types occurring in differents sub-biomes of coastal plain and low slope in Bertioga (SP)

Pinto Sobrinho, Felipe de Araújo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/10/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
O presente estudo foi desenvolvido nas planícies costeiras do Itaguaré e do Guaratuba localizadas no município de Bertioga (litoral central do Estado de São Paulo) e teve como objetivo descrever e comparar aspectos florísticos e estruturais das tipologias florestais que ocorrem em diferentes associações com depósitos sedimentares e solos. Foram inventariados 12 florestas: a) Floresta baixa de Restinga sobre cordões litorâneos holocênicos amostrada na planícies costeiras do Guaratuba (FbR/G); b) Floresta baixa de Restinga sobre cordões litorâneos holocênicos presente na planícies costeiras do Itaguaré (FbR/I), c) Floresta alta de Restinga sobre cordões litorâneos holocênicos (FaR1/G), d) Floresta alta de Restinga sobre terraços marinhos holocênicos presente na planícies costeiras do Guaratuba (FaR2/G); e) Floresta alta de Restinga sobre terraços marinhos holocênicos presente na planícies costeiras do Itaguaré (FaR2/I); f) Floresta alta de Restinga sobre terraços marinhos baixos pleistocênicos presente na planícies costeiras do Guaratuba; g) Floresta alta de restinga sobre terraços marinhos baixos pleistocênicos presente na planícies costeiras do Itaguaré (FaR3/I); h) Floresta alta de Restinga úmida sobre depressões estuarinas paleolagunares rasas holocênicas (FaRu) i) Floresta Paludosa sobre sobre depressões paleolagunares profundas holocênicas (FPa); j) Floresta Aluvial sobre terraços fluviais pleistocênicos (FAL)...

Floristic relationships among inland swamp forests of Southeastern and Central-Western Brazil

Teixeira, A.P.; Assis, M.A.
Fonte: Sociedade Botânica de São Paulo Publicador: Sociedade Botânica de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 91-101
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); As relações florísticas entre 20 florestas paludosas interioranas do Sudeste e Centro-oeste do Brasil foram avaliadas por meio de análises multivariadas. A DCA (Análise de correspondência destendenciada) e a TWINSPAN (Two way indicator species analysis) indicaram dois grupos floristicamente distintos, conforme a província fitogeográfica (Paranaense ou Cerrado) e suas condições de clima, fitofisionomias e composição de espécies. Dentro de uma mesma província, as condições edáficas e a distância geográfica, entre outros fatores, podem ser responsáveis por semelhanças ou dissimilaridades florísticas entre as florestas. Os resultados evidenciam que, apesar da baixa diversidade a, a diversidade γ é alta para essas formações, em função de baixas similaridades florísticas entre os remanescentes e do elevado número de espécies exclusivas (55% do total de espécies). Embora floristicamente distintas, conclui-se que as florestas paludosas interioranas do Sudeste do Brasil e as florestas de galeria inundáveis do Brasil Central são parte de uma mesma formação florestal. Estas florestas apresentam...

Bryophyte flora in upland forests at different successional stages and in the various strata of host trees in northeastern Pará, Brazil

Tavares-Martins,Ana Cláudia Caldeira; Lisboa,Regina Célia Lobato; Costa,Denise Pinheiro da
Fonte: Sociedade Botânica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Botânica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2014 EN
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36.95%
In the northeastern region of the Brazilian state of Pará, approximately 90% of the forested areas are secondary forests. Secondary forests are interesting areas for floristic studies aimed at determining the effects that clear-cutting has on bryophyte communities. The aim of this study was to compare upland forests at different successional stages and the various strata of host trees, in terms of the bryophyte species composition. Bryophyte specimens were collected between August 2005 and September 2006 from host trees in primary and secondary forests of different ages and of different heights, within the municipality of Capitão Poço, in the state of Pará. The vertical distribution of bryophytes was evaluated in 15 host trees within the primary forest. We identified a total of 99 bryophyte species: 33 mosses and 66 liverworts. The dominant family was Lejeuneaceae, with 56 species. Most of the species (n = 60) had a neotropical distribution, and 3 species were endemic to Brazil. Cololejeunea minutissima var. myriocarpa (Nees & Mont.) R.M.Schust., Pycnolejeunea papillosa X.-L. He, Radula mammosa Spruce and Verdoornianthus marsupiifolius (Spruce) Gradst. represent new records for the state of Pará. In the successional forests evaluated...

Diversidade florística e funcional em formações florestais ribeirinhas no Triangulo Mineiro, MG, Brasil; Floristic and functional diversity in riparian forests in Triangulo Mineiro, MG, Brazil

Borges, Mariana Prado
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.91%
A classificação das florestas ribeirinhas por mata ciliar, mata de galeria inundável e não-inundável remete a diferenças ambientais que refletem na diversidade florística desses ecossistemas e, provavelmente, influenciam na diversidade funcional. Esses ambientes, de extrema importância ecológica, vêm sofrendo com a degradação devido às atividades antrópicas e, por isso, programas de manejo e restauração pautados nos aspectos ecológicos das comunidades, dentre eles a diversidade funcional, são importantes para a conservação desses ecossistemas. Os objetivos desse trabalho foram: [1] conhecer a composição florística e a estrutura da mata de galeria inundável do córrego do Glória (Uberlândia-MG) e sua similaridade florística com florestas inundáveis do Bioma Cerrado; [2] utilizar atributos reprodutivos de três tipos de formações florestais ribeirinhas para compará-las quanto à diversidade funcional. Foram utilizados os dados florísticos referentes a três áreas: mata ciliar do rio Araguari, mata de galeria não-inundável do ribeirão do Panga e mata de galeria inundável do córrego do Glória, localizadas em Uberlândia, MG. Para o levantamento no córrego do Gloria, foi utilizando o método de ponto quadrante...

At Loggerheads? Agricultural Expansion, Poverty Reduction, and Environment in the Tropical Forests

Chomitz, Kenneth
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.95%
There are many causes, consequences, and connections of deforestation and forest poverty in the tropical world. This report specifically addresses the potential dilemma of trade-offs between poverty reduction and environmental protection. It seeks to improve the diagnosis of forest problems and facilitate the prescription and application of solutions by focusing on both the causes and consequences of forest conversion to agriculture and on the nature and location of forest poverty. The first section is diagnostic, examining the drivers and consequences of deforestation and forest poverty. The second part looks at how governance, institutions, and policies shape those drivers. It identifies opportunities for win-win policies. In particular, anything that boosts labor demand outside agriculture will tend to reduce both poverty and deforestation. Additionally, promotion of some kinds of agroforestry can help to improve the ecological functions of degraded forests while boosting farm output and employment. The report offers a systematic framework for thinking about how to integrate forest management with rural development in a sustainable way.

Forests, Fragility and Conflict : Overview and Case Studies

Harwell, Emily; Farah, Douglas; Blundell, Arthur G.
Fonte: Program on Forests (PROFOR), World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Program on Forests (PROFOR), World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.02%
This book provides a synthesis of key themes and current knowledge about the links among forests, armed conflict, poverty, and various aspects of state fragility. The main themes addressed are: how predatory, incapable, or absent states are fragile in different ways, and their diverse relationships to forests and conflict; the mechanisms by which forests facilitate or prolong conflict, including financial flows from logging to state and non-state belligerents, the use of forests as patronage, the traffic of weapons by loggers, and the employment of belligerents by logging companies for security; the impact of conflict and fragility on forests and forest livelihoods, with a focus on cross-sectoral issues associated with managing forests after conflicts end; and the focus of reform in post conflict interventions to more effectively protect forests and forest-based livelihoods, and to mitigate further conflict. Because forests have multiple and often competing constituencies for commercial, subsistence...

Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Kenya Forests Act 2005

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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37%
Forest in Kenya is an important source of livelihood, environmental services, and economic growth. In November of 2005 the Government of Kenya (GOK) ratified a new Forests Act. The act contains many innovative provisions to correct previous shortcomings, including a strong emphasis on partnerships, the engagement of local communities, and promotion of private investment. The purpose of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is to inform, influence, and strengthen the processes of implementing the new Forests Act and inform policy discussions regarding sustainable use forests resources for national development. The SEA examined current risks confronting both woodland and forest environments and the social well-being of communities relying on these resources. Evidence gathered through research and extensive consultation with stakeholders was used to identify the scope for improving institutional structures and governance processes under the planned forestry reforms, notably those relating to the Kenya forest service and the participation of communities and the private sector in forest management. The SEA recommends ways of enhancing the opportunities for environmental and social gain that already form part of the overall goal of the Forests Act.

Using Forests to Enhance Resilience to Climate Change : What Do We Know About How Forests Can Contribute to Adaptation?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
The global dialogue surrounding the United Nations framework convention for climate change has focused on two strategies for addressing challenges associated with climate change: (1) mitigation (reducing the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere); and (2) adaptation (reducing the vulnerability of societies and ecosystems to the impacts of climate change). Forests feature in both of these strategies. The role of forests as stores of carbon and therefore in reducing GHG emissions has been captured in the efforts associated with reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation and enhancing carbon stocks (REDD+). The report points to how forests will respond to climate change, and advocates strengthening the ability of institutions to deliver on sustainable forest management, which will help with the resilience of forest systems. This working paper presents a review of relevant work on forests and the services, and the use of forests and trees in adaptation. The paper starts with a brief discussion about climate change. It also provides a conceptualization of how to link forest services with their use for adaptation (more specifically...

Community Forest Management and REDD+

International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Network
Fonte: Washington, DC: Program on Forests (PROFOR) Publicador: Washington, DC: Program on Forests (PROFOR)
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.91%
The urgent need to limit anthropogenic carbon emissions has led to a global initiative to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). But designing national architectures for REDD+ that integrate local actions on forests with national-level outcomes and do so effectively, efficiently, and equitably continues to be challenging. One option to facilitate the design and implementation of REDD+ is to learn from the experience of other programs that have historically been successful in achieving sustainable tropical forest management, such as community forest management (CFM). Lessons about the factors that contribute to CFM success will be useful in designing REDD+ programs. REDD+ may also benefit from harnessing the capital developed by CFM. Of course, REDD+ and CFM represent both opportunities and challenges for each other. Identifying how CFM can contribute to REDD+ goals, and the potential benefits and risks in using CFM to achieve REDD+ implementation requires careful analysis of available evidence because the two sets of interventions do not have a complete overlap in terms of their objectives and mechanisms.

Poverty-Forests Linkages Toolkit : Overview and National Level Engagement

PROFOR
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
Over the past few years there has been a growing interest in the role that forests play in supporting the poor, in reducing their vulnerability to economic and environmental shocks, and in reducing poverty itself. International workshops in Italy, Scotland, Finland and Germany have focused on the contribution of forests to livelihoods and the policies needed to strengthen that contribution. At the same time, Forestry Ministries, though they are now beginning to feel challenged to demonstrate the ways in which forests contribute to poverty reduction, are for the most part moving only slowly to collect new kinds of data to meet this challenge. There are two main reasons why the role of forests in poverty reduction has not so far been reflected in any significant way in either national level Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) processes or in national forest programs (NFPS). First, most countries have little data available to illustrate how forests contribute to the livelihoods of poor households. Second, the data that does exist rarely gets presented in ways that are meaningful to those designing PRSPs and NFPS. On the poverty side...

Sustaining Forests : A Development Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.98%
Forest resources directly contribute to the livelihoods of 90 percent of the 1.2 billion people living in extreme poverty and indirectly support the natural environment that nourishes agriculture and the food supplies of nearly half the population of the developing world. Forests also are central to growth in many developing countries through trade and industrial development. However, mismanagement of this resource has cost governments revenues that exceed World Bank lending to these countries. Illegal logging results in additional losses of at least US$10 billion to US$15 billion per year of forest resources from public lands. If captured by governments, these losses could support expenditures in education and health that will exceed current development assistance to these sectors. Forests also are central to maintaining the environmental commons. Nearly 90 percent of terrestrial biodiversity is found in the world's forests, with a disproportionate share in the forests of developing countries. Most of the carbon emissions of developing countries come from deforestation...

Sustaining Forests : A Development Strategy, Appendixes (from CD-ROM)

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.95%
Forest resources directly contribute to the livelihoods of 90 percent of the 1.2 billion people living in extreme poverty and indirectly support the natural environment that nourishes agriculture and the food supplies of nearly half the population of the developing world. Forests also are central to growth in many developing countries through trade and industrial development. However, mismanagement of this resource has cost governments revenues that exceed World Bank lending to these countries. Illegal logging results in additional losses of at least US$10 billion to US$15 billion per year of forest resources from public lands. If captured by governments, these losses could support expenditures in education and health that will exceed current development assistance to these sectors. Forests also are central to maintaining the environmental commons. Nearly 90 percent of terrestrial biodiversity is found in the world's forests, with a disproportionate share in the forests of developing countries. Most of the carbon emissions of developing countries come from deforestation...

Forests Sourcebook : Practical Guidance for Sustaining Forests in Development Cooperation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
The Forests Sourcebook is divided into two parts. The first contains an introduction to the book plus seven chapters covering topics associated with enhancing the contribution of forests to poverty reduction, engaging the private sector, meeting the growing demand for forest products, optimizing forest functions at the landscape level, improving forest governance, mainstreaming forest considerations into macro policy dialogue, and monitoring forest sector activities. Each chapter provides relevant background and context with a general overview of the fundamental issues, constraints, policies, and institutional requirements that need to be considered for specific topics. The second part provides guidance for implementing the World Bank's safeguard on forests. This section of the Forests Sourcebook has five chapters. Chapter eighth provides a brief introduction to the World Bank's Forests Policy (OP 4.36). Chapter ninth is on applying OP 4.36. This chapter includes a discussion of the main requirements of OP 4.36...

Migration, Remittances and Forests : Disentangling the Impact of Population and Economic Growth on Forests

Tiwari, Sailesh; Bhattarai, Keshav
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
International migration has increased rapidly in recent decades and this has been accompanied by a remarkable increase in transfers made by migrants to their home countries. This paper investigates the effect of the rural economic growth brought about by migration and remittances on Nepal's Himalayan forests. The authors assemble a unique village-panel dataset combining remote sensing data on land use and forest cover change with data from the census and multiple rounds of living standards surveys to test various inter-relationships between population, economic growth and forests. The results suggest that rural economic growth spurred by remittances has had an overall positive impact on forests. The paper also finds that remittances caused an increase in rural wages and an increase in income, but a decrease in land prices. Considered together, however, the relationship between forests and remittances is driven largely through the income channel, indicating that the demand for amenities provided by forests in the rural Nepali setting may have been more important than factor prices in influencing land use changes for the period of the study.

Comunidades de aves de bosques fluviales habitados y no habitados por el hombre en el río Paraná medio, Argentina; Bird communities of human inhabited and uninhabited riparian forests in the middle Paraná River, Argentina

Rossetti, María Alejandra; Giraudo, Alejandro Raúl
Fonte: Aves Argentinas / Asociación Ornitológica del Plata Publicador: Aves Argentinas / Asociación Ornitológica del Plata
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2003 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.91%
Los bosques riparios del río Paraná medio son sitios frecuentemente utilizados para la construcción de viviendas humanas. No obstante, no se conocen los efectos de estas modificaciones sobre las comunidades de aves de estos bosques. Se comparó la avifauna de bosques fluviales habitados y no habitados por el hombre, para evaluar posibles cambios en las comunidades. Se realizaron 60 conteos en puntos, 30 en bosques habitados y 30 en bosques no habitados. Se compararon la riqueza, la abundancia, la equitatividad y la diversidad de aves entre las dos situaciones. Se registraron 60 especies y 591 individuos en los bosques no habitados, y 53 especies y 646 individuos en los habitados. No se detectaron diferencias significativas en la riqueza ni en la diversidad. La abundancia de aves fue significativamente mayor en los bosques habitados. Esto puede haber sido debido a que las comunidades de aves tuvieron pocas especies de bosque con respecto a especies de hábitats no boscosos o generalistas. Las variables estudiadas podrían no haber reflejado los cambios ambientales, o bien el tamaño de la muestra puede haber sido insuficiente para detectarlos. El relativo bajo impacto que producen las viviendas aisladas podría ser poco significativo para las aves en relación con otras perturbaciones locales. Otros factores...

Comunidades de aves de bosques fluviales habitados y no habitados por el hombre en el río Paraná medio, Argentina; Bird communities of human inhabited and uninhabited riparian forests in the middle Paraná River, Argentina

Rossetti, María Alejandra; Giraudo, Alejandro Raúl
Fonte: Revista de Ornitología Neotropical; Aves Argentinas; Aves Argentinas / Asociación Ornitológica del Plata Publicador: Revista de Ornitología Neotropical; Aves Argentinas; Aves Argentinas / Asociación Ornitológica del Plata
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2003 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.91%
Los bosques riparios del río Paraná medio son sitios frecuentemente utilizados para la construcción de viviendas humanas. No obstante, no se conocen los efectos de estas modificaciones sobre las comunidades de aves de estos bosques. Se comparó la avifauna de bosques fluviales habitados y no habitados por el hombre, para evaluar posibles cambios en las comunidades. Se realizaron 60 conteos en puntos, 30 en bosques habitados y 30 en bosques no habitados. Se compararon la riqueza, la abundancia, la equitatividad y la diversidad de aves entre las dos situaciones. Se registraron 60 especies y 591 individuos en los bosques no habitados, y 53 especies y 646 individuos en los habitados. No se detectaron diferencias significativas en la riqueza ni en la diversidad. La abundancia de aves fue significativamente mayor en los bosques habitados. Esto puede haber sido debido a que las comunidades de aves tuvieron pocas especies de bosque con respecto a especies de hábitats no boscosos o generalistas. Las variables estudiadas podrían no haber reflejado los cambios ambientales, o bien el tamaño de la muestra puede haber sido insuficiente para detectarlos. El relativo bajo impacto que producen las viviendas aisladas podría ser poco significativo para las aves en relación con otras perturbaciones locales. Otros factores...

Comparisons of Carbon and Water Fluxes of Pine Forests in Boreal and Temperate Climatic Zones

Tor-ngern, Pantana
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%

Quantifying carbon fluxes and pools of forest ecosystems is an active research area in global climate study, particularly in the currently and projected increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration environment. Forest carbon dynamics are closely linked to the water cycle through plant stomata which are regulated by environmental conditions associated with atmospheric and soil humidity, air temperature and light. Thus, it is imperative to study both carbon and water fluxes of a forest ecosystem to be able to assess the impact of environmental changes, including those resulting from climate change, on global carbon and hydrologic cycles. However, challenges hampering such global study lie in the spatial heterogeneity of and the temporal variability of fluxes in forests around the globe. Moreover, continuous, long-term monitoring and measurements of fluxes are not feasible at global forest scale. Therefore, the need to quantify carbon and water fluxes and to identify key variables controlling them at multiple stands and time scales is growing. Such analyses will benefit the upscaling of stand-level observations to large- or global-scale modelling approaches.

I performed a series of studies investigating carbon and water fluxes in pine forests of various site characteristics...