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Micro e nanofabricação (fabricação de contatos eletricos) por feixe de ions focalizados; Micro and nano (manufacture of electrical contacts) with focused ion beam

Marcelo Macchi da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/06/2007 PT
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A nanotecnologia e uma área nova e promissora que englobam muitas disciplinas de ciência e engenharia. Seu rápido crescimento nas ultimas duas décadas é devido ao crescimento simultâneo na fabricação e caracterização de materiais em escala nanométrica. O objetivo deste trabalho é desenvolver uma técnica de processo híbrido para a fabricação de micro e nanocontatos assim como sua caracterização elétrica. Esse processo híbrido combina a fotolitografia seguida da técnica de lift-off e a deposição de platina por FIB. Para determinar a resistividade da platina depositada por FIB (Focuded Ion Beam), foram fabricas estruturas quadradas variando sua espessura de 5 nm - 100 nm e sua área 150 µm 150 µm e 20 µm x 20 µm. Resistores com comprimento de 30 µm variando sua área de secção (50 nm x 50 nm - 1 µm x 1 µm) foram fabricados a fim de uma melhor na caracterização do processo de deposição do filme de Pt assim como sua caracterização elétrica. As medidas elétricas foram realizadas na estação Keythley 4200 SCS, onde foi utilizado o método de quatro pontas nas estruturas quadradas para a caracterização da resistividade. Nos resistores utilizamos a configuração de dois terminais para a caracterização de resistência dos nanocontatos; Nanoscale science and technology is a young and burgeoning field that encompasses nearly every discipline of science and engineering...

Desenvolvimento de processos de obtenção nanofios de silício para dispositivos MOS 3D utilizando feixe de íons focalizados e litografia por feixe de elétrons; Development of process for obtaining silicon nanowires for 3D MOS devices using focused ion beam and electron beam lithography

Marcos Vinicius Puydinger dos Santos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/12/2013 PT
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Neste trabalho é apresentado o desenvolvimento do processo de obtenção de nanofios de silício (SiNW) para aplicações em dispositivos MOS tridimensionais utilizando as técnicas de Feixe Íons Focalizados com íons de Gálio (GaFIB) e Litografia por Feixe de Elétrons (EBL). O processo completo de fabricação foi desenvolvido para a obtenção de transistores sem junção baseados em nanofios (junctionless nanowire transistors, JNT), escolhidos devido à facilidade de processamento – comparativamente a outros dispositivos, como FinFETs – e à ausência de efeitos de canal curto e perfuração MOS (punchthrough). Lâminas de tecnologia SOI (Silicon on Insulator) foram utilizadas como substrato. GaFIB/SEM – um sistema de duplo feixe acoplado a um microscópio eletrônico de varredura -, com resolução nominal de feixe iônico de 20 nm, foi utilizado para a definição dos nanofios de silício com dopagem local por íons de Gálio (p+ - SiNW) e deposição de dielétrico de porta de SiO2 e eletrodos de fonte, dreno e porta de Platina. Para deposição dos eletrodos metálicos e do dielétrico de porta foi utilizado feixe de elétrons disponível no SEM de modo a evitar implantação iônica extra e evitar o processo de sputtering dos nanofios de silício. As dimensões do comprimento (LFin) e altura (HFin) do nanofio...

Atomic force microscopy assisted with electron and ion beam microscopy for the direct measurement of biostructures and DNA samples

Calmeiro, Tomás Rosa
Fonte: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia Publicador: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 ENG
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Dissertation to obtain a Master degree in Biotechnology; Studies of atomic force microscopy (AFM), a technique commonly associated with material sciences, in the field of biotechnology, with special emphasis on molecular biology and bionanotechnology elements, are presented herein. DNA, insulin and restriction enzymes were analysed as isolated objects, in order to document properties like morphology and behaviour, and also on the interactions between each other. The interaction between DNA and the EcoRV restriction endonuclease was especially highlighted. Gold nanoparticles were also studied in an attempt to establish a relationship between functionalization and average diameter shifts, as perceived by AFM. Given the nature of these objects of study, both immobilization and preparation protocols were modified and evaluated, considering measurements in air or in liquid. To serve the objective of developing probes with higher sensitivity and resolution, especially for liquid measurements, AFM cantilevers were modified through metallic coatings and scanning electron microscopy assisted with focused ion beam (SEM-FIB). Tests performed with these probes confirmed that the modifications were successful, the probes are functional and can aid in the production of better quality images...

Focused ion beam induced deflections of freestanding thin films

Kim, Y.-R.; Chen, P.; Aziz, M. J.; Branton, D.; Vlassak, J. J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/11/2006 EN
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Prominent deflections are shown to occur in freestanding silicon nitride thin membranes when exposed to a 50 keV gallium focused ion beam for ion doses between 1014 and 1017 ions/cm2. Atomic force microscope topographs were used to quantify elevations on the irradiated side and corresponding depressions of comparable magnitude on the back side, thus indicating that what at first appeared to be protrusions are actually the result of membrane deflections. The shape in high-stress silicon nitride is remarkably flattopped and differs from that in low-stress silicon nitride. Ion beam induced biaxial compressive stress generation, which is a known deformation mechanism for other amorphous materials at higher ion energies, is hypothesized to be the origin of the deflection. A continuum mechanical model based on this assumption convincingly reproduces the profiles for both low-stress and high-stress membranes and provides a family of unusual shapes that can be created by deflection of freestanding thin films under beam irradiation.

Preparation of bismuth nanowire encased in quartz template for Hall measurements using focused ion beam processing

Murata, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Komine, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tomohiro
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/09/2012 EN
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Forming electrodes on opposite sides of an individual bismuth nanowire was attempted to prepare for Hall measurements. Although a 1-mm-long bismuth nanowire which is completely covered with a quartz template has been successfully fabricated to prevent oxidation, it is very difficult to attach Hall electrodes on the opposite sides of the nanowire due to the quartz covering. One side of the cylindrical quartz template was removed by polishing without exposure of the nanowire to the atmosphere; the thickness between the polished template surface and the nanowire was estimated to be several micrometers. Focused ion beam processing was successfully employed to expose both surfaces of the nanowire under high vacuum by removing part of the quartz template. A carbon thin film was then deposited in situ on the wire surface to fabricate an electrical contact on the bismuth nanowire sample. Furthermore, the energy dispersive X-ray analysis was performed to the area processed by focused ion beam, and the bismuth component of the nanowire was successfully detected. It was confirmed that the focused ion beam processing was applicable to attach electrodes to bismuth nanowire for Hall measurement.

Focused Ion Beam Induced Deflections of Freestanding Thin Films

Kim, Young-Rok; Vlassak, Joost; Chen, Peng-Chieh; Aziz, Michael; Branton, Daniel
Fonte: American Institute of Physics Publicador: American Institute of Physics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Prominent deflections are shown to occur in freestanding silicon nitride thin membranes when exposed to a 50 keV gallium focused ion beam for ion doses between 1014 and 1017 ions/cm2. Atomic force microscope topographs were used to quantify elevations on the irradiated side and corresponding depressions of comparable magnitude on the back side, thus indicating that what at first appeared to be protrusions are actually the result of membrane deflections. The shape in high-stress silicon nitride is remarkably flat-topped and differs from that in low-stress silicon nitride. Ion beam induced biaxial compressive stress generation, which is a known deformation mechanism for other amorphous materials at higher ion energies, is hypothesized to be the origin of the deflection. A continuum mechanical model based on this assumption convincingly reproduces the profiles for both low-stress and high-stress membranes and provides a family of unusual shapes that can be created by deflection of freestanding thin films under beam irradiation.; Engineering and Applied Sciences; Molecular and Cellular Biology

Focused ion beam direct fabrication of micro-optical elements: features compared with laser beam and electron beam direct writing

Fu, Yongqi; Ngoi, Kok Ann Bryan
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 373806 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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Three types of focused ion beam machine: focused ion beam milling (FIB milling), focused ion beam lithography (FIB lithography), and focused ion beam direct deposition (FIB deposition), are described in detail to compare with electron beam lithography (EBL) and laser beam direct writing (LBW). A diffractive optical element (DOE) with continuous relief, six-annulus, relief depth of 1.17µm, and diameter of 65 µm, fabricated by use of the FIB milling, is cited as an example to illustrate the FIB milling and the comparison with the EBL and the LBW. Micro-cylindrical lens with dimension of 2.8µm×7.5µm×0.95µm in width, length and height, NA=0.2, is given as another fabrication example to illustrate the FIB deposition, which is a unique function for all the direct writing methods. They are all superiors to the EBL and the LBW in the case that optical elements need to be directly fabricated in local area of a device.; Singapore-MIT Alliance (SMA)

Development of an advanced low energy focused ion beam system based on immersion optics; Entwicklung einer verbesserten niederenergetischen Rasterionensonde mit Immersionsoptik

Rauscher, Michael
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
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In this study an advanced approach towards low energy focused ion beam (FIB) system design and operation based on the use of immersion optics is presented. The system performance in terms of obtainable resolution for a given beam current has been investigated both theoretically as well as experimentally using a newly developed ion beam column. A thorough aberration-optical analysis has been carried out, which comprised the calculation of first-order optical properties and aberration coefficients of individual optical components as well as of the overall system. The results of this analysis have been used as a guideline for the layout and the choice of the favourable operation mode of the experimental test setup. Additionally, the impact of mutual Coulomb interactions on the thus predicted system performance has also been considered using numerical simulation tools. Methods have been developed to provide an objective measure for quantifying these interaction effects, and it has been shown that the latter may indeed be considered to have a limiting influence for the achievable probe size in the experimental setup. In parallel to these theoretical investigations, the practical realisation of the ion beam system was initiated. A reliably operating ion beam column has been developed...

Entwicklung einer ionenoptischen Säule mit Booster-Prinzip zur Erzeugung einer niederenergetischen Rasterionensonde; Development of an Ion Optical Column with Booster Principle for Generation of a Low-Energy Scanning Ion Probe

Marianowski, Karin
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertação
DE
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In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird aufbauend auf der Dissertation von M. Rauscher „Development of an Advanced Low Energy Focused Ion Beam System Based on Immersion Optics“ (Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, 2006) eine ionenoptische Säule mit Booster-Prinzip zur Erzeugung einer niederenergetischen Rasterionensonde entwickelt. Ein derartiges System erlaubt es abhängig von der gewählten Landeenergie zum einen, Probenmaterial mit rentabeln Bearbeitungszeiten ortsgenau abzutragen, ohne die umliegende Probe merklich zu schädigen, und zum anderen, ortsgenau Material auf der Probe abzulagern. Mit Hilfe ausführlicher Simulationen werden prinzipielle Designentscheidungen bezüglich der Komponenten der ionenoptischen Säule getroffen, die optimale Systemkonfiguration für eine Landeenergie von 1, 2 und 3 keV bestimmt und ein Vorgehen für die reale Systemjustage entwickelt. Das Hauptaugenmerk liegt dabei auf einer realistischen Beschreibung der Coulomb-Wechselwirkung, die im Fall einer niederenergetischen Rasterionensonde einen wesentlichen Einfluss auf das erreichbare Auflösungsvermögen ausübt. Ausgehend von diesen Ergebnissen werden allgemeine Designregeln für niederenergetische Systeme, in denen die Coulomb-Wechselwirkung einen großen Einfluss hat...

Fabrication of magnetic force microscopy tips via electrodeposition and focused ion beam milling

Cespedes, Oscar; Luu, A.; Rhen, Fernando M.F.; Coey, John Michael David
Fonte: IEEE Computer Society Publicador: IEEE Computer Society
Tipo: Journal Article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; none
ENG
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peer-reviewed; A method is described for the fabrication of magnetic force microscopy tips via localized electrodeposition and focused ion beam milling departing from commercial tapping mode tips. Very high aspect ratios and interacting magnetic moments are possible without altering significantly the tapping resonant frequency of the cantilever. These tips can achieve high magnetic resolution at room temperature and open atmosphere. They can also be fabricated into any shape, with applications for ferromagnetic resonance measurements and nano-imprinting.

Focused ion beam lithography- overview and new approaches

Arshak, Khalil; Mihov, Miroslav; Arshak, Arousian; McDonagh, Declan; Sutton, D
Fonte: IEEE Computer Society Publicador: IEEE Computer Society
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; none
ENG
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peer-reviewed; Focused Ion Beam (FIB) lithography has significant advantages over the electron beam counterpart in terms of resist sensitivity, backscattering and proximity effects. Applying the Top Surface Imaging (TSI) principal to FIB lithography could further enhance its capability. In this paper we review different FIB lithography processes which utilise both wet and dry development. As of further development of this technology, we report a novel lithography process which combines focused Cia' ion beam (Cia' FIB) exposure, silylation and oxygen dry etching. The Negative Resist Image by D q Etching (NERIME) is a TSI scheme for DNQhovolak based ICS~SIS and can result in either positive or negative resist images depending on the extent of the ion beam exposure dose. The NERlMF process can resolve nanometer resist patterns as small as 30nm yet maintaining high aspect ratio of up to 15. The proposed lithography scheme could be utilised for advanced prototype IC's fabrication and critical CMOS lithography process steps.

Fabrication of photonic crystal membranes in chalcogenide glasses by focused ion beam milling

Freeman, Darren; Madden, Steve; Luther-Davies, Barry
Fonte: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE Inc) Publicador: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE Inc)
Tipo: Conference paper
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Free-standing films of AMTIR-1 chalcogenide glass have been patterned using a focused ion beam, to produce a photonic crystal. Optical measurements of Fano resonances indicated that the resulting structures had strongly modified guided modes.

Real-Time Drift Correction of a Focused Ion Beam Milling System

Freeman, Darren; Luther-Davies, Barry; Madden, Steve
Fonte: Nano Science and Technology Institute Publicador: Nano Science and Technology Institute
Tipo: Conference paper
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Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling systems are attracting increasing attention outside of their traditional role as semiconductor inspection tools, and many researchers are now using FIB systems for nanofabrication. Although the commercial instruments will ru

Focused ion beam assisted analysis of the oxidation of a NiAl coating on pure Ni

Reid, M; Pomeroy, Michael J.; Vokal, V; Tanner, D.A
Fonte: Maney Publishing Publicador: Maney Publishing
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
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peer-reviewed; Discs of (pure nickel 15 mm diameter and 4 nun thickness) have been polished to a 1 mu m finish, aluminised using a standard pack CVD process to give a beta-NiAl coating and then the surface of this coating polished to a 1 mu m finish again. Samples have then been isothermally oxidised in a muffle furnace for 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512 and 1024 hours at 950 degrees C, and subjected to surface and cross-sectional microscopy and analysis. Scales were also cross-sectioned and imaged using Focused Ion Beam Milling. The oxidation rate was determined to be 2.6 x 10(-13) g(2) cm(-4) s(-1) and for times less than 512 hours the predominant alumina phase was theta alumina. Al depletion effects were observed due to both oxidation and interdiffusion between the Ni substrate and the NiAl coating. Using these effects, it has been shown that tensile strains of up to 9% can arise and these strains readily explain the formation of intrefacial elliptical pores observed by FIB cross sectioning. FIB sectioning also indicated that different coating grains exhibit different oxide-coating interfaces which arise due to different grain orientations. The faceting of the coating-oxide interface and the development of cuboidal faceted coating structures beneath spalled oxide is thought to be due to substructure development (sub-grain development or recrystallisation) arising from the plastic strains generated by Al depletion effects.; Accepted; peer-reviewed

Performance predictions of a focused ion beam from a laser cooled and compressed atomic beam

Haaf, G. ten; Wouters, S. H. W.; van der Geer, S. B.; Vredenbregt, E. J. D.; Mutsaers, P. H. A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Focused ion beams are indispensable tools in the semiconductor industry because of their ability to image and modify structures at the nanometer length scale. Here we report on performance predictions of a new type of focused ion beam based on photo-ionization of a laser cooled and compressed atomic beam. Particle tracing simulations are performed to investigate the effects of disorder-induced heating after ionization in a large electric field. They lead to a constraint on this electric field strength which is used as input for an analytical model which predicts the minimum attainable spot size as a function of amongst others the flux density of the atomic beam, the temperature of this beam and the total current. At low currents (I<10 pA) the spot size will be limited by a combination of spherical aberration and brightness, while at higher currents this is a combination of chromatic aberration and brightness. It is expected that a nanometer size spot is possible at a current of 1 pA. The analytical model was verified with particle tracing simulations of a complete focused ion beam setup. A genetic algorithm was used to find the optimum acceleration electric field as a function of the current. At low currents the result agrees well with the analytical model while at higher currents the spot sizes found are even lower due to effects that are not taken into account in the analytical model.

Maskless and targeted creation of arrays of colour centres in diamond using focused ion beam technology

Lesik, Margarita; Spinicelli, Piernicola; Pezzagna, Sébastien; Happel, Patrick; Jacques, Vincent; Salord, Olivier; Rasser, Bernard; Delobbe, Anne; Sudraud, Pierre; Tallaire, Alexandre; Meijer, Jan; Roch, Jean-François
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/04/2013
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The creation of nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond is nowadays well controlled using nitrogen implantation and annealing. Although the high-resolution placement of NV centres has been demonstrated using either collimation through pierced AFM tips or masks with apertures made by electron beam lithography, a targeted implantation into pre-defined structures in diamond may not be achieved using these techniques. We show that a beam of nitrogen ions can be focused to approximately 100 nm using focused ion beam (FIB) technology. The nitrogen ion beam is produced using an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source. Combined with a scanning electron microscope, the nitrogen-FIB offers new possibilities for the targeted creation of single defects in diamond. This maskless technology is suitable for example for the creation of optical centres in the cavities of photonic crystals or in diamond tips for scanning magnetometry. Finally, we further show that by changing the gas source from nitrogen to xenon, standard FIB milling capabilities are also available within the same tool.

Nanoscale superconducting properties of amorphous W-based deposits grown with focused-ion-beam

Guillamon, I.; Suderow, H.; Vieira, S.; Fernandez-Pacheco, A.; Sese, J.; Cordoba, R.; De Teresa, J. M.; Ibarra, M. R.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/05/2008
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We present very low temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy (STM/S) measurements in W-based amorphous superconducting nanodeposits grown using a metal-organic precursor and focused-ion-beam. The superconducting gap closely follows s-wave BCS theory, and STS images under magnetic fields show a hexagonal vortex lattice whose orientation is related to features observed in the topography through STM. Our results demonstrate that the superconducting properties at the surface of these deposits are very homogeneous, down to atomic scale. This, combined with the huge nanofabrication possibilities of the focused-ion-beam technique, paves the way to use focused-ion-beam to make superconducting circuitry of many different geometries.

Nanofabrication using focused ion beam

Latif, Adnan
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy
Tipo: Thesis; Doctoral Formato: 2401621 bytes; application/pdf
EN
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Focused ion beam (FIB) technique uses a focused beam of ions to scan the surface of a specimen, analogous to the way scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizes electrons. Recent developments in the FIB technology have led to beam spot size below 10 nm, which makes FIB suitable for nanofabrication. This project investigated the nanofabrication aspect of the FIB technique, with device applications perspective in several directions. Project work included construction of an in-situ FIB electrical measurement system and development of its applications, direct measurements of nanometer scale FIB cuts and fabrication and testing of lateral field emission devices. Research work was performed using a number of materials including Al, Cr, SiO2, Si3N4 and their heterostructures. Measurements performed included in-situ resistometric measurements, which provided milled depth information by monitoring the resistance change of a metal track while ion milling it. The reproducibly of this method was confirmed by repeating experiments and accuracy was proven by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The system accurately monitored the thickness of 50 nm wide and 400 nm thick (high aspect ratio) Nb tracks while ion milling them. Direct measurements of low aspect ratio nanometer scale FIB cuts were performed using AFM on single crystal Si...

Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator waveguides by focused ion beam milling

Moss, David J; Ta'eed, Vahid G; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Freeman, Darren; Madden, Steve; Samoc, Marek; Luther-Davies, Barry; Janz, S; Xu, D-X
Fonte: American Institute of Physics (AIP) Publicador: American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We report Bragg grating structures fabricated by focused ion beam milling in optical waveguides, and demonstrate that they can be used as a powerful diagnostic of optical modes in very high index waveguides. We show that higher-order lossy modes, which can be present in large numbers even in single-moded silicon-on-insulator waveguides, can dramatically affect the optical transmission spectra of Bragg gratings in these waveguides, even though these modes are normally not observable. Our results not only illuminate challenges to realize practical gratings in high index waveguides, but raise the possibility of devices based on mode conversion to extremely high order modes.

Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Through Focused ION Beam (FIB) from Vitrified Chromium Wastes

Ballesteros-Elizondo,S; Parga-Torres,J. R.; Rincón-López,J. Ma.; Palacios-González,E
Fonte: UNAM, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico Publicador: UNAM, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2011 EN
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This study shows how the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) has been applied to vitrified materials obtained from chromium wastes. Due to the issues arising during conventional Ar+ ion milling, it was necessary to thin these samples using FIB. Difficulties came from the heterogeneous size between chromium spinels and the residual glass phase. The FIB was applied to obtain thin foils from vitrified materials. These brittle and heterogeneous samples result in specimens with many perforations and chipping when using conventional thinning below 100 nanometers. Alternatively, FIB allowed thinning in the range of 60 - 80 nanometers from specifically selected areas such as the areas containing spinel crystals Mg(Al,Cr)2O4 in order to facilitate the final Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observations. In this paper, FIB is shown to be a very powerful microtool as a brittle samples preparation method as well as providing an alternative way for performing conventional ceramography and Ar+ ion milling. FIB is a much less destructive method with greater observed capacity in the quantity and analysis of microcrystalline phases.