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Comparison of the d-Glutamate-Adding Enzymes from Selected Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

Walsh, Ann W.; Falk, Paul J.; Thanassi, Jane; Discotto, Linda; Pucci, Michael J.; Ho, Hsu-Tso
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1999 EN
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573.8206%
The biochemical properties of the d-glutamate-adding enzymes (MurD) from Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated to detect any differences in the activity of this enzyme between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The genes (murD) that encode these enzymes were cloned into pMAL-c2 fusion vector and overexpressed as maltose-binding protein–MurD fusion proteins. Each fusion protein was purified to homogeneity by affinity to amylose resin. Proteolytic treatments of the fusion proteins with factor Xa regenerated the individual MurD proteins. It was found that these fusion proteins retain d-glutamate-adding activity and have Km and Vmax values similar to those of the regenerated MurDs, except for the H. influenzae enzyme. Substrate inhibition by UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine, the acceptor substrate, was observed at concentrations greater than 15 and 30 μM for E. coli and H. influenzae MurD, respectively. Such substrate inhibition was not observed with the E. faecalis and S. aureus enzymes, up to a substrate concentration of 1 to 2 mM. In addition, the two MurDs of gram-negative origin were shown to require monocations such as NH4+ and/or K+, but not Na+, for optimal activity...

Catabolism of Branched-Chain α-Keto Acids in Enterococcus faecalis: the bkd Gene Cluster, Enzymes, and Metabolic Route

Ward, Donald E.; Ross, R. Paul; van der Weijden, Coen C.; Snoep, Jacky L.; Claiborne, Al
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1999 EN
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655.4548%
Genes encoding a branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase from Enterococcus faecalis 10C1, E1α (bkdA), E1β (bkdB), E2 (bkdC), and E3 (bkdD), were found to reside in the gene cluster ptb-buk-bkdDABC. The predicted products of ptb and buk exhibited significant homology to the phosphotransbutyrylase and butyrate kinase, respectively, from Clostridium acetobutylicum. Activity and redox properties of the purified recombinant enzyme encoded by bkdD indicate that E. faecalis has a lipoamide dehydrogenase that is distinct from the lipoamide dehydrogenase associated with the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Specific activity of the ptb gene product expressed in Escherichia coli was highest with the substrates valeryl-coenzyme A (CoA), isovaleryl-CoA, and isobutyryl-CoA. In cultures, a stoichiometric conversion of α-ketoisocaproate to isovalerate was observed, with a concomitant increase in biomass. We propose that α-ketoisocaproate is converted via the BKDH complex to isovaleryl-CoA and subsequently converted into isovalerate via the combined actions of the ptb and buk gene products with the concomitant phosphorylation of ADP. In contrast, an E. faecalis bkd mutant constructed by disruption of the bkdA gene did not benefit from having α-ketoisocaproate in the growth medium...

Bacterial 2,4-Dioxygenases: New Members of the α/β Hydrolase-Fold Superfamily of Enzymes Functionally Related to Serine Hydrolases

Fischer, Frank; Künne, Stefan; Fetzner, Susanne
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1999 EN
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666.1022%
1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinoline 2,4-dioxygenase (Qdo) from Pseudomonas putida 33/1 and 1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine 2,4-dioxygenase (Hod) from Arthrobacter ilicis Rü61a catalyze an N-heterocyclic-ring cleavage reaction, generating N-formylanthranilate and N-acetylanthranilate, respectively, and carbon monoxide. Amino acid sequence comparisons between Qdo, Hod, and a number of proteins belonging to the α/β hydrolase-fold superfamily of enzymes and analysis of the similarity between the predicted secondary structures of the 2,4-dioxygenases and the known secondary structure of haloalkane dehalogenase from Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 strongly suggested that Qdo and Hod are structurally related to the α/β hydrolase-fold enzymes. The residues S95 and H244 of Qdo were found to be arranged like the catalytic nucleophilic residue and the catalytic histidine, respectively, of the α/β hydrolase-fold enzymes. Investigation of the potential functional significance of these and other residues of Qdo through site-directed mutagenesis supported the hypothesis that Qdo is structurally as well as functionally related to serine hydrolases, with S95 being a possible catalytic nucleophile and H244 being a possible catalytic base. A hypothetical reaction mechanism for Qdo-catalyzed 2...

Microbial Origin of Plant-Type 2-Keto-3-Deoxy-d-arabino-Heptulosonate 7-Phosphate Synthases, Exemplified by the Chorismate- and Tryptophan-Regulated Enzyme from Xanthomonas campestris

Gosset, Guillermo; Bonner, Carol A.; Jensen, Roy A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2001 EN
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667.5788%
Enzymes performing the initial reaction of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthases, exist as two distinct homology classes. The three classic Escherichia coli paralogs are AroAI proteins, but many members of the Bacteria possess the AroAII class of enzyme, sometimes in combination with AroAI proteins. AroAII DAHP synthases until now have been shown to be specifically dedicated to secondary metabolism (e.g., formation of ansamycin antibiotics or phenazine pigment). In contrast, here we show that the Xanthomonas campestris AroAII protein functions as the sole DAHP synthase supporting aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. X. campestris AroAII was cloned in E. coli by functional complementation, and genes corresponding to two possible translation starts were expressed. We developed a 1-day partial purification method (>99%) for the unstable protein. The recombinant AroAII protein was found to be subject to an allosteric pattern of sequential feedback inhibition in which chorismate is the prime allosteric effector. l-Tryptophan was found to be a minor feedback inhibitor. An N-terminal region of 111 amino acids may be located in the periplasm since a probable inner membrane-spanning region is predicted. Unlike chloroplast-localized AroAII of higher plants...

Structural and Kinetic Characterization of an Archaeal β-Class Carbonic Anhydrase

Smith, Kerry S.; Cosper, Nathaniel J.; Stalhandske, Christina; Scott, Robert A.; Ferry, James G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2000 EN
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660.0478%
The β-class carbonic anhydrase from the archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (Cab) was structurally and kinetically characterized. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments show that Cab is a tetramer. Circular dichroism studies of Cab and the Spinacia oleracea (spinach) β-class carbonic anhydrase indicate that the secondary structure of the β-class enzymes is predominantly α-helical, unlike that of the α- or γ-class enzymes. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure results indicate the active zinc site of Cab is coordinated by two sulfur and two O/N ligands, with the possibility that one of the O/N ligands is derived from histidine and the other from water. Both the steady-state parameters kcat and kcat/Km for CO2 hydration are pH dependent. The steady-state parameter kcat is buffer-dependent in a saturable manner at both pH 8.5 and 6.5, and the analysis suggested a ping-pong mechanism in which buffer is the second substrate. At saturating buffer conditions and pH 8.5, kcat is 2.1-fold higher in H2O than in D2O, consistent with an intramolecular proton transfer step being rate contributing. The steady-state parameter kcat/Km is not dependent on buffer, and no solvent hydrogen isotope effect was observed. The results suggest a zinc hydroxide mechanism for Cab. The overall results indicate that prokaryotic β-class carbonic anhydrases have fundamental characteristics similar to the eukaryotic β-class enzymes and firmly establish that the α-...

Properties of 2-Oxoglutarate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase from Thauera aromatica and Its Role in Enzymatic Reduction of the Aromatic Ring

Dörner, Edith; Boll, Matthias
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2002 EN
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651.1212%
Benzoyl coenzyme A (benzoyl-CoA) reductase is a key enzyme in the anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds catalyzing the ATP-driven reductive dearomatization of benzoyl-CoA. The enzyme from Thauera aromatica uses a reduced 2[4Fe-4S] ferredoxin as electron donor. In this work, we identified 2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (KGOR) as the ferredoxin reducing enzyme. KGOR activity was increased 10- to 50-fold in T. aromatica cells grown under denitrifying conditions on an aromatic substrate compared to that of cells grown on nonaromatic substrates. The enzyme was purified from soluble extracts by a 60-fold enrichment with a specific activity of 4.8 μmol min−1 mg−1. The native enzyme had a molecular mass of 200 ± 20 kDa (mean ± standard deviation) and consisted of two subunits with molecular masses of 66 and 34 kDa, suggesting an (αβ)2 composition. The UV/visible spectrum was characteristic for an iron-sulfur protein; the enzyme contained 8.3 ± 0.5 mol of Fe, 7.2 ± 0.5 mol of acid-labile sulfur, and 1.6 ± 0.2 mol of thiamine diphosphate (TPP) per mol of protein. The high specificity for 2-oxoglutarate and the low Km for ferredoxin (∼10 μM) indicated that both are the in vivo substrates of the enzyme. KGOR catalyzed the isotope exchange between 14CO2 and C1 of 2-oxoglutarate...

Purification, Overproduction, and Partial Characterization of β-RFAP Synthase, a Key Enzyme in the Methanopterin Biosynthesis Pathway†

Scott, Joseph W.; Rasche, Madeline E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2002 EN
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651.207%
Methanopterin is a folate analog involved in the C1 metabolism of methanogenic archaea, sulfate-reducing archaea, and methylotrophic bacteria. Although a pathway for methanopterin biosynthesis has been described in methanogens, little is known about the enzymes and genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme β-ribofuranosylaminobenzene 5′-phosphate synthase (β-RFAP synthase) catalyzes the first unique step to be identified in the pathway of methanopterin biosynthesis, namely, the condensation of p-aminobenzoic acid with phosphoribosylpyrophosphate to form β-RFAP, CO2, and inorganic pyrophosphate. The enzyme catalyzing this reaction has not been purified to homogeneity, and the gene encoding β-RFAP synthase has not yet been identified. In the present work, we report on the purification to homogeneity of β-RFAP synthase. The enzyme was purified from the methane-producing archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila, and the N-terminal sequence of the protein was used to identify corresponding genes from several archaea, including the methanogen Methanococcus jannaschii and the sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus. The putative β-RFAP synthase gene from A. fulgidus was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the enzymatic activity of the recombinant gene product was verified. A BLAST search using the deduced amino acid sequence of the β-RFAP synthase gene identified homologs in additional archaea and in a gene cluster required for C1 metabolism by the bacterium Methylobacterium extorquens. The identification of a gene encoding a potential β-RFAP synthase in M. extorquens is the first report of a putative methanopterin biosynthetic gene found in the Bacteria and provides evidence that the pathways of methanopterin biosynthesis in Bacteria and Archaea are similar.

A New Modified ortho Cleavage Pathway of 3-Chlorocatechol Degradation by Rhodococcus opacus 1CP: Genetic and Biochemical Evidence

Moiseeva, Olga V.; Solyanikova, Inna P.; Kaschabek, Stefan R.; Gröning, Janosch; Thiel, Monika; Golovleva, Ludmila A.; Schlömann, Michael
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2002 EN
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658.0661%
The 4-chloro- and 2,4-dichlorophenol-degrading strain Rhodococcus opacus 1CP has previously been shown to acquire, during prolonged adaptation, the ability to mineralize 2-chlorophenol. In addition, homogeneous chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase from 2-chlorophenol-grown biomass has shown relatively high activity towards 3-chlorocatechol. Based on sequences of the N terminus and tryptic peptides of this enzyme, degenerate PCR primers were now designed and used for cloning of the respective gene from genomic DNA of strain 1CP. A 9.5-kb fragment containing nine open reading frames was obtained on pROP1. Besides other genes, a gene cluster consisting of four chlorocatechol catabolic genes was identified. As judged by sequence similarity and correspondence of predicted N termini with those of purified enzymes, the open reading frames correspond to genes for a second chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase (ClcA2), a second chloromuconate cycloisomerase (ClcB2), a second dienelactone hydrolase (ClcD2), and a muconolactone isomerase-related enzyme (ClcF). All enzymes of this new cluster are only distantly related to the known chlorocatechol enzymes and appear to represent new evolutionary lines of these activities. UV overlay spectra as well as high-pressure liquid chromatography analyses confirmed that 2-chloro-cis...

Metabolic Enzymes from Psychrophilic Bacteria: Challenge of Adaptation to Low Temperatures in Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase from Moritella abyssi

Xu, Ying; Feller, Georges; Gerday, Charles; Glansdorff, Nicolas
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2003 EN
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658.16805%
The enzyme ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTCase) of Moritella abyssi (OTCaseMab), a new, strictly psychrophilic and piezophilic bacterial species, was purified. OTCaseMab displays maximal activity at rather low temperatures (23 to 25°C) compared to other cold-active enzymes and is much less thermoresistant than its homologues from Escherichia coli or thermophilic procaryotes. In vitro the enzyme is in equilibrium between a trimeric state and a dodecameric, more stable state. The melting point and denaturation enthalpy changes for the two forms are considerably lower than the corresponding values for the dodecameric Pyrococcus furiosus OTCase and for a thermolabile trimeric mutant thereof. OTCaseMab displays higher Km values for ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate than mesophilic and thermophilic OTCases and is only weakly inhibited by the bisubstrate analogue δ-N-phosphonoacetyl-l-ornithine (PALO). OTCaseMab differs from other, nonpsychrophilic OTCases by substitutions in the most conserved motifs, which probably contribute to the comparatively high Km values and the lower sensitivity to PALO. The Km for ornithine, however, is substantially lower at low temperatures. A survey of the catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) of OTCases adapted to different temperatures showed that OTCaseMab activity remains suboptimal at low temperature despite the 4.5-fold decrease in the Km value for ornithine observed when the temperature is brought from 20 to 5°C. OTCaseMab adaptation to cold indicates a trade-off between affinity and catalytic velocity...

Pyruvate:Quinone Oxidoreductase in Corynebacterium glutamicum: Molecular Analysis of the pqo Gene, Significance of the Enzyme, and Phylogenetic Aspects

Schreiner, Mark E.; Riedel, Christian; Holátko, Jiři; Pátek, Miroslav; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2006 EN
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666.0389%
Corynebacterium glutamicum recently has been shown to possess pyruvate:quinone oxidoreductase (PQO), catalyzing the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetate and CO2 with a quinone as the electron acceptor. Here, we analyze the expression of the C. glutamicum pqo gene, investigate the relevance of the PQO enzyme for growth and amino acid production, and perform phylogenetic studies. Expression analyses revealed that transcription of pqo is initiated 45 bp upstream of the translational start site and that it is organized in an operon together with genes encoding a putative metal-activated pyridoxal enzyme and a putative activator protein. Inactivation of the chromosomal pqo gene led to the absence of PQO activity; however, growth and amino acid production were not affected under either condition tested. Introduction of plasmid-bound pqo into a pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-negative C. glutamicum strain partially relieved the growth phenotype of this mutant, indicating that high PQO activity can compensate for the function of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. To investigate the distribution of PQO enzymes in prokaryotes and to clarify the relationship between PQO, pyruvate oxidase (POX), and acetohydroxy acid synthase enzymes...

Malic Enzyme Cofactor and Domain Requirements for Symbiotic N2 Fixation by Sinorhizobium meliloti▿ †

Mitsch, Michael J.; Cowie, Alison; Finan, Turlough M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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657.9985%
The NAD+-dependent malic enzyme (DME) and the NADP+-dependent malic enzyme (TME) of Sinorhizobium meliloti are representatives of a distinct class of malic enzymes that contain a 440-amino-acid N-terminal region homologous to other malic enzymes and a 330-amino-acid C-terminal region with similarity to phosphotransacetylase enzymes (PTA). We have shown previously that dme mutants of S. meliloti fail to fix N2 (Fix−) in alfalfa root nodules, whereas tme mutants are unimpaired in their N2-fixing ability (Fix+). Here we report that the amount of DME protein in bacteroids is 10 times greater than that of TME. We therefore investigated whether increased TME activity in nodules would allow TME to function in place of DME. The tme gene was placed under the control of the dme promoter, and despite elevated levels of TME within bacteroids, no symbiotic nitrogen fixation occurred in dme mutant strains. Conversely, expression of dme from the tme promoter resulted in a large reduction in DME activity and symbiotic N2 fixation. Hence, TME cannot replace the symbiotic requirement for DME. In further experiments we investigated the DME PTA-like domain and showed that it is not required for N2 fixation. Thus, expression of a DME C-terminal deletion derivative or the Escherichia coli NAD+-dependent malic enzyme (sfcA)...

Enzyme Diversity of the Cellulolytic System Produced by Clostridium cellulolyticum Explored by Two-Dimensional Analysis: Identification of Seven Genes Encoding New Dockerin-Containing Proteins▿

Blouzard, Jean-Charles; Bourgeois, Caroline; de Philip, Pascale; Valette, Odile; Bélaïch, Anne; Tardif, Chantal; Bélaïch, Jean-Pierre; Pagès, Sandrine
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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572.10574%
The enzyme diversity of the cellulolytic system produced by Clostridium cellulolyticum grown on crystalline cellulose as a sole carbon and energy source was explored by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The cellulolytic system of C. cellulolyticum is composed of at least 30 dockerin-containing proteins (designated cellulosomal proteins) and 30 noncellulosomal components. Most of the known cellulosomal proteins, including CipC, Cel48F, Cel8C, Cel9G, Cel9E, Man5K, Cel9M, and Cel5A, were identified by using two-dimensional Western blot analysis with specific antibodies, whereas Cel5N, Cel9J, and Cel44O were identified by using N-terminal sequencing. Unknown enzymes having carboxymethyl cellulase or xylanase activities were detected by zymogram analysis of two-dimensional gels. Some of these enzymes were identified by N-terminal sequencing as homologs of proteins listed in the NCBI database. Using Trap-Dock PCR and DNA walking, seven genes encoding new dockerin-containing proteins were cloned and sequenced. Some of these genes are clustered. Enzymes encoded by these genes belong to glycoside hydrolase families GH2, GH9, GH10, GH26, GH27, and GH59. Except for members of family GH9, which contains only cellulases, the new modular glycoside hydrolases discovered in this work could be involved in the degradation of different hemicellulosic substrates...

Two Segments in Bacterial Antizyme P22 Are Essential for Binding and Enhance Degradation of Lysine/Ornithine Decarboxylase in Selenomonas ruminantium▿

Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Takatsuka, Yumiko; Kamio, Yoshiyuki
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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660.3021%
In Selenomonas ruminantium, a strictly anaerobic and gram-negative bacterium, the degradation of lysine/ornithine decarboxylase (LDC/ODC) by ATP-requiring protease(s) is accelerated by the binding of P22, which is a ribosomal protein of this strain. Amino acid sequence alignment of S. ruminantium P22 with the L10 ribosomal proteins of gram-positive and -negative bacteria showed that P22 has a 5-residue K101NKLD105 segment and an 11-residue G160VIRNAVYVLD170 segment, both of which are lacking in L10 in any other gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria reported. To elucidate whether the two segments are involved in P22 function, a series of mutant genes of P22 were constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The proteins were isolated and assayed for their function with respect to S. ruminantium LDC/ODC and mouse ODC. The results indicated that the two segments of P22 are crucial for P22 binding to both enzymes and also accelerated degradation of both decarboxylases.

Regulation of Glycan Structures in Animal Tissues: TRANSCRIPT PROFILING OF GLYCAN-RELATED GENES*S⃞

Nairn, Alison V.; York, William S.; Harris, Kyle; Hall, Erica M.; Pierce, J. Michael; Moremen, Kelley W.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/06/2008 EN
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570.61137%
Glycan structures covalently attached to proteins and lipids play numerous roles in mammalian cells, including protein folding, targeting, recognition, and adhesion at the molecular or cellular level. Regulating the abundance of glycan structures on cellular glycoproteins and glycolipids is a complex process that depends on numerous factors. Most models for glycan regulation hypothesize that transcriptional control of the enzymes involved in glycan synthesis, modification, and catabolism determines glycan abundance and diversity. However, few broad-based studies have examined correlations between glycan structures and transcripts encoding the relevant biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes. Low transcript abundance for many glycan-related genes has hampered broad-based transcript profiling for comparison with glycan structural data. In an effort to facilitate comparison with glycan structural data and to identify the molecular basis of alterations in glycan structures, we have developed a medium-throughput quantitative real time reverse transcriptase-PCR platform for the analysis of transcripts encoding glycan-related enzymes and proteins in mouse tissues and cells. The method employs a comprehensive list of >700 genes...

Substrate Specificities and Availability of Fucosyltransferase and β-Carotene Hydroxylase for Myxol 2′-Fucoside Synthesis in Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 Compared with Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803▿ † ‡

Mochimaru, Mari; Masukawa, Hajime; Maoka, Takashi; Mohamed, Hatem E.; Vermaas, Wim F. J.; Takaichi, Shinichi
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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651.207%
To elucidate the biosynthetic pathways of carotenoids, especially myxol 2′-glycosides, in cyanobacteria, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 (also known as Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120) and Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 deletion mutants lacking selected proposed carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes and GDP-fucose synthase (WcaG), which is required for myxol 2′-fucoside production, were analyzed. The carotenoids in these mutants were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography, field desorption mass spectrometry, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. The wcaG (all4826) deletion mutant of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 produced myxol 2′-rhamnoside and 4-ketomyxol 2′-rhamnoside as polar carotenoids instead of the myxol 2′-fucoside and 4-ketomyxol 2′-fucoside produced by the wild type. Deletion of the corresponding gene in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 (sll1213; 79% amino acid sequence identity with the Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 gene product) produced free myxol instead of the myxol 2′-dimethyl-fucoside produced by the wild type. Free myxol might correspond to the unknown component observed previously in the same mutant (H. E. Mohamed, A. M. L. van de Meene, R. W. Roberson, and W. F. J. Vermaas, J. Bacteriol. 187:6883-6892...

Hepatic Heme-Regulated Inhibitor (HRI) Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α Kinase: A Protagonist of Heme-Mediated Translational Control of CYP2B Enzymes and a Modulator of Basal Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Tone

Acharya, Poulomi; Chen, Jane-Jane; Correia, Maria Almira
Fonte: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Publicador: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2010 EN
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655.5012%
We have reported previously that the hepatic heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI)-eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) kinase is activated in acute heme-deficient states, resulting in translational shut-off of global hepatic protein synthesis, including phenobarbital (PB)-mediated induction of CYP2B enzymes in rats. These findings revealed that heme regulates hepatic CYP2B synthesis at the translational level via HRI. As a proof of concept, we have now employed a genetic HRI-knockout (KO) mouse hepatocyte model. In HRI-KO hepatocytes, PB-mediated CYP2B protein induction is no longer regulated by hepatic heme availability and proceeds undeterred even after acute hepatic heme depletion. It is noteworthy that genetic ablation of HRI led to a small albeit significant elevation of basal hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as revealed by the activation of ER stress-inducible RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER-integral (PERK) eIF2α-kinase, and induction of hepatic protein ubiquitination and ER chaperones Grp78 and Grp94. Such ER stress was further augmented after PB-mediated hepatic protein induction. These findings suggest that HRI normally modulates the basal hepatic ER stress tone. Furthermore, because HRI exists in both human and rat liver in its heme-sensitive form and is inducible by cytochrome P450 inducers such as PB...

A robust and extracellular heme-containing peroxidase from Thermobifida fusca as prototype of a bacterial peroxidase superfamily

van Bloois, Edwin; Torres Pazmiño, Daniel E.; Winter, Remko T.; Fraaije, Marco W.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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655.33168%
DyP-type peroxidases comprise a novel superfamily of heme-containing peroxidases which is unrelated to the superfamilies of known peroxidases and of which only a few members have been characterized in some detail. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a DyP-type peroxidase (TfuDyP) from the thermophilic actinomycete Thermobifida fusca. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme showed that it is a monomeric, heme-containing, thermostable, and Tat-dependently exported peroxidase. TfuDyP is not only active as dye-decolorizing peroxidase as it also accepts phenolic compounds and aromatic sulfides. In fact, it is able to catalyze enantioselective sulfoxidations, a type of reaction that has not been reported before for DyP-type peroxidases. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to determine the role of two conserved residues. D242 is crucial for catalysis while H338 represents the proximal heme ligand and is essential for heme incorporation. A genome database analysis revealed that DyP-type peroxidases are frequently found in bacterial genomes while they are extremely rare in other organisms. Most of the bacterial homologs are potential cytosolic enzymes, suggesting metabolic roles different from dye degradation. In conclusion...

Biochemical characterization of the carotenoid 1,2-hydratases (CrtC) from Rubrivivax gelatinosus and Thiocapsa roseopersicina

Hiseni, Aida; Arends, Isabel W. C. E.; Otten, Linda G.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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651.27023%
Two carotenoid 1,2-hydratase (CrtC) genes from the photosynthetic bacteria Rubrivivax gelatinosus and Thiocapsa roseopersicina were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli in an active form and purified by affinity chromatography. The biochemical properties of the recombinant enzymes and their substrate specificities were studied. The purified CrtCs catalyze cofactor independently the conversion of lycopene to 1-HO- and 1,1′-(HO)2-lycopene. The optimal pH and temperature for hydratase activity was 8.0 and 30°C, respectively. The apparent Km and Vmax values obtained for the hydration of lycopene were 24 μM and 0.31 nmol h−1 mg−1 for RgCrtC and 9.5 μM and 0.15 nmol h−1 mg−1 for TrCrtC, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed two protein bands of 44 and 38 kDa for TrCrtC, which indicate protein processing. Both hydratases are also able to convert the unnatural substrate geranylgeraniol (C20 substrate), which functionally resembles the natural substrate lycopene.

A highly thermoactive and salt-tolerant α-amylase isolated from a pilot-plant biogas reactor

Jabbour, Dina; Sorger, Anneke; Sahm, Kerstin; Antranikian, Garabed
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Aiming at the isolation of novel enzymes from previously uncultured thermophilic microorganisms, a metagenome library was constructed from DNA isolated from a pilot-plant biogas reactor operating at 55 °C. The library was screened for starch-degrading enzymes, and one active clone was found. An open reading frame of 1,461 bp encoding an α-amylase from an uncultured organism was identified. The amy13A gene was cloned in Escherichia coli, resulting in high-level expression of the recombinant amylase. The novel enzyme Amy13A showed the highest sequence identity (75 %) to α-amylases from Petrotoga mobilis and Halothermothrix orenii. Amy13A is highly thermoactive, exhibiting optimal activity at 80 °C, and it is also highly salt-tolerant, being active in 25 % (w/v) NaCl. Amy13A is one of the few enzymes that tolerate high concentrations of salt and elevated temperatures, making it a potential candidate for starch processing under extreme conditions.

The MutT proteins or "Nudix" hydrolases, a family of versatile, widely distributed, "housecleaning" enzymes

Bessman, Maurice; Frick, David; O'Handley, Suzanne
Fonte: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology: Journal of Biological Chemistry Publicador: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Tipo: Abstract Formato: 35618 bytes; application/pdf
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Our studies on the biochemical basis of spontaneous mutations took an interesting and unexpected turn when we discovered that a small region of amino acid homology between the MutT protein of Escherichia coli and the MutX protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae was involved in their nucleoside triphosphatase as well as their antimutator activities (1–3). Computer searches of the data banks revealed that this same small conserved region was present in a number of other proteins in organisms ranging from viruses to humans (2, 4). Most of these proteins containing the signature are coded for by open reading frames (orfs)1 whose products are either unidentified or of unknown function. We have been attempting, systematically, to identify and characterize enzymatic activities associated with these proteins, and it is now evident that nature has adopted this motif, originally identified as the active site of the nucleoside-triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase of MutT (5, 6), and adapted it for use in many diverse reactions distinct from its function in the MutT protein. This short review summarizes our present knowledge of those reactions catalyzed by proteins harboring the MutT signature sequence and calls attention to a unique and versatile nucleotide binding and catalytic site. Although it might appear that the enzymes of this family act upon a wide variety of unrelated substrates...