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Extending the kinetic solution of the classic Michaelis-Menten model of enzyme action

BISPO, Jose Ailton Conceicao; BONAFE, Carlos Francisco Sampaio; SOUZA, Volnei Brito de; SILVA, Joao Batista de Almeida e; CARVALHO, Giovani Brandao Mafra de
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.66859%
The principal aim of studies of enzyme-mediated reactions has been to provide comparative and quantitative information on enzyme-catalyzed reactions under distinct conditions. The classic Michaelis-Menten model (Biochem Zeit 49:333, 1913) for enzyme kinetic has been widely used to determine important parameters involved in enzyme catalysis, particularly the Michaelis-Menten constant (K (M) ) and the maximum velocity of reaction (V (max) ). Subsequently, a detailed treatment of the mechanisms of enzyme catalysis was undertaken by Briggs-Haldane (Biochem J 19:338, 1925). These authors proposed the steady-state treatment, since its applicability was constrained to this condition. The present work describes an extending solution of the Michaelis-Menten model without the need for such a steady-state restriction. We provide the first analysis of all of the individual reaction constants calculated analytically. Using this approach, it is possible to accurately predict the results under new experimental conditions and to characterize and optimize industrial processes in the fields of chemical and food engineering, pharmaceuticals and biotechnology.; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia (FAPESB); Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq); Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES)...

Produção de polímeros derivados de fontes renováveis via catálise enzimática; Production of polymers derived from renewable sources by enzyme catalysis

Juais, Danielle
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/04/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.60039%
A busca por materiais derivados de fontes renováveis e com características como biocompatibilidade e biodegradabilidade tem crescido significativamente nos últimos anos. A utilização de enzimas na polimerização representa um grande passo para a obtenção destes, visto que possibilitam a produção de polímeros evitando a utilização de catalisadores tóxicos e, assim, melhorando sua biocompatibilidade. O presente trabalho descreve a utilização de monômeros funcionais derivados de fontes renováveis na produção de poliésteres hidrolisáveis via catálise enzimática. As sínteses de polímeros produzidos a partir de isosorbídeo e ácidos dicarboxílicos ou derivados - como seus ésteres alquílicos e vinílicos - foram feitas utilizando a lipase de Candida antarctica Fração B como catalisador. As polimerizações foram realizadas por policondensações em massa e em solução, utilizando-se diferentes solventes e diferentes técnicas para remoção de subprodutos de reação. A principal abordagem foi o estudo das diferentes condições reacionais realizadas, variando-se o tempo de reação, tipo do monômero, solvente utilizado (se for o caso) e tipo de técnica para remoção de subprodutos visando o aumento da massa molar dos polímeros. A condição que forneceu os materiais com maiores massas molares foi a policondensação em solução...

Extending the kinetic solution of the classic Michaelis-Menten model of enzyme action

BISPO, Jose Ailton Conceicao; BONAFE, Carlos Francisco Sampaio; SOUZA, Volnei Brito de; SILVA, Joao Batista de Almeida e; CARVALHO, Giovani Brandao Mafra de
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.66859%
The principal aim of studies of enzyme-mediated reactions has been to provide comparative and quantitative information on enzyme-catalyzed reactions under distinct conditions. The classic Michaelis-Menten model (Biochem Zeit 49:333, 1913) for enzyme kinetic has been widely used to determine important parameters involved in enzyme catalysis, particularly the Michaelis-Menten constant (K (M) ) and the maximum velocity of reaction (V (max) ). Subsequently, a detailed treatment of the mechanisms of enzyme catalysis was undertaken by Briggs-Haldane (Biochem J 19:338, 1925). These authors proposed the steady-state treatment, since its applicability was constrained to this condition. The present work describes an extending solution of the Michaelis-Menten model without the need for such a steady-state restriction. We provide the first analysis of all of the individual reaction constants calculated analytically. Using this approach, it is possible to accurately predict the results under new experimental conditions and to characterize and optimize industrial processes in the fields of chemical and food engineering, pharmaceuticals and biotechnology.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

Transition state theory can be used in studies of enzyme catalysis: lessons from simulations of tunnelling and dynamical effects in lipoxygenase and other systems

Olsson, Mats H.M; Mavri, Janez; Warshel, Arieh
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.4827%
The idea that enzyme catalysis involves special factors such as coherent fluctuations, quantum mechanical tunnelling and non-equilibrium solvation (NES) effects has gained popularity in recent years. It has also been suggested that transition state theory (TST) cannot be used in studies of enzyme catalysis. The present work uses reliable state of the art simulation approaches to examine the above ideas. We start by demonstrating that we are able to simulate any of the present catalytic proposals using the empirical valence bond (EVB) potential energy surfaces, the dispersed polaron model and the quantized classical path (QCP) approach, as well as the approximate vibronic method. These approaches do not treat the catalytic effects by phenomenological treatments and thus can be considered as first principles approaches (at least their ability to compare enzymatic reaction to the corresponding solution reactions). This work will consider the lipoxygenase reaction, and to lesser extent other enzymes, for specific demonstration. It will be pointed out that our study of the lipoxygenase reaction reproduces the very large observed isotope effect and the observed rate constant while obtaining no catalytic contribution from nuclear quantum mechanical (NQM) effects. Furthermore...

An interpretation of fluctuations in enzyme catalysis rate, spectral diffusion, and radiative component of lifetimes in terms of electric field fluctuations

Prakash, Meher K.; Marcus, R. A.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.605625%
Time-dependent fluctuations in the catalysis rate (δk(t)) observed in single-enzyme experiments were found in a particular study to have an autocorrelation function decaying on the same time scale as that of spectral diffusion δω0(t). To interpret this similarity, the present analysis focuses on a factor in enzyme catalysis, the local electrostatic interaction energy (E) at the active site and its effect on the activation free energy barrier. We consider the slow fluctuations of the electrostatic interaction energy (δE(t)) as a contributor to δk(t) and relate the latter to δω0(t). The resulting relation between δk(t) and δω0(t) is a dynamic analog of the solvatochromism used in interpreting solvent effects on organic reaction rates. The effect of the postulated δE(t) on fluctuations in the radiative component (δγr−1(t)) of the fluorescence decay of chromophores in proteins also is examined, and a relation between δγr−1(t) and δω0(t) is obtained. Experimental tests will determine whether the correlation functions for δk(t), δω0(t), and δγr−1 are indeed similar for any enzyme. Measurements of dielectric dispersion, ε(ω), for the enzyme discussed elsewhere will provide further insight into the correlation function for δE(t). They also will determine whether fluctuations in the nonradiative component γnr−1 of the lifetime decay has a different origin...

Conformational Isomerism Can Limit Antibody Catalysis*S⃞

Debler, Erik W.; Müller, Roger; Hilvert, Donald; Wilson, Ian A.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/06/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.363613%
Ligand binding to enzymes and antibodies is often accompanied by protein conformational changes. Although such structural adjustments may be conducive to enzyme catalysis, much less is known about their effect on reactions promoted by engineered catalytic antibodies. Crystallographic and pre-steady state kinetic analyses of antibody 34E4, which efficiently promotes the conversion of benzisoxazoles to salicylonitriles, show that the resting catalyst adopts two interconverting active-site conformations, only one of which is competent to bind substrate. In the predominant isomer, the indole side chain of TrpL91 occupies the binding site and blocks ligand access. Slow conformational isomerization of this residue, on the same time scale as catalytic turnover, creates a deep and narrow binding site that can accommodate substrate and promote proton transfer using GluH50 as a carboxylate base. Although 34E4 is among the best catalysts for the deprotonation of benzisoxazoles, its efficiency appears to be significantly limited by this conformational plasticity of its active site. Future efforts to improve this antibody might profitably focus on stabilizing the active conformation of the catalyst. Analogous strategies may also be relevant to other engineered proteins that are limited by an unfavorable conformational pre-equilibrium.

Ab initio QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Enzyme Catalysis: The Case of Histone Lysine Methyltransferase SET7/9

Wang, Shenglong; Hu, Po; Zhang, Yingkai
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.498555%
In order to elucidate enzyme catalysis through computer simulation, a prerequisite is to reliably compute free energy barriers for both enzyme and solution reactions. By employing on-the-fly Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations with the ab initio QM/MM approach and the umbrella sampling method, we have determined free energy profiles for the methyl-transfer reaction catalyzed by the histone lysine methyl- transferase SET7/9 and its corresponding uncatalyzed reaction in aqueous solution, respectively. Our calculated activation free energy barrier for the enzyme catalyzed reaction is 22.5 kcal/mol, which agrees very well with the experimental value of 20.9 kcal/mol. The difference in potential of mean force between a corresponding pre-reaction state and the transition state for the solution reaction is computed to be 30.9 kcal/mol. Thus our simulations indicate that the enzyme SET7/9 plays an essential catalytic role in significantly lowering the barrier for the methyl-transfer reaction step. For the reaction in solution, it is found that the hydrogen bond network near the reac- tion center undergoes a significant change and there is a strong shift in electrostatic field from the pre-reaction state to the transition state. While for the enzyme reaction...

Force-Clamp Spectroscopy Detects Residue Co-evolution in Enzyme Catalysis*S⃞

Perez-Jimenez, Raul; Wiita, Arun P.; Rodriguez-Larrea, David; Kosuri, Pallav; Gavira, Jose A.; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.; Fernandez, Julio M.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/10/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.803047%
Understanding how the catalytic mechanisms of enzymes are optimized through evolution remains a major challenge in molecular biology. The concept of co-evolution implicates that compensatory mutations occur to preserve the structure and function of proteins. We have combined statistical analysis of protein sequences with the sensitivity of single molecule force-clamp spectroscopy to probe how catalysis is affected by structurally distant correlated mutations in Escherichia coli thioredoxin. Our findings show that evolutionary anti-correlated mutations have an inhibitory effect on enzyme catalysis, whereas positively correlated mutations rescue the catalytic activity. We interpret these results in terms of an evolutionary tuning of both the enzyme-substrate binding process and the chemistry of the active site. Our results constitute a direct observation of distant residue co-evolution in enzyme catalysis.

A Stopped Flow Transient Kinetic Analysis of Substrate Binding and Catalysis in Escherichia coli d-3-Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase*S⃞

Burton, Rodney L.; Hanes, Jeremiah W.; Grant, Gregory A.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/10/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.759175%
Pre-steady state, stopped flow analysis of Escherichia coli d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase was performed by following the fluorescence of protein tryptophan and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer from protein tryptophan to bound NADH. The results indicate that binding of substrates is ordered, with coenzyme, NADH, binding first. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that there are two sets of sites on the tetrameric enzyme that can be differentiated by their kinetic behavior. NADH binding was consistent with an initial binding event followed by a slow conformational change for each site. The slow conformational change is responsible for the apparent tight binding of NADH to the apoenzyme but is too slow to participate in the catalytic cycle when the enzyme is rapidly turning over. Subsequent binding of the substrate, α-ketoglutarate, was characterized by a rapid equilibrium binding event followed by a conformational change for each site. Catalysis in the direction of NAD+ reduction showed a distinct burst of activity followed by a slow rate of turnover, indicating that the rate-limiting step is after hydride transfer. Catalysis in the direction of NADH oxidation did not display burst kinetics, indicating that the rate-limiting step is at or before the hydride transfer step. The burst data indicated that the rate of NAD+ reduction (3.8 s–1) is similar to the kcat of the enzyme (2–3 s–1) in that direction. However...

Substrate Orientation and Catalysis at the Molybdenum Site in Xanthine Oxidase: CRYSTAL STRUCTURES IN COMPLEX WITH XANTHINE AND LUMAZINE*

Pauff, James M.; Cao, Hongnan; Hille, Russ
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/03/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.4827%
Xanthine oxidoreductase is a ubiquitous cytoplasmic protein that catalyzes the final two steps in purine catabolism. We have previously investigated the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme by rapid reaction kinetics and x-ray crystallography using the poor substrate 2-hydroxy-6-methylpurine, focusing our attention on the orientation of substrate in the active site and the role of Arg-880 in catalysis. Here we report additional crystal structures of as-isolated, functional xanthine oxidase in the course of reaction with the pterin substrate lumazine at 2.2 Å resolution and of the nonfunctional desulfo form of the enzyme in complex with xanthine at 2.6 Å resolution. In both cases the orientation of substrate is such that the pyrimidine subnucleus is oriented opposite to that seen with the slow substrate 2-hydroxy-6-methylpurine. The mechanistic implications as to how the ensemble of active site functional groups in the active site work to accelerate reaction rate are discussed.

Escherichia coli DNA Adenine Methyltransferase: THE STRUCTURAL BASIS OF PROCESSIVE CATALYSIS AND INDIRECT READ-OUT

Coffin, Stephanie R.; Reich, Norbert O.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.753403%
We have investigated the structural basis of processive GATC methylation by the Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase, which is critical in chromosome replication and mismatch repair. We determined the contribution of the orthologically conserved phosphate interactions involving residues Arg95, Asn126, Asn132, Arg116, and Lys139, which directly contact the DNA outside the cognate recognition site (GATC) to processive catalysis, and that of residue Arg137, which is not conserved and contacts the DNA backbone within the GATC sequence. Alanine substitutions at the conserved positions have large impacts on processivity yet do not impact kcat/KmDNA or DNA affinity (KDDNA). However, these mutants cause large preferences for GATC sites varying in flanking sequences when considering the pre-steady state efficiency constant kchem/KDDNA. These changes occur mainly at the level of the methylation rate constant, which results in the observed decreases in processive catalysis. Thus, processivity and catalytic efficiency (kcat/KmDNA) are uncoupled in these mutants. These results reveal that the binding energy involved in DNA recognition contributes to the assembly of the active site rather than tight binding. Furthermore, the conserved residues (Arg95...

Structural and Biochemical Evidence That a TEM-1 β-Lactamase N170G Active Site Mutant Acts via Substrate-assisted Catalysis*

Brown, Nicholas G.; Shanker, Sreejesh; Prasad, B. V. Venkataram; Palzkill, Timothy
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.72332%
TEM-1 β-lactamase is the most common plasmid-encoded β-lactamase in Gram-negative bacteria and is a model class A enzyme. The active site of class A β-lactamases share several conserved residues including Ser70, Glu166, and Asn170 that coordinate a hydrolytic water involved in deacylation. Unlike Ser70 and Glu166, the functional significance of residue Asn170 is not well understood even though it forms hydrogen bonds with both Glu166 and the hydrolytic water. The goal of this study was to examine the importance of Asn170 for catalysis and substrate specificity of β-lactam antibiotic hydrolysis. The codon for position 170 was randomized to create a library containing all 20 possible amino acids. The random library was introduced into Escherichia coli, and functional clones were selected on agar plates containing ampicillin. DNA sequencing of the functional clones revealed that only asparagine (wild type) and glycine at this position are consistent with wild-type function. The determination of kinetic parameters for several substrates revealed that the N170G mutant is very efficient at hydrolyzing substrates that contain a primary amine in the antibiotic R-group that would be close to the Asn170 side chain in the acyl-intermediate. In addition...

Single-molecule Force Spectroscopy Approach to Enzyme Catalysis*

Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge; Perez-Jimenez, Raul; Kosuri, Pallav; Fernandez, Julio M.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.86601%
Enzyme catalysis has been traditionally studied using a diverse set of techniques such as bulk biochemistry, x-ray crystallography, and NMR. Recently, single-molecule force spectroscopy by atomic force microscopy has been used as a new tool to study the catalytic properties of an enzyme. In this approach, a mechanical force ranging up to hundreds of piconewtons is applied to the substrate of an enzymatic reaction, altering the conformational energy of the substrate-enzyme interactions during catalysis. From these measurements, the force dependence of an enzymatic reaction can be determined. The force dependence provides valuable new information about the dynamics of enzyme catalysis with sub-angstrom resolution, a feat unmatched by any other current technique. To date, single-molecule force spectroscopy has been applied to gain insight into the reduction of disulfide bonds by different enzymes of the thioredoxin family. This minireview aims to present a perspective on this new approach to study enzyme catalysis and to summarize the results that have already been obtained from it. Finally, the specific requirements that must be fulfilled to apply this new methodology to any other enzyme will be discussed.

A dynamic knockout reveals that conformational fluctuations influence the chemical step of enzyme catalysis

Bhabha, Gira; Lee, Jeeyeon; Ekiert, Damian C.; Gam, Jongsik; Wilson, Ian A.; Dyson, H. Jane; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Wright, Peter E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/04/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.605625%
Conformational dynamics play a key role in enzyme catalysis. While protein motions have clear implications for ligand flux, a role for dynamics in the chemical step of enzyme catalysis has not been clearly established. We generated a mutant of E. coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) that abrogates millisecond time scale fluctuations in the enzyme active site without perturbing its structural and electrostatic preorganization. Remarkably, this dynamic knockout severely impairs hydride transfer. Thus we have found a link between conformational fluctuations on the millisecond timescale and the chemical step of an enzymatic reaction, with broad implications for our understanding of enzyme mechanisms and for attempts to design novel protein catalysts.

Flexibility, Diversity, and Cooperativity: Pillars of Enzyme Catalysis

Hammes, Gordon G.; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.605625%
This brief review discusses our current understanding of the molecular basis of enzyme catalysis. A historical development is presented, beginning with steady state kinetics and progressing through modern fast reaction methods, NMR, and single molecule fluorescence techniques. Experimental results are summarized for ribonuclease, aspartate aminotransferase, and especially dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Multiple intermediates, multiple conformations, and cooperative conformational changes are shown to be an essential part of virtually all enzyme mechanisms. In the case of DHFR, theoretical investigations have provided detailed information about the movement of atoms within the enzyme-substrate complex as the reaction proceeds along the collective reaction coordinate for hydride transfer. A general mechanism is presented for enzyme catalysis that includes multiple intermediates and a complex, multidimensional standard free energy surface. Protein flexibility, diverse protein conformations, and cooperative conformational changes are important features of this model.

Mechanism of Radical-based Catalysis in the Reaction Catalyzed by Adenosylcobalamin-dependent Ornithine 4,5-Aminomutase*S⃞

Wolthers, Kirsten R.; Rigby, Stephen E. J.; Scrutton, Nigel S.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/12/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.605625%
We report an analysis of the reaction mechanism of ornithine 4,5-aminomutase, an adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl)- and pyridoxal l-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the 1,2-rearrangement of the terminal amino group of d-ornithine to generate (2R,4S)-2,4-diaminopentanoic acid. We show by stopped-flow absorbance studies that binding of the substrate d-ornithine or the substrate analogue d-2,4-diaminobutryic acid (DAB) induces rapid homolysis of the AdoCbl Co–C bond (781 s–1, d-ornithine; 513 s–1, DAB). However, only DAB results in the stable formation of a cob(II)alamin species. EPR spectra of DAB and [2,4,4-2H3]DAB bound to holo-ornithine 4,5-aminomutase suggests strong electronic coupling between cob(II)alamin and a radical form of the substrate analog. Loading of substrate/analogue onto PLP (i.e. formation of an external aldimine) is also rapid (532 s–1, d-ornithine; 488 s–1, DAB). In AdoCbl-depleted enzyme, formation of the external aldimine occurs over long time scales (∼50 s) and occurs in three resolvable kinetic phases, identifying four distinct spectral intermediates (termed A–D). We infer that these represent the internal aldimine (λmax 416 nm; A), two different unliganded PLP states of the enzyme (λmax at 409 nm; B and C)...

Impact of residues remote from the catalytic centre on enzyme catalysis of copper nitrite reductase

Leferink, Nicole G. H.; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.; Houwman, Joseline A.; Scrutton, Nigel S.; Eady, Robert R.; Hasnain, S. Samar
Fonte: Nature Pub. Group Publicador: Nature Pub. Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/07/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.55598%
Enzyme mechanisms are often probed by structure-informed point mutations and measurement of their effects on enzymatic properties to test mechanistic hypotheses. In many cases, the challenge is to report on complex, often inter-linked elements of catalysis. Evidence for long-range effects on enzyme mechanism resulting from mutations remains sparse, limiting the design/redesign of synthetic catalysts in a predictable way. Here we show that improving the accessibility of the active site pocket of copper nitrite reductase by mutation of a surface-exposed phenylalanine residue (Phe306), located 12 Å away from the catalytic site type-2 Cu (T2Cu), profoundly affects intra-molecular electron transfer, substrate-binding and catalytic activity. Structures and kinetic studies provide an explanation for the lower affinity for the substrate and the alteration of the rate-limiting step in the reaction. Our results demonstrate that distant residues remote from the active site can have marked effects on enzyme catalysis, by driving mechanistic change through relatively minor structural perturbations.

Prediction of distal residue participation in enzyme catalysis

Brodkin, Heather R; DeLateur, Nicholas A; Somarowthu, Srinivas; Mills, Caitlyn L; Novak, Walter R; Beuning, Penny J; Ringe, Dagmar; Ondrechen, Mary Jo
Fonte: BlackWell Publishing Ltd Publicador: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.4827%
A scoring method for the prediction of catalytically important residues in enzyme structures is presented and used to examine the participation of distal residues in enzyme catalysis. Scores are based on the Partial Order Optimum Likelihood (POOL) machine learning method, using computed electrostatic properties, surface geometric features, and information obtained from the phylogenetic tree as input features. Predictions of distal residue participation in catalysis are compared with experimental kinetics data from the literature on variants of the featured enzymes; some additional kinetics measurements are reported for variants of Pseudomonas putida nitrile hydratase (ppNH) and for Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (AP). The multilayer active sites of P. putida nitrile hydratase and of human phosphoglucose isomerase are predicted by the POOL log ZP scores, as is the single-layer active site of P. putida ketosteroid isomerase. The log ZP score cutoff utilized here results in over-prediction of distal residue involvement in E. coli alkaline phosphatase. While fewer experimental data points are available for P. putida mandelate racemase and for human carbonic anhydrase II, the POOL log ZP scores properly predict the previously reported participation of distal residues.

Force-clamp spectroscopy detects residue co-evolution in enzyme catalysis.

Pérez-Jímenez, Raul; Kosuri, Pallav; Rodríguez-Larrea, David; Gavira Gallardo, J. A.; Fernández Soler, Julio M.; Sánchez-Ruiz, José M.; Wiita, Arun P.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 10752 bytes; application/octet-stream
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.673677%
22 pages, 6 figures, 1 table.; Understanding how the catalytic mechanisms of enzymes are optimized through evolution remains a major challenge in molecular biology. The concept of co-evolution implicates that compensatory mutations occur to preserve the structure and function of proteins. We have combined statistical analysis of protein sequences with the sensitivity of single molecule force-clamp spectroscopy to probe how catalysis is affected by structurally distant correlated mutations in Escherichia coli thioredoxin. Our findings show that evolutionary anti-correlated mutations have an inhibitory effect on enzyme catalysis, whereas positively correlated mutations rescue the catalytic activity. We interpret these results in terms of an evolutionary tuning of both the enzyme-substrate binding process and the chemistry of the active site. Our results constitute a direct observation of distant residue co-evolution in enzyme catalysis.; We thank Dr. Sergi Garcia-Manyes and Dr. Robert Szoszkiewicz for careful reading of the manuscript and all the Fernandez laboratory members for helpful discussions.; Peer reviewed

An interpretation of fluctuations in enzyme catalysis rate, spectral diffusion, and radiative component of lifetimes in terms of electric field fluctuations

Prakash, Meher K.; Marcus, R. A.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/10/2007
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.605625%
Time-dependent fluctuations in the catalysis rate ({delta}k(t)) observed in single-enzyme experiments were found in a particular study to have an autocorrelation function decaying on the same time scale as that of spectral diffusion {delta}{omega}0(t). To interpret this similarity, the present analysis focuses on a factor in enzyme catalysis, the local electrostatic interaction energy (E) at the active site and its effect on the activation free energy barrier. We consider the slow fluctuations of the electrostatic interaction energy ({delta}E(t)) as a contributor to {delta}k(t) and relate the latter to {delta}{omega}0(t). The resulting relation between {delta}k(t) and {delta}{omega}0(t) is a dynamic analog of the solvatochromism used in interpreting solvent effects on organic reaction rates. The effect of the postulated {delta}E(t) on fluctuations in the radiative component ({delta}{gamma}Formula(t)) of the fluorescence decay of chromophores in proteins also is examined, and a relation between {delta}{gamma}Formula(t) and {delta}{omega}0(t) is obtained. Experimental tests will determine whether the correlation functions for {delta}k(t), {delta}{omega}0(t), and {delta}{gamma}Formula are indeed similar for any enzyme. Measurements of dielectric dispersion...