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Leaching of Pyrite by Acidophilic Heterotrophic Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria in Pure and Mixed Cultures

Bacelar-Nicolau, Paula; Johnson, D. Barrie
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1999 EN
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87.69716%
Seven strains of heterotrophic iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria were examined to determine their abilities to promote oxidative dissolution of pyrite (FeS2) when they were grown in pure cultures and in mixed cultures with sulfur-oxidizing Thiobacillus spp. Only one of the isolates (strain T-24) oxidized pyrite when it was grown in pyrite-basal salts medium. However, when pyrite-containing cultures were supplemented with 0.02% (wt/vol) yeast extract, most of the isolates oxidized pyrite, and one (strain T-24) promoted rates of mineral dissolution similar to the rates observed with the iron-oxidizing autotroph Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Pyrite oxidation by another isolate (strain T-21) occurred in cultures containing between 0.005 and 0.05% (wt/vol) yeast extract but was completely inhibited in cultures containing 0.5% yeast extract. Ferrous iron was also needed for mineral dissolution by the iron-oxidizing heterotrophs, indicating that these organisms oxidize pyrite via the “indirect” mechanism. Mixed cultures of three isolates (strains T-21, T-23, and T-24) and the sulfur-oxidizing autotroph Thiobacillus thiooxidans promoted pyrite dissolution; since neither strains T-21 and T-23 nor T. thiooxidans could oxidize this mineral in yeast extract-free media...

Biodiversity of Lactococcus garvieae Strains Isolated from Fish in Europe, Asia, and Australia

Eldar, Avi; Goria, Mariella; Ghittino, Claudio; Zlotkin, Amir; Bercovier, Herve
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1999 EN
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87.69569%
Lactococcus garvieae (junior synonym, Enterococcus seriolicida) is a major pathogen of fish, producing fatal septicemia among fish species living in very diverse environments. The phenotypic traits of L. garvieae strains collected from three different continents (Asia, Europe, and Australia) indicated phenotypic heterogeneity. On the basis of the acidification of d-tagatose and sucrose, three biotypes were defined. DNA relatedness values and a specific PCR assay showed that all the biotypes belonged to the same genospecies, L. garvieae. All of the L. garvieae strains were serotyped as Lancefield group N. Ribotyping proved that one clone was found both in Japan, where it probably originated, and in Italy, where it was probably imported. PCR of environmental samples did not reveal the source of the contamination of the fish in Italy. Specific clones (ribotypes) were found in outbreaks in Spain and in Italy. The L. garvieae reference strain, isolated in the United Kingdom from a cow, belonged to a unique ribotype. L. garvieae is a rising zoonotic agent. The biotyping scheme, the ribotyping analysis, and the PCR assay described in this work allowed the proper identification of L. garvieae and the description of the origin and of the source of contamination of strains involved in outbreaks or in sporadic cases.

Use of a Sentinel System for Field Measurements of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocyst Inactivation in Soil and Animal Waste

Jenkins, M. B.; Walker, M. J.; Bowman, D. D.; Anthony, L. C.; Ghiorse, W. C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1999 EN
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87.70312%
A small-volume sentinel chamber was developed to assess the effects of environmental stresses on survival of sucrose-Percoll-purified Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil and animal wastes. Chambers were tested for their ability to equilibrate with external chemical and moisture conditions. Sentinel oocysts were then exposed to stresses of the external environment that affected their viability (potential infectivity), as indicated by results of a dye permeability assay. Preliminary laboratory experiments indicated that temperatures between 35 and 50°C and decreases in soil water potential (−0.003 to −3.20 MPa) increased oocyst inactivation rates. The effects of two common animal waste management practices on oocyst survival were investigated on three dairy farms in Delaware County, N.Y., within the New York City watershed: (i) piling wastes from dairy youngstock (including neonatal calves) and (ii) spreading wastes as a soil amendment on an agricultural field. Sentinel containers filled with air-dried and sieved (2-mm mesh) youngstock waste or field soil were wetted and inoculated with 2 million oocysts in an aqueous suspension and then placed in waste piles on two different farms and in soil within a cropped field on one farm. Controls consisted of purified oocysts in either phosphate-buffered saline or distilled water contained in sealed microcentrifuge tubes. Two microdata loggers recorded the ambient temperature at each field site. Sentinel experiments were conducted during the fall and winter (1996 to 1997) and winter (1998). Sentinel containers and controls were removed at 2- to 4-week intervals...

Degradation of 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid in Soil by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes POB310(pPOB) and Two Modified Pseudomonas Strains

Halden, Rolf U.; Tepp, Sandra M.; Halden, Barbara G.; Dwyer, Daryl F.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1999 EN
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87.70119%
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes POB310(pPOB) and Pseudomonas sp. strains B13-D5(pD30.9) and B13-ST1(pPOB) were introduced into soil microcosms containing 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-POB) in order to evaluate and compare bacterial survival, degradation of 3-POB, and transfer of plasmids to a recipient bacterium. Strain POB310 was isolated for its ability to use 3-POB as a growth substrate; degradation is initiated by POB-dioxygenase, an enzyme encoded on pPOB. Strain B13-D5 contains pD30.9, a cloning vector harboring the genes encoding POB-dioxygenase; strain B13-ST1 contains pPOB. Degradation of 3-POB in soil by strain POB310 was incomplete, and bacterial densities decreased even under the most favorable conditions (100 ppm of 3-POB, supplementation with P and N, and soil water-holding capacity of 90%). Strains B13-D5 and B13-ST1 degraded 3-POB (10 to 100 ppm) to concentrations of <50 ppb with concomitant increases in density from 106 to 108 CFU/g (dry weight) of soil. Thus, in contrast to strain POB310, the modified strains had the following two features that are important for in situ bioremediation: survival in soil and growth concurrent with removal of an environmental contaminant. Strains B13-D5 and B13-ST1 also completely degraded 3-POB when the inoculum was only 30 CFU/g (dry weight) of soil. This suggests that in situ bioremediation may be effected...

Seasonal Variations in Microbial Populations and Environmental Conditions in an Extreme Acid Mine Drainage Environment

Edwards, Katrina J.; Gihring, Thomas M.; Banfield, Jillian F.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.70525%
Microbial populations, their distributions, and their aquatic environments were studied over a year (1997) at an acid mine drainage (AMD) site at Iron Mountain, Calif. Populations were quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridizations with group-specific probes. Probes were used for the domains Eucarya, Bacteria, and Archaea and the two species most widely studied and implicated for their role in AMD production, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans. Results show that microbial populations, in relative proportions and absolute numbers, vary spatially and seasonally and correlate with geochemical and physical conditions (pH, temperature, conductivity, and rainfall). Bacterial populations were in the highest proportion (>95%) in January. Conversely, archaeal populations were in the highest proportion in July and September (∼50%) and were virtually absent in the winter. Bacterial and archaeal populations correlated with conductivity and rainfall. High concentrations of dissolved solids, as reflected by high conductivity values (up to 125 mS/cm), occurred in the summer and correlated with high archaeal populations and proportionally lower bacterial populations. Eukaryotes were not detected in January, when total microbial cell numbers were lowest (<105 cells/ml)...

Reductive Dehalogenation and Conversion of 2-Chlorophenol to 3-Chlorobenzoate in a Methanogenic Sediment Community: Implications for Predicting the Environmental Fate of Chlorinated Pollutants

Becker, Jennifer G.; Stahl, David A.; Rittmann, Bruce E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.67517%
Biotransformation of 2-chlorophenol by a methanogenic sediment community resulted in the transient accumulation of phenol and benzoate. 3-Chlorobenzoate was a more persistent product of 2-chlorophenol metabolism. The anaerobic biotransformation of phenol to benzoate presumably occurred via para-carboxylation and dehydroxylation reactions, which may also explain the observed conversion of 2-chlorophenol to 3-chlorobenzoate.

Ubiquity and Diversity of Dissimilatory (Per)chlorate-Reducing Bacteria

Coates, John D.; Michaelidou, Urania; Bruce, Royce A.; O’Connor, Susan M.; Crespi, Jill N.; Achenbach, Laurie A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.6984%
Environmental contamination with compounds containing oxyanions of chlorine, such as perchlorate or chlorate [(per)chlorate] or chlorine dioxide, has been a constantly growing problem over the last 100 years. Although the fact that microbes reduce these compounds has been recognized for more than 50 years, only six organisms which can obtain energy for growth by this metabolic process have been described. As part of a study to investigate the diversity and ubiquity of microorganisms involved in the microbial reduction of (per)chlorate, we enumerated the (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria (ClRB) in very diverse environments, including pristine and hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, aquatic sediments, paper mill waste sludges, and farm animal waste lagoons. In all of the environments tested, the acetate-oxidizing ClRB represented a significant population, whose size ranged from 2.31 × 103 to 2.4 × 106 cells per g of sample. In addition, we isolated 13 ClRB from these environments. All of these organisms could grow anaerobically by coupling complete oxidation of acetate to reduction of (per)chlorate. Chloride was the sole end product of this reductive metabolism. All of the isolates could also use oxygen as a sole electron acceptor, and most...

PCR Detection, Characterization, and Distribution of Virulence Genes in Aeromonas spp.

Kingombe, Cesar Isigidi Bin; Huys, Geert; Tonolla, Mauro; Albert, M. John; Swings, Jean; Peduzzi, Raffaele; Jemmi, Thomas
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.7019%
We found 73.1 to 96.9% similarity by aligning the cytolytic enterotoxin gene of Aeromonas hydrophila SSU (AHCYTOEN; GenBank accession no. M84709) against aerolysin genes of Aeromonas spp., suggesting the possibility of selecting common primers. Identities of 90 to 100% were found among the eight selected primers from those genes. Amplicons obtained from Aeromonas sp. reference strains by using specific primers for each gene or a cocktail of primers were 232 bp long. Of hybridization group 4/5A/5B (HG4/5A/5B), HG9, and HG12 or non-Aeromonas reference strains, none were positive. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) with HpaII yielded three types of patterns. PCR-RFLP 1 contained two fragments (66 and 166 bp) found in HG6, HG7, HG8, HG10, and HG11. PCR-RFLP 2 contained three fragments (18, 66, and 148 bp) found in HG1, HG2, HG3, and HG11. PCR-RFLP 3, with four fragments (7, 20, 66, and 139 bp), was observed only in HG13. PCR-amplicon sequence analysis (PCR-ASA) revealed three main types. PCR-ASA 1 had 76 to 78% homology with AHCYTOEN and included strains in HG6, HG7, HG8, HG10, and HG11. PCR-ASA 2, with 82% homology, was found only in HG13. PCR-ASA 3, with 91 to 99% homology, contained the strains in HG1, HG2, HG3...

Environmental Occurrence of the Whipple’s Disease Bacterium (Tropheryma whippelii)

Maiwald, Matthias; Schuhmacher, Frank; Ditton, Hans-Jürgen; von Herbay, Axel
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1998 EN
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87.74045%
Whipple’s disease is a systemic disorder in which a gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium is constantly present in infected tissues. After numerous unsuccessful attempts to culture this bacterium, it was eventually characterized by 16S rRNA gene analysis to be a member of the actinomycetes. The name Tropheryma whippelii was proposed. Until now, the bacterium has only been found in infected human tissues, but there is no evidence for human-to-human transmission. Here we report the detection of DNA specific for the Whipple’s disease bacterium in 25 of 38 wastewater samples from five different sewage treatment plants in the area of Heidelberg, Germany. These findings provide the first evidence that T. whippelii occurs in the environment, within a polymicrobial community. This is in accordance with the phylogenetic relationship of this bacterium as well as with known epidemiological aspects of Whipple’s disease. Our data argue for an environmental source for infection with the Whipple’s disease bacterium.

Mycobacterium avium Bacilli Grow Saprozoically in Coculture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Survive within Cyst Walls

Steinert, Michael; Birkness, Kristin; White, Elizabeth; Fields, Barry; Quinn, Frederick
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.79271%
Protozoans are gaining recognition as environmental hosts for a variety of waterborne pathogens. We compared the growth of Mycobacterium avium, a human pathogen associated with domestic water supplies, in coculture with the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga with the growth of M. avium when it was separated from amoebae by a 0.1-μm-pore-size polycarbonate membrane (in a parachamber). Although viable mycobacteria were observed within amoebal vacuoles, there was no significant difference between bacterial growth in coculture and bacterial growth in the parachamber. This suggests that M. avium is able to grow saprozoically on products secreted by the amoebae. In contrast, Legionella pneumophila, a well-studied intracellular parasite of amoebae, multiplied only in coculture. A comparison of amoebae infected with L. pneumophila and amoebae infected with M. avium by electron microscopy demonstrated that there were striking differences in the locations of the bacteria within amoebal cysts. While L. pneumophila resided within the cysts, M. avium was found within the outer walls of the double-walled cysts of A. polyphaga. These locations may provide a reservoir for the bacteria when environmental conditions become unfavorable.

Comparative Recoveries of Naegleria fowleri Amoebae from Seeded River Water by Filtration and Centrifugation

Pernin, P.; Pélandakis, M.; Rouby, Y.; Faure, A.; Siclet, F.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.68919%
Detection of pathogenic Naegleria fowleri in environmental water samples, which is necessary for the prevention of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, generally requires concentrating the samples. Two concentration techniques, filtration and centrifugation, were used to study the recovery of N. fowleri, in vegetative or cystic form, that had been mixed with the two other thermotolerant Naegleria species, N. lovaniensis and N. australiensis. Counting of amoebae was performed by the most probable number method on 10 water replicates of 100 ml and 10 ml each. With both concentration methods, recovery was better for cysts than for trophozoites (53% ± 21% versus 5% ± 5% by filtration and 57% ± 25% versus 22% ± 5% by centrifugation). The recovery of Naegleria trophozoites by filtration was very low, and centrifugation was significantly better than filtration in recovery of Naegleria trophozoites (22% ± 5% versus 5% ± 5%; P < 0.001). For cysts, however, filtration appeared as efficient as centrifugation, with equivalent values for recovery (53% ± 21% versus 57% ± 25%; P > 0.7). Although the recovery of cysts of N. fowleri obtained by filtration (51% ± 24%) appeared higher than that by centrifugation (36% ± 23%), the difference was not significant (P > 0.1). Both concentration methods have highly variable recovery rates...

Enzyme Characteristics of β-d-Galactosidase- and β-d-Glucuronidase-Positive Bacteria and Their Interference in Rapid Methods for Detection of Waterborne Coliforms and Escherichia coli

Tryland, I.; Fiksdal, L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.69945%
Bacteria which were β-d-galactosidase and β-d-glucuronidase positive or expressed only one of these enzymes were isolated from environmental water samples. The enzymatic activity of these bacteria was measured in 25-min assays by using the fluorogenic substrates 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-galactoside and 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-glucuronide. The enzyme activity, enzyme induction, and enzyme temperature characteristics of target and nontarget bacteria in assays aimed at detecting coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were investigated. The potential interference of false-positive bacteria was evaluated. Several of the β-d-galactosidase-positive nontarget bacteria but none of the β-d-glucuronidase-positive nontarget bacteria contained unstable enzyme at 44.5°C. The activity of target bacteria was highly inducible. Nontarget bacteria were induced much less or were not induced by the inducers used. The results revealed large variations in the enzyme levels of different β-d-galactosidase- and β-d-glucuronidase-positive bacteria. The induced and noninduced β-d-glucuronidase activities of Bacillus spp. and Aerococcus viridans were approximately the same as the activities of induced E. coli. Except for some isolates identified as Aeromonas spp....

Epidemiological Typing of Campylobacter Isolates from Meat Processing Plants by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, Fatty Acid Profile Typing, Serotyping, and Biotyping

Steele, M.; McNab, B.; Fruhner, L.; DeGrandis, S.; Woodward, D.; Odumeru, J. A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.68581%
Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Foods of animal origin, particularly undercooked poultry, are common sources of Campylobacter species associated with disease in humans. A collection of 110 Campylobacter jejuni and 31 C. coli human and environmental isolates from different Ontario, Canada, abattoirs were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, fatty acid profile typing, and biotyping. Previously collected serotyping data for the same isolates were also analyzed in this study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was found to be the most discriminatory of the typing methods, followed by serotyping, fatty acid profile typing, and biotyping. A wide variety of typing profiles were observed within the isolates, suggesting that several different Campylobacter sp. strains were present within the abattoirs.

Survival of Enterococcus faecalis in an Oligotrophic Microcosm: Changes in Morphology, Development of General Stress Resistance, and Analysis of Protein Synthesis

Hartke, Axel; Giard, Jean-Christophe; Laplace, Jean-Marie; Auffray, Yanick
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.68919%
The ability of Enterococcus faecalis to metabolically adapt to an oligotrophic environment has been analyzed. E. faecalis is able to survive for prolonged periods under conditions of complete starvation established by incubation in tap water. During incubation in this microcosm, cells developed a rippled cell surface with irregular shapes. Exponentially growing cells survived to the same extent as cells starved for glucose prior to exposure to the multiple nutrient deficient stress. Chloramphenicol treatment during incubation in tap water led to a rapid decline in plate counts for exponentially growing cells but showed progressively reduced influence on stationary-phase cells harvested after different times of glucose starvation. During incubation in the oligotrophic environment, cells from the exponential-growth phase and early-stationary phase became progressively more resistant to other environmental stresses (heat [62°C], acid [pH 3.3], UV254 nm light [180 J/m2], and sodium hypochlorite [0.05%]) until they reached a maximum of survival characteristic for each treatment. In contrast, cells starved of glucose for 24 h did not become more resistant to the different treatments during incubation in tap water. Our combined data suggest that energy starvation induces a response similar to that triggered by oligotrophy. Analysis of protein synthesis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed the enhanced synthesis of 51 proteins which were induced in the oligotrophic environment. A comparison of these oligotrophy-inducible proteins with the 42 glucose starvation-induced polypeptides (J. C. Giard...

Sedimentation of Free and Attached Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts in Water

Medema, G. J.; Schets, F. M.; Teunis, P. F. M.; Havelaar, A. H.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.70119%
Experimental analysis of the sedimentation velocity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts was compared with mathematical description of their sedimentation velocities by using measurements of (oo)cyst size and density and the density and viscosity of the sedimentation medium to determine if the sedimentation kinetics of freely suspended oocysts of C. parvum and cysts of G. lamblia can be described by Stokes’ law. The theoretically calculated sedimentation kinetics showed a good agreement with the experimentally observed kinetics. Both showed a decline in sedimentation velocity over time, caused primarily by variation in (oo)cyst density. The initial apparent sedimentation velocities in Hanks balanced salt solution at 23°C was 0.35 μm · s−1 for oocysts and 1.4 μm · s−1 for cysts. (Oo)cysts that enter the surface water environment by discharges of biologically treated sewage may be attached to sewage particles, and this will affect their sedimentation kinetics. Therefore, (oo)cysts were mixed with settled secondary effluent. (Oo)cysts readily attached to the (biological) particles in effluent; 30% of both cysts and oocysts attached during the first minutes of mixing, and this fraction increased to approximately 75% after 24 h. The sedimentation velocity of (oo)cysts attached to secondary effluent particles increased with particle size and was (already in the smallest size fraction [1 to 40 μm]) determined by the sedimentation kinetics of the effluent particles. The observed sedimentation velocities of freely suspended (oo)cysts are probably too low to cause significant sedimentation in surface water or reservoirs. However...

Biotransformation of the Major Fungal Metabolite 3,5-Dichloro- p-Anisyl Alcohol under Anaerobic Conditions and Its Role in Formation of Bis(3,5-Dichloro-4-Hydroxyphenyl)methane

Verhagen, Frank J. M.; Swarts, Henk J.; Wijnberg, Joannes B. P. A.; Field, Jim A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.7989%
Higher fungi have a widespread capacity for biosynthesis of organohalogens. Commonly occurring chloroaromatic fungal metabolites can end up in anaerobic microniches at the boundary of fungal colonies and wetland soils. The aim of this study was to investigate the environmental fate of a major fungal metabolite, 3,5-dichloro-p-anisyl alcohol, under anaerobic conditions. This compound was incubated with methanogenic sludge to study its biotransformation reactions. Initially, 3,5-dichloro-p-anisyl alcohol was readily demethylated in stoichiometric quantities to 3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol. The demethylated product was converted further via two routes: a biotic route leading to the formation of 3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxybenzoate and 2,6-dichlorophenol, as well as an abiotic route leading to the formation of bis(3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)methane. In the first route, the benzyl alcohol moiety on the aromatic ring was oxidized, giving 3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxybenzoate as a transient or accumulating product, depending on the type of methanogenic sludge used. In sludge previously adapted to low-molecular-weight lignin from straw, a part of the 3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxybenzoate was decarboxylated, yielding detectable levels of 2,6-dichlorophenol. In the second route...

Confirmation of the Human-Pathogenic Microsporidia Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, and Vittaforma corneae in Water

Dowd, Scot E.; Gerba, Charles P.; Pepper, Ian L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.69183%
Microsporidia, as a group, cause a wide range of infections, though two species of microsporidia in particular, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis, are associated with gastrointestinal disease in humans. To date, the mode of transmission and environmental occurrence of microsporidia have not been elucidated due to lack of sensitive and specific screening methods. The present study was undertaken with recently developed methods to screen several significant water sources. Water concentrates were subjected to community DNA extraction followed by microsporidium-specific PCR amplification, PCR sequencing, and database homology comparison. A total of 14 water concentrates were screened; 7 of these contained human-pathogenic microsporidia. The presence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis was confirmed in tertiary sewage effluent, surface water, and groundwater; the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi was confirmed in surface water; and the presence of Vittaforma corneae was confirmed in tertiary effluent. Thus, this study represents the first confirmation, to the species level, of human-pathogenic microsporidia in water, indicating that these human-pathogenic microsporidia may be waterborne pathogens.

Antibiotic Resistance in Acinetobacter spp. Isolated from Sewers Receiving Waste Effluent from a Hospital and a Pharmaceutical Plant

Guardabassi, Luca; Petersen, Andreas; Olsen, John E.; Dalsgaard, Anders
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.68581%
The possible increase of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in sewage associated with the discharge of wastewater from a hospital and a pharmaceutical plant was investigated by using Acinetobacter species as environmental bacterial indicators. The level of susceptibility to six antimicrobial agents was determined in 385 Acinetobacter strains isolated from samples collected upstream and downstream from the discharge points of the hospital and the pharmaceutical plant. Results indicated that while the hospital waste effluent affected only the prevalence of oxytetracycline resistance, the discharge of wastewater from the pharmaceutical plant was associated with an increase in the prevalence of both single- and multiple-antibiotic resistance among Acinetobacter species in the sewers.

Oxidation of Trichloroethylene, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, and Chloroform by Toluene/o-Xylene Monooxygenase from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1

Chauhan, Sadhana; Barbieri, Paola; Wood, Thomas K.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.69183%
Toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1, which oxidizes toluene and o-xylene, was examined for its ability to degrade the environmental pollutants trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), cis-1,2-DCE, trans-1,2-DCE, chloroform, dichloromethane, phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol, and 2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorophenol. Escherichia coli JM109 that expressed ToMO from genes on plasmid pBZ1260 under control of the lac promoter degraded TCE (3.3 μM), 1,1-DCE (1.25 μM), and chloroform (6.3 μM) at initial rates of 3.1, 3.6, and 1.6 nmol/(min · mg of protein), respectively. Stoichiometric amounts of chloride release were seen, indicating mineralization (2.6, 1.5, and 2.3 Cl− atoms per molecule of TCE, 1,1-DCE, and chloroform, respectively). Thus, the substrate range of ToMO is extended to include aliphatic chlorinated compounds.

Degradation of Morpholine by an Environmental Mycobacterium Strain Involves a Cytochrome P-450

Poupin, P.; Truffaut, N.; Combourieu, B.; Besse, P.; Sancelme, M.; Veschambre, H.; Delort, A. M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.68919%
A Mycobacterium strain (RP1) was isolated from a contaminated activated sludge collected in a wastewater treatment unit of a chemical plant. It was capable of utilizing morpholine and other heterocyclic compounds, such as pyrrolidine and piperidine, as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. The use of in situ 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy allowed the determination of two intermediates in the biodegradative pathway, 2-(2-aminoethoxy)acetate and glycolate. The inhibitory effects of metyrapone on the degradative abilities of strain RP1 indicated the involvement of a cytochrome P-450 in the biodegradation of morpholine. This observation was confirmed by spectrophotometric analysis and 1H NMR. Reduced cell extracts from morpholine-grown cultures, but not succinate-grown cultures, gave rise to a carbon monoxide difference spectrum with a peak near 450 nm, which indicated the presence of a soluble cytochrome P-450. 1H NMR allowed the direct analysis of the incubation medium containing metyrapone, a specific inhibitor of cytochrome P-450. The inhibition of morpholine degradation was dependent on the morpholine/metyrapone ratio. The heme-containing monooxygenase was also detected in pyrrolidine- and piperidine-grown cultures. The abilities of different compounds to support strain growth or the induction of a soluble cytochrome P-450 were assayed. The results suggest that this enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of the C—N bond of the morpholine ring.