Página 1 dos resultados de 1923 itens digitais encontrados em 0.519 segundos

Uma metodologia para gestão da eficiência energética de centrais de cogeração a biomassa: aplicação ao bagaço de cana.; A methodology for energy efficiency management of biomass cogeneration plants: application to sugarcane bagasse.

Paro, André de Carvalho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/08/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.86%
Em função do crescimento populacional e econômico brasileiro, o sistema elétrico nacional está sempre em modificação a fim de atender às necessidades do país. Na última década, ganhou destaque o aumento da geração termoelétrica na matriz elétrica nacional, primeiro proveniente do gás natural, e mais recentemente de fontes renováveis, como a cogeração termoelétrica proveniente do bagaço de cana. Em virtude desta realidade, é importante que, frente ao volume significativo e crescente de centrais de cogeração no país, seja pensada uma forma de administrar esta parcela da geração de maneira a se aprimorar de forma constante o desempenho destes sistemas. No entanto, verifica-se que os programas de eficiência energética no Brasil e no mundo estão geralmente associados aos usos finais de energia elétrica e praticamente inexiste uma ação estruturada de gestão da eficiência nas transformações energéticas para geração de eletricidade ao longo de sua operação. Portanto, este trabalho tem como objetivo, propor uma metodologia de gestão continuada da eficiência energética de centrais de cogeração a biomassa que operam em ciclo Rankine no Brasil. A metodologia está baseada no ciclo de melhoria contínua da qualidade...

Influence of specimen size, tray inclination and air flow rate on the emission of gases from biomass combustion

Amorim, E. B.; Carvalho, J. A.; Soares Neto, T. G.; Anselmo, E.; Saito, V. O.; Dias, F. F.; Santos, J. C.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 52-59
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
Experiments of biomass combustion were performed to determine whether specimen size, tray inclination, or combustion air flow rate was the factor that most affects the emission of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane. The chosen biomass was Eucalyptus citriodora, a very abundant species in Brazil, utilized in many industrial applications, including combustion for energy generation. Analyses by gas chromatograph and specific online instruments were used to determine the concentrations of the main emitted gases, and the following figures were found for the emission factors: 1400 ± 101 g kg-1 of CO2, 50 ± 13 g kg-1 of CO, and 3.2 ± 0.5 g kg-1 of CH4, which agree with values published in the literature for biomass from the Amazon rainforest. Statistical analysis of the experiments determined that specimen size most significantly affected the emission of gases, especially CO2 and CO. •Statistical analysis to determine effects on emission factors.•CO2, CO, CH4 emission factors determined for combustion of Eucalyptus.•Laboratory results agreed with data for Amazonian biomass combustion in field tests.•Combustion behavior under flaming and smoldering was analyzed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Avaliação de possiveis impactos energeticos e ambientais derivados da introdução de novas tecnologias para obtenção eficiente de carvão vegetal e carvão ativado; Evaluation of energy and environmental impacts on the introduction of new technologies for high yield charcoal and activated carbon production

Guilherme Bezzon
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/04/1998 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
Em um contexto de discussões de problemas ambientais gerados pela utilização em larga escala de combustíveis fósseis, a biomassa aparece como um atrativo recurso energético que, através de um uso racional e sustentável, pode contribuir significativamente para o controle das condições ambientais a nível global e localizado. Um dos principais combustíveis derivados de biomassa, o carvão vegetal, é produzido atualmente por tecnologias de baixa eficiência, que resultam em uma exploração indiscriminada de florestas nativas. O reflorestamento e o uso de tecnologias mais eficientes na produção do carvão vegetal são alternativas que proporcionam um melhor aproveitamento do potencial energético disponível na biomassa. Um aumento do valor agregado do carvão vegetal pode ser obtido através da modificação de sua estrutura por meio de uma oxidação controlada, dando origem ao carvão ativado, um material com propriedades adsortivas, que são aplicadas para a separação de compostos indesejáveis, purificação e remoção de poluentes em líquidos e gases. O aumento do rendimento de produção de carvão vegetal e carvão ativado, a partir de biomassa, foi obtido através do desenvolvimento de uma tecnologia, baseada na pirólise controlada a pressões superiores à atmosférica e posterior ativação do carvão vegetal resultante...

Caracterização e análise comparativa de cinzas provenientes da queima de biomassa; Characterization and comparative analysis of ash from biomass burning

Anselmo Dueñas Gonzalez
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/10/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.75%
O presente trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de um processo de caraterização das cinzas das biomassas bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, eucalipto e capim elefante após sua queima quando utilizadas para geração de energia alternativa. É, então, analisada a influência de parâmetros físico-químicos na qualidade final das cinzas. O parâmetro químico avaliado foi a interpretação da composição elementar das cinzas estudadas por análises de Espectrometria de Fluorescência de Raios-X e Cromatografia de Íons e por Análise Química por, objetivando a caracterização e reutilização desses resíduos. As amostras de cinzas de biomassas estudadas neste trabalho, foram analisadas quanto à presença dos elementos Cloro (Cl-), Alumínio (em Al2O3), Cálcio (em CaO), Ferro (em Fe2O3), Fósforo (em P2O5), Magnésio (em MgO), Manganês (em MnO), Potássio (em K20), Sódio (em Na2O) e Silício (em SiO2), e foram caracterizadas conforme os percentuais em massa dos elementos presentes. Os resultados obtidos mostraram a possibilidade de reutilização adequada de cinzas das biomassas em função da alteração das propriedades químicas do solo, por ocorrência de elevação dos níveis de pH, Cálcio (Ca), Fósforo (P), redução dos teores de Alumínio (Al) trocável e melhoria substancial da capacidade de agregação das partículas e fertilização do solo. Também foram associadas as influências dos elementos presentes nas cinzas como alternativa viável na composição do cimento Portland...

Avaliação da eficiência energética renovável de biomassas alternativas para geração de eletricidade; Evaluation of renewable energetic efficiency of biomass alternatives for electricity generation

Vadson Bastos do Carmo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/12/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência da energia renovável de fontes alternativas de biomassas como matérias-primas em processos de geração de energia integradas a produção de etanol de cana-de-açúcar para utilização no período de entressafra desta matéria-prima ou de forma independente através de uma usina termelétrica. As fontes de biomassa analisadas foram as seguintes: resíduos agroindustriais (casca de arroz, jequitibá-rosa, caixeta), resíduos urbanos (poda de árvores e fibra de coco) e plantio e floretas energéticas (capim-elefante e eucalipto). As eficiências energéticas relativas das biomassas foram determinadas a partir de uma usina termoelétrica de referencia, considerando-se a mesma potência de IMW, a eficiência do processo de termoconversão e os índices energéticos consolidados para esta avaliação energética e emergética, usando-se a Análise Envoltória de Dados (DEA). A floresta enegética de eucalipto, o plantio de campim-elefante, o resíduo urbano da fibra-de-coco e os resíduos agroindustriais das madeiras caixeto e jequitibá-rosa apresentaram os melhores indices de eficiência energética renovável relativa, demonstrando que estas fontes de biomassas apresentaram desempenhos similares ou próximos ao abtido pelo bagaço da cana-de-açucar e...

Second-Generation Biofuels : Economics and Policies

Carriquiry, Miguel A.; Du, Xiaodong; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Recent increases in production of crop-based (or first-generation) biofuels have engendered increasing concerns over potential conflicts with food supplies and land protection, as well as disputes over greenhouse gas reductions. This has heightened a sense of urgency around the development of biofuels produced from non-food biomass (second-generation biofuels). This study reviews the economic potential and environmental implications of production of second-generation biofuels from a variety of various feedstocks. Although second-generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix, cost is a major barrier to increasing commercial production in the near to medium term. Depending on various factors, the cost of second-generation (cellulosic) ethanol can be two to three times as high as the current price of gasoline on an energy equivalent basis. The cost of biodiesel produced from microalgae, a prospective feedstock, is many times higher than the current price of diesel. Policy instruments for increasing biofuels use...

Fire without Smoke : Learning from the National Program on Improved Chulhas

Rehman, Ibrahim Hafeezur; Malhotra, Preeti
Fonte: New Delhi: The Energy and Resources Institute and the World Bank Publicador: New Delhi: The Energy and Resources Institute and the World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
A major section of over 720 million rural poor in India continue to depend on biomass sources for meeting their energy requirements. Most of these poor people continue to burn biomass in energy-inefficient devices, locally called Chulhas. This study report is based on an evaluation of the National Program for Improved Chulhas (NPIC) conducted as part of a larger Bank study entitled India : household energy, indoor air pollution and health (World Bank 2002). This book synthesizes learning and insights from various programs implementation across different socio-economic and geographic regions of the country. The critical issues related to dissemination of improves cook-stoves discussed in the book will find wide application not only in India but in other developing countries as well. It is imperative that we take forward the initiatives undertaken in the past to provide energy-efficient option for meeting the cooking needs of rural communities, yet underserved by modern energy options.

Improving Energy Access to the Urban Poor in Developing Countries

The Energy and Resources Institute
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.62%
The case studies documented in this report aim to inform the energy access community (including practitioners, civil society groups, project planners, end users) about best practices of successful energy access initiatives targeted at slum dwellers. Eight case studies focusing on electrification and household energy were selected from India, Bangladesh, Colombia and Brazil, all countries that have had varying success in providing access to modern energy services for slum dwellers. The cases had to meet all or some of the following criteria: 1) limited to developing countries; 2) demonstrate innovative methods of improving energy access, including collaborative stakeholder engagement; 3) at least one example of small local energy service providers; 4) contributed to community development by promoting local skill development and income generation; and 5) representative of electricity and different sources of household energy. The case studies describe the existing conditions in the slum, type of energy service provided...

Incorporating Energy from Renewable Resources into Power System Planning

Madrigal, Marcellino; Jordan, Rhonda Lenai
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.64%
Incorporating energy from renewable resources into power system planning is an important issue. As countries generate more energy from renewable sources, that energy must become part of the power-system planning process. In 2004, investments in all forms of clean energy represented about 20 percent of total global investment in generation capacity. By 2011, that share had topped 40 percent. This paper explains the various reasons behind the push for renewable sources, chief among them being reducing climate-altering emissions. The paper answers the following questions giving a brief synopsis of each: What is the key challenge? What solutions are available? What are the key lessons learned. A few case studies are also used throughout to illustrate key points.

Fly-ash products from biomass co-combustion for VOC control

Kwong, C.; Chao, C.
Fonte: Elsevier Sci Ltd Publicador: Elsevier Sci Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.71%
Experiments were conducted in a continuous flow reactor at room temperature to evaluate the elimination of low-concentration toluene in the gas phase to verify if fly-ash products from biomass combustion in an ozonation system could be used in the removal of volatile organic compounds. The fly-ash products from pure biomass combustion (Ash(100)) demonstrated the highest ozonation activities upon the removal of low-concentration toluene (1.5 ppmv), followed by the fly-ash products from co-combustion (Ash(30)) and the coal combustion (Ash(0)). Kinetic experiments showed that the activation energy of the toluene elimination process was substantially reduced with the use of ozone and the reaction intermediates, such as formic acids, aldehydes, etc. Results also showed that the intermediates were reduced with increasing humidity level. The combined use of fly-ash products and zeolite 13X enhanced the removal of toluene to above 90% and suppressed the release of residual ozone and intermediates by holding them in the adsorbed phase.; C.W. Kwong and C.Y.H. Chao

Lessons from biomass planning at national and regional level in the EU

KAUTTO Nina; PECK P.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
Abstract: Action plans are an important tool for meeting the EU renewable energy targets. Planning of biomass at national level has recently shifted from biomass action plans to renewable energy action plans; the latter still assigning special attention to biomass. A number of regions have also developed or are developing biomass plans. However, even though such plans are to assist the delivery of bioenergy development, the processes leading to successful implementation are not well documented. Little is known of the roles and function of these plans. This paper examines factors underlying plans and draws lessons from the planning processes that appear to support successful bioenergy development. The work presents views of actors involved in biomass planning in eleven countries and nine regions in Europe with an analytical framework employed to condense and present interview content. The analysis shows that while planning processes at both national and regional levels have encountered barriers – most of them common to policy implementation in general, but some specifi c to bioenergy policy – the national level appears to have better dealt with such barriers. Stakeholder commitment, continuity of policy, and fl exibility of planning guidelines and processes were found as some of the keys to successful implementation. While biomass plans were demonstrated to serve several roles...

Life cycle assessment of platform chemicals from fossil and lignocellulosic biomass scenarios : phenolic compounds, solvent, soft and hard plastic precursors; Análisis del ciclo de vida de químicos base (compuestos fenólicos, disolventes y precursores de plásticos) procedentes de fuentes fósiles y escenarios de la biomasa

Martín Gallardo, Hipólito
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
One of the challenges of our time is the substitution of the existing fossil based economy by a green economy within the framework of sustainable development of our society. Biomass, especially from lignocelluloses, is a promising solution for the substitution of fuels, energy, chemicals and materials from fossil sources in a so called ―Biorefinery‖. The production of chemicals from biomass presents higher mass and carbon theoretical efficiency, and it seems an interesting alternative to provide a renewable path for globally and widely demanded platform chemicals like phenols, solvents (Acetone), soft plastic precursor (Polyethylene) and hard plastic precursor (Polypropylene). In this report, the environmental loads associated to the production of chemicals (Phenolic compounds, Acetone, PolyHydroxyButyric Acid and Polylactic Acid) from lignocellulose biomass scenarios (Poplar and Eucalyptus) are evaluated and compared to the petrochemical equivalents. Life Cycle Assessment Methodology and the latest Global Warming Potential Indicator that accounts biogenic greenhouse gas effect related to the rotation period of the feedstock along the entire carbon cycle are used along this study. The production of chemicals from biomass could contribute to possible reductions between 37% and 48% on greenhouse gas emissions for the functional unit when taking into account the entire carbon cycle and not only cradle to gate approach. Also...

Assessment of dry residual biomass potential for use as alternative energy source in the party of General Pueyrredon, Argentina

Roberts, Justo Jose; Cassula, Agnelo Marotta; Prado, Pedro Osvaldo; Dias, Rubens Alves; Perrella Balestieri, Jose Antonio
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 568-583
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 2013/07287-3; The present article assesses the residual biomass availability and its energy potential in the Party of General Pueyrredon, a region located southeast of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. These were considered herbaceous and vegetable residues derived from the agricultural activity developed in the region, and forest residues resulting from the pruning of urban trees and garden maintenance. The estimates were based on statistical information of the 2011-2012 harvest and a series of parameters obtained from an extensive literature review. The calculations resulted in an availability of residual biomass of 204,536 t/year, implying an energy potential of 2605 TJ/year. If this biomass is used to generate electricity, it could supply 76,000 users from Mar del Plata city, the largest consumer center in the region. If the same available biomass is used for heat generation, 25,160 users could be supplied by the available residual biomass. The authors concluded that the residual biomass energy potential is significant in the studied region...

Initiating the Bank's Peri-Urban/Rural and Renewable Energy Activities in Nigeria

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
The workshop entitled, Initiating the Bank's Peri Urban / Rural and Renewable Energy Activities in Nigeria was divided in two parts. Part 1, Energizing rural energy transformation by : scaling up electricity access and renewable energy market development; and part 2, Creating demand and removing barriers to renewable energy market development. The workshop organizers placed great emphasis on promoting participation and dialog across Nigeria's energy sector. Delegates were major stakeholders in the rural electrification arena. This document lists the proceedings, and includes the presentations by participants of the overall workshop. The workshop concluded by identifying the following areas for action : accelerate the process of formulating Nigeria's overall vision for scaling up electricity access from renewable energy sources in underserved areas in a rapid and sustainable manner; identify key principles for framing the policy platform and institutional framework required for mounting a large-scale clean energy program; formulate a strategy for developing renewable and clean energy resources in a cost effective manner...

Sustainable Energy in China : The Closing Window of Opportunity

Berrah, Noureddine; Feng, Fei; Priddle, Roland; Wang, Leiping
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
This report proposes the development of a coordinated and comprehensive national policy within the Energy Law that is presently under preparation based on four foundational themes: reducing energy growth below economic growth, making better use of national energy resources, safeguarding the environment, and making the energy system robust to withstand potential disruptions. It stresses that the policy measures and program to achieve sustainability will have to be the subject of careful consultation within government and extend to mobilizing China's civil society. The scope of and potential for fruitful international cooperation is also explored, but the detail must be worked out in a cooperative framework. The main body of the report is arranged in six chapters. The first examines what the projections say about the future of China's energy consumption and concludes that urgent action is needed to avoid locking the country into an unsustainable energy development path. Chapter two evaluates end-use efficiency and finds that a less energy-intensive path can be founded on the most advanced technologies. The third chapter examines the damaging environmental impacts of the huge prospective energy growth...

Biomassa gerada a partir da Terminalia cattapa L. (castanheira) : estudo do seu potencial energético; Generated form biomass Cattapa of Terminalia L. (nut) : a study of their potential energetic

Silva, Cassia Roberta Pontes
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; Brasil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química; UFAL Publicador: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; Brasil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química; UFAL
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.82%
In a country of vast land area and a large agricultural potential such as Brazil, one of the biggest challenges is to develop arrays of energy from alternative sources of low cost, making them economically competitive. In this situation, several research institutions of the country have struggled to develop new alternatives, and among the various possibilities, we highlight the use of biomass residues for power generation by burning. The Terminalia catappa L. popularly known as walnut is a species adapted to all regions of Brazil, which make it a viable source of biomass. In this study, we evaluated the quality of some parts of the nut for energy purposes. The samples were crushed immediately after being collected and were made the following physico-chemical characterizations: gross calorific value, ash content, moisture and density. The calorific value observed for the species studied had values between 13 643 J / g to 18 842 J / g, especially if Pie castanets due to the higher amounts of available energy both in its fresh form with values of 18 620 J / g or as briquettes with values of 18 842 J / g, values that are considered satisfactory for biomass waste. The ash content of the samples had values between 2.89% to 6.54% for the sample is fresh and in form of briquettes values that are considered acceptable...

Wood Energy in the Southeastern United States: A Strategy for Sustainable Growth

Palange, David
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 748661 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
Economic and environmental concerns over fossil fuels are placing the Southeast United States in a position to expand its use of wood biomass for energy. The region’s productive forestland, growing population, and wood products industry can help provide a sustainable, diverse and abundant supply of woody biomass much of which is currently unutilized. While federal and state policies are steering the use of wood toward large-scale production of cellulosic ethanol and electricity in the Southeast, the generation of thermal energy, the most efficient use of wood, appears to be undervalued. Three market segments that can benefit economically from biomass thermal energy are highlighted: institutions, agriculture, and industry. These segments are selected based on sustainability criteria that include a rapid payback period, high demand for thermal energy, efficient use of woody biomass, proximity to fuel source, and potential for repeatability across the region. Sensitivity analyses and case studies are used to support these findings. Critical factors for implementation of biomass thermal energy in the Southeast are also identified, revealing key economic, political and social barriers and drivers. Central barriers include the lack of a formal biomass market...

Fluidised bed combustion of two species of energy crops

Abelha, Pedro; Franco, Carlos; Lopes, M. Helena; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Cabrita, Isabel
Fonte: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia Publicador: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /05/2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.84%
The use of biomass fuels for energy production through combustion has a growing application worldwide mainly for two reasons: first, the utilization of biomass for energy contributes to mitigate emission of green house gases; second, its use decreases the dependence of imported fossil fuels in Europe. The objective of this work was to study the combustion behaviour of two endogenous biomass species: cardoon (cynara cardunculus) and arundo (arundo donax), which were specially produced in energy crops plantations. Mixtures of cardoon and a forestry biomass specie (eucalyptus) were also studied to evaluate potential benefits from synergies between both biomass fuel types. The results showed that the utilization of cardoon, in pelletized form, and loose arundo as feedstock, did not give rise to any operational problems related with the feeding system. It was verified that the mono combustion of cardoon could pose problems at industrial scale in fluidised bed systems, considering the high levels of HCl and NOX emissions obtained and tendency to sinter the bed sand material. The addition of the forestry biomass to cardoon appeared to prevent the bed agglomeration problem. Furthermore, both the NOX and SO2 emissions were found to decrease at the same time suggesting potential synergy of blending different types of biomass regarding pollutant emissions and in bed agglomeration problems.

Technologies for recovery of energy from wastewaters: Applicability and potential in South Africa

Stafford,William; Cohen,Brett; Pather-Elias,Simisha; von Blottnitz,Harro; van Hille,Robert; Harrison,Sue T L; Burton,Stephanie G
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.61%
This study explored technologies for recovering energy from wastewater through production of bio-mass, combustion and gasification, generation of biogas, production of bioethanol, heat recovery and microbial fuel cells. A first order desktop analysis of the potential for applying these solutions to waste-waters in South Africa revealed that 3 200 to 9 000 MWth of energy has potential for recovery, equating to at most 7% of South Africa's current electrical power supply. Formal and informal animal husbandry, fruit and beverage industries and domestic blackwater were identified as wastewaters with the greatest potential for energy recovery. Of the reviewed technologies, anaerobic digestion shows applicability to the widest range of feedstocks. Net energy generated, reduction in pollution, and water reclamation are identified as the main benefits, but additional benefits such as certified emission reductions, fertiliser production and the production of secondary products may dictate the economic feasibility.

Good for people can be good for business: The convergence of opportunities for delivering basic energy to low-income households in developing countries

Balmer,Marlett; Hancock,David
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.85%
Energy poverty affects more than 40% of the world's population. Fuels and appliances used by low-income groups have been of low-quality, expensive, non-durable and have posed serious health and safety risks to users. Energy transition theories, most noteably the energy ladder model, have postulated a gradual but complete move away from traditional, mostly biomass energy sources towards modern energy sources. Evidence however, increasingly indicates that the process did not happen as anticipated. This paper argues that energy transition from biomass fuels to full electricity use will not take place in SADC countries due to economic circumstances, increases in commercial fuel prices and the deficit in power generation capacity in the region. It further argues that wood fuel, traditionally regarded as a lower order fuel, is actually a renewable energy source that can meet the energy needs of rural people sustainably, if managed correctly. The paper suggests a re-evaluation of the value of wood fuel - from a low value fuel associated with poverty and degradation to a high value, renewable energy fuel, supplying much needed energy in a potentially sustainable manner. The paper outlines a convergence of a number of external conditions and opportunities which may alter household energy supply...