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Electrostatic Interactions Are Not Sufficient to Account for Chitosan Bioactivity

PAVINATTO, Adriana; PAVINATTO, Felippe José; BARROS-TIMMONS, Ana; OLIVEIRA JUNIOR, Osvaldo Novais de
Fonte: AMER CHEMICAL SOC Publicador: AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Recent studies involving chitosan interacting with phospholipid monolayers that mimic cell membranes have brought molecular-level evidence for some of the physiological actions of chitosan, as in removing a protein from the membrane. This interaction has been proven to be primarily of electrostatic origin because of the positive charge OF chitosan in low pH solutions, but indirect evidence has also appeared of the presence of hydrophobic interactions. In this study, we provide definitive proof that model membranes are not affected merely by the charges in the amine groups of chitosan. Such a proof was obtained by comparing surface pressure and surface potential isotherms of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) and dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl glycerol (DPPG) monolayers incorporating either chitosan or poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH). As the latter is also positively charged and With the same charged Functional group as chitosan, similar effects should be observed in case the electrical charge was the only relevant parameter. Instead, we observed a large expansion in the surface pressure isotherms upon interaction with chitosan, whereas PAH had much smaller effects. Of particular relevance for biological implications, chitosan considerably reduced the monolayer elasticity...

Electrostatic potentials and polarization effects in proton-molecule interactions by means of multipoles from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules

Terrabuio, Luiz Alberto; Haiduke, Roberto Luiz Andrade
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL; HOBOKEN Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL; HOBOKEN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
354.87504%
Some atomic multipoles (charges, dipoles and quadrupoles) from the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) and CHELPG charges are used to investigate interactions between a proton and a molecule (F2, Cl2, BF, AlF, BeO, MgO, LiH, H2CO, NH3, PH3, BF3, and CO2). Calculations were done at the B3LYP/6-311G(3d,3p) level. The main aspect of this work is the investigation of polarization effects over electrostatic potentials and atomic multipoles along a medium to long range of interaction distances. Large electronic charge fluxes and polarization changes are induced by a proton mainly when this positive particle approaches the least electronegative atom of diatomic heteronuclear molecules. The search for simple equations to describe polarization on electrostatic potentials from QTAIM quantities resulted in linear relations with r-4 (r is the interaction distance) for many cases. Moreover, the contribution from atomic dipoles to these potentials is usually the most affected contribution by polarization what reinforces the need for these dipoles to a minimal description of purely electrostatic interactions. Finally, CHELPG charges provide a description of polarization effects on electrostatic potentials that is in disagreement with physical arguments for certain of these molecules. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals...

Determinação experimental da resistividade ôhmica de cinzas volantes para projeto de precipitadores eletrostáticos. ; Experimental determination of ohmic resistivity of fly ash for design of electrostatic precipitators.

Ozawa, Marcelo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/07/2003 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
356.21348%
O presente trabalho reúne elementos para projeto de precipitadores eletrostáticos, com dados levantados de cinzas volantes provenientes da combustão de gases em caldeiras de carvão mineral. Os objetivos desta pesquisa são construir um dispositivo padronizado para medição da resistividade ôhmica de materiais, levantar dados de resistividade ôhmica das cinza volantes de carvão mineral utilizado no Brasil e, com estes dados, listar recomendações sobre cuidados no dimensionamento de precipitadores (cálculo da área de captação), quando este equipamento é posicionado após uma caldeira que queima o carvão mineral nacional. A metodologia utilizada foi baseada em norma americana ASME, em que o pó (material a ser testado) é colocado sobre eletrodos de descarga e de coleta, uma alta tensão elétrica é aplicada até atingir a tensão de ruptura elétrica e neste instante é medida a resistividade. A construção do experimento e procedimento de execução foram seguidos conforme esta norma. O material de teste foi coletado de precipitadores eletrostáticos existentes na região Sul do Brasil, onde o carvão mineral tem seu uso freqüente. Os resultados apresentaram baixos valores para resistividade da cinza volante nacional...

Turbulência Eletrostática e Magnética em Tokamaks; Electrostatic and magnetic turbulence in Tokamaks

Castro, Raul Murete de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/10/1996 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
353.1049%
Neste trabalho foi realizado um estudo experimental da turbulência e do transporte de partículas e energia induzido por flutuações na borda do plasma do tokamak TBR-1. Para isto, foi utilizado um conjunto de sondas eletrostáticas (incluindo uma sonda tripla de resposta rápida) e magnéticas, especialmente construído para este fim. Técnicas de análise espectral foram aplicadas aos dados e permitiram verificar a influência das flutuações da temperatura nos parâmetros de transporte. Os resultados mostram que o nível relativo das flutuações da temperatura é da ordem de 10% e os da densidade e do potencial variam de ~10 a ~ 30 %. As flutuações eletrostáticas possuem faixas largas de freqüência e números de onda, o que caracteriza a borda do plasma como um meio turbulento. Estas flutuações se propagam no sentido da deriva diamagnética dos íons. A correção das flutuações das grandezas do plasma utilizando as flutuações da temperatura causou mudanças significativas nos transportes de partículas e energia induzidos por flutuações, nas posições mais internas da borda do plasma. O tempo de confinamento de partículas, calculado a partir deste transporte, está na faixa de ~1 a ~ 1,5 ms, que é da mesma ordem do tempo de confinamento obtido por outros métodos...

Effects of dust charge variation on electrostatic waves in dusty plasmas with temperature anisotropy

Juli, Marcelo Camargo de; Schneider, Ruth de Souza; Ziebell, Luiz Fernando; Gaelzer, Rudi
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
350.6539%
We utilize a kinetic approach to the problem of wave propagation in dusty plasmas, taking into account the variation of the charge of the dust particles due to inelastic collisions with electrons and ions. The components of the dielectric tensor are written in terms of a finite and an infinite series, containing all effects of harmonics and Larmor radius. The formulation is quite general and valid for the whole range of frequencies above the plasma frequency of the dust particles, which are assumed motionless. The formulation is employed to the study of electrostatic waves propagating along the direction of the ambient magnetic field, in the case for which ions and electrons are described by bi-Maxwellian distributions. The results obtained in a numerical analysis corroborate previous analysis, about the important role played by the dust charge variation, particularly on the imaginary part of the dispersion relation, and about the very minor role played in the case of electrostatic waves by some additional terms appearing in the components of the dielectric tensor, which are entirely due to the occurrence of the dust charge variation.

Degradation analysis of the SnO2 and ZnO-based varistors using electrostatic force microscopy

Ramírez, M. A.; Tararam, R.; Simões, A. Z.; Ries, A.; Longo, Elson; Varela, José Arana
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1801-1809
ENG
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The degradation phenomena of ZnO and SnO2-based varistors were investigated for two different degradation methods: DC voltage at increased temperature and degradation with 8/20 μs pulsed currents (lightning type). Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) was used to analyze the surface charge accumulated at grain-boundary regions before and after degradation. Before the degradation process, 85% of the barriers are active in the SnO2 system, while the ZnO system presents only 30% effective barriers. Both systems showed changes in the electrical behavior when degraded with pulses. In the case of the ZnO system, the behavior after pulse degradation was essentially ohmic due to the destruction of barriers (about 99% of the interfaces are conductive). After the degradation with 8/20 μs pulsed currents, the SnO2 system still presents nonohmic behavior with a significant decrease in the quantity of effective barriers (from 85% to 5%). However, when the degradation is accomplished with continuous current, the SnO2 system exhibits minimum variation, while the ZnO system degrades from 30% to 5%. This result indicates the existence of metastable defects of low concentration and/or low diffusion in the SnO2 system. High energy is necessary to degrade the barriers due to defect annihilation in the SnO2 system. © 2013 The American Ceramic Society.

Nanocompositos polimericos com argila preparados a partir de dispersões aquosas : efeito dos contra-ions e auto-adesão; Polymer clay nanocomposites prepared in aqueous medium : electrostatic interactions and self-adhesion

Fabio do Carmo Bragança
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/04/2008 PT
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Este trabalho mostra a influência das interações eletrostáticas nas propriedades físicas e morfológicas de nanocompósitos poliméricos com argila preparados a partir de dispersões aquosas, e as características estruturais de laminados nanoestruturados autoadesivos preparados com borracha natural e argila. A preparação dos nanocompósitos envolveu a utilização de argilas produzidas através da troca do sódio por potássio, lítio e cálcio e a mistura destas com um látex estireno-acrílico sintetizado em laboratório. O tipo e o grau de hidratação dos cátions influenciaram de maneira significativa as propriedades mecânicas dos nanocompósitos. Mapas elementares baseados em espectroscopia por perda de energia de elétrons mostraram que os contra-íons estão presentes nas regiões onde se sobrepõem polímero e argila. Este resultado forneceu subsídios para a proposição de um modelo, onde os contra-íons atuam como uma ponte iônica entre as lâminas de argila e a matriz polimérica, ambas contendo excesso de cargas negativas. O modelo de adesão eletrostática mediada por contra-íons foi aplicado com sucesso na preparação de nanocompósitos com polietileno de baixa densidade e argila em meio aquoso. Os nanocompósitos preparados apresentaram aumento de aproximadamente 40% no módulo elástico frente ao polímero puro...

Padrões eletrostaticos em uma superficie de silica : um modelo para o acumulo de cargas eletricas em isolantes; Electrostatic patterning of a silica surface: a new model for charge build-up on a dielectric solid

Rubia Figueredo Gouveia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/07/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
353.1049%
Atualmente muitas tecnologias importantes são baseadas nos princípios eletrostáticos, como por exemplo, a pintura eletrostática, a reciclagem de termoplásticos e a eletrofotografia. No entanto, mesmo considerando todo o desenvolvimento da eletrostática, ainda existem muitas questões importantes não respondidas, quando se considera a eletrização de materiais isolantes. Na maioria dos casos não se conhece quais são as espécies portadoras de cargas, nem como elas podem ser detectadas e identificadas. Trabalhos anteriores deste laboratório mostraram que os portadores de cargas em látexes são íons simples (K, RSO4, etc). Neste trabalho foram estudados os padrões eletrostáticos criados em uma superfície de sílica, recoberta por um conjunto de eletrodos interdigitados de ouro. As amostras foram preparadas utilizando técnicas microlitográficas e sua superfície foi investigada usando as microscopias de força atômica (AFM) e de varredura de potencial elétrico (SEPM). Foram obtidos padrões eletrostáticos reprodutíveis; a aplicação de uma diferença de potencial elétrico entre os eletrodos produz padrões de potenciais elétricos que desaparecem rapidamente quando os eletrodos são curto-circuitados e aterrados. O tempo de relaxação desses padrões foi de aproximadamente 10 minutos sob umidade de 70% e eles são fortemente influenciados pela umidade relativa da atmosfera...

Parameters of electrostatic spraying and its influence on the application efficiency

Sasaki,Robson Shigueaki; Teixeira,Mauri Martins; Fernandes,Haroldo Carlos; Monteiro,Paulo Marcos de Barros; Rodrigues,Denílson Eduardo; Alvarenga,Cleyton Batista de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Viçosa Publicador: Universidade Federal de Viçosa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
350.6539%
When the electrostatic spraying is used correctly, it provides advantages over conventional systems, however many factors can affect the system efficiency. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the charge/mass ratio (Q/M) at different spraying distances (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 m), and the liquid deposition efficiency on the target. Evaluating the Q/M ratio the Faraday cage method was used and to evaluate the liquid deposition efficiency the artificial targets were positioned longitudinally and transversely to the spray jet. It was found that the spraying distance affects the Q/M ratio, consequently, the liquid deposition efficiency. For the closest distance to the target the Q/M ratio was 4.11 mC kg-1, and at distances of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 m, the ratio decreased to 1.38, 0.64, 0.31, 0.17 and 0.005 mC kg-1, respectively. For the liquid deposition, the electrostatic system was affected by the target orientation and spraying distance. The target transversely to the jet of liquid did not improve the liquid deposition, but longitudinally increased the deposition up to 3 meters of distance.

A new mechanism for the electrostatic charge build-up and dissipation in dielectrics

Soares,Lucas C.; Bertazzo,Sérgio; Burgo,Thiago A. L.; Baldim,Victor; Galembeck,Fernando
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
354.87504%
Excess electrostatic charge induction on paper under an electrostatic potential, at different relative humidity (RH) values, was measured using a Kelvin electrostatic voltmeter set-up. Results show that samples under a positive potential accumulate excess negative charges, which are dissipated when the potential is brought down to zero. Rates of charge accumulation and dissipation over the samples are equal under constant RH and both rates decrease markedly at lower RH values. These results are interpreted using a new model for the electrification of insulators, based on the effect of the electric potential on the electrochemical potential (µi=µi° + RTln a + zFV) of H(H2O)n+ and OH(H2O)n- ions within water adsorbed on insulators. Rates of paper electrification and re-neutralization are thus strongly dependent on the amount of water in the atmosphere. This model explains the experimental results presented in this work and also a number of hitherto unexplained reports on electrostatic phenomena.

Effects of dust charge variation on electrostatic waves in dusty plasmas with temperature anisotropy

Juli,M.C. de; Schneide,R.S.; Ziebell,L. F.; Gaelzer,R.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Física Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Física
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
350.6539%
We utilize a kinetic approach to the problem of wave propagation in dusty plasmas, taking into account the variation of the charge of the dust particles due to inelastic collisions with electrons and ions. The components of the dielectric tensor are written in terms of a finite and an infinite series, containing all effects of harmonics and Larmor radius. The formulation is quite general and valid for the whole range of frequencies above the plasma frequency of the dust particles, which are assumed motionless. The formulation is employed to the study of electrostatic waves propagating along the direction of the ambient magnetic field, in the case for which ions and electrons are described by bi-Maxwellian distributions. The results obtained in a numerical analysis corroborate previous analysis, about the important role played by the dust charge variation, particularly on the imaginary part of the dispersion relation, and about the very minor role played in the case of electrostatic waves by some additional terms appearing in the components of the dielectric tensor, which are entirely due to the occurrence of the dust charge variation.

Measurement of the electrostatic charge in airborne particles: I - development of the equipment and preliminary results

Marra Jr.,W.D.; Coury,J.R.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
354.87504%
The design and construction of a equipment capable of measuring the electrostatic charges in aerosols, named the electrostatic charge classifier, were carried out. They were based on the concept of particle electromobility and the charge classifier was intended to classify the nature and the distribution of electrostatic charges as a function of particle size. The resulting piece of equipment is easy to dismount, which facilitates its cleaning and transport, and easy to operate. Early results indicate that the values of electrostatic charge measured on test particles are inside the range reported in the literature, indicating the adequacy of the technique utilized.

A point-charge model for electrostatic potentials based on a local projection of multipole moments

Gilbert, Andrew; Gill, Peter
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
350.6539%
We introduce a method for obtaining atomic point-charges that yield accurate representations of the electrostatic potentials (ESP) of large systems. The method relies on a decomposition of the density and subsequent projection of the multipole moments of

A Comparison of the resolution obtainable from photomechanical and electrostatic plates

Fitzpatrick, Michael
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
356.21348%
This thesis addressed the question of what level of resolution was obtainable from the electrostatic plate. Resolution was defined as the ability of a material to record fine detail. Two types of plates were compared, one photomechanical and the other an electrostatic. The photomechanical plate consisted of a light sensitive coating applied to an aluminum1 base . The electrostatic plate consisted of a fused toner image on an aluminum base. The intent of this research was to determine the final resolution, not the forces and factors which effected it. The hypothesis stated that the resulting resolution of the electrostatic plate will be lower than that of the photo mechanical plate. This research addressed the following questions; What minimum and maximum percent dot, and maximum screen ruling could the plate produce?

Utilization of statistical tools to identify assignable causes of variability and model performance of a wet electrostatic precipitator

Wuotinen, Jennifer
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
350.6539%
The King's Landing Wastewater Treatment Plant treats industrial sewer wastewater from nearly 200 manufacturing buildings for Eastman Kodak Company located at Kodak Park in Rochester, NY. The average throughput for the facility is 28 million gallons of wastewater per day (MGD) and discharges the resulting effluent into the Genesee River. Through a series of physical, chemical, and biological treatment processes, materials are removed from the wastewater and sludge is produced. The sludge is conveyed through a belt press for dewatering prior to incineration. The dewatered sludge is sent to a multiple hearth incinerator with a secondary combustion chamber/afterburner for thermal treatment. From the combustion and incineration process, off-gases are produced. Therefore, air pollution control equipment is needed to treat the gas stream. At King's Landing, an induced draft fan creates negative pressure through the hearth along with a series of air pollution control equipment (APCE) consisting of a quench chamber, condenser/scrubber, venturi, entrainment separator, and a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP). This equipment captures the components in the air stream through processes such as gas saturation, caustic neutralization, and electron particle collection. The WESP is a device that is used for fine particle collection in the range of 1 micron or less. Upon entereing the unit...

An optimal point-charge model for molecular electrostatic potentials

Simmonett, Andrew; Gilbert, Andrew; Gill, Peter
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
350.6539%
Motivated by the Legendre expansion of the electrostatic potential (ESP), we propose a method for obtaining atomic point-charges for a molecule based on reproducing the low-order multipole moments of the system. The resulting multipole-derived charges (MDCs) are well defined, do not require sampling of the ESP at grid points around the molecule and provide excellent reproduction of the electrostatic potential. No constraints are placed on the magnitude of the atomic charges.

EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF OHMIC RESISTIVITY OF FLY ASH FOR DESIGN OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS

Ozawa, M.; Yanagihara, J. I.
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Peer-reviewed Article Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/07/2006 ENG
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The objective of the present work is to determine the ohmic resistivity of fly ashes collected at electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) attached to boilers burning Brazilian coals. An experimental device to measure the fly ash resistivity was designed and constructed; tests were conducted according to accepted standards in other countries. It was the first time that this kind of measurement was conducted for Brazilian coals. The tested materials were collected from ESPs operating in the southern region of Brazil, where the mineral coal is commonly used. The ohmic resistivity of the tested materials was smaller compared to mineral coals from abroad. The resistivity of the fly ash increased when the temperature was raised, which is in accordance with reported results for mineral coals from abroad. Tests with particulate material collected from the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) of a biomass boiler showed that its ohmic resistivity is much lower than the resistivity of fly ash from the mineral coal. This means that the ESP for biomass boiler should be smaller, which is in accordance with the industrial practice. Based on the experimental results, practical comments about ESP sizing were made in order to assist engineers and technicians dealing with the problem of gas treatment in coal combustion.

Overall collection efficiency of a plate-wire electrostatic precipitator operating on the removal of PM2.5

Falaguasta,M. C. R.; Steffens,J.; Valdes,E. E.; Coury,J. R.
Fonte: Latin American applied research Publicador: Latin American applied research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
350.6539%
The collection efficiency of a laboratory scale plate-wire electrostatic precipitator, operating in the removal of airborne PM2.5, was carried out. The variables investigated were the applied potential (V), the gas velocity (v o), the diameter of the discharge electrodes (2rSE), the distance between electrodes (2c) and of the total precipitator length (L NE). The test particles were high grade alumina with median diameter of 0.6 micrometers and maximum diameter of 2.5 micrometers. The results showed, qualitatively, a good agreement with the theory of electrostatic precipitation. Quantitatively, the results were compared to predictions from two existing correlations from the literature and both underestimated the precipitator overall efficiency when using the assumption of pseudo-homogeneous electrical field strength. The predictions improved significantly when the field strength was calculated with the equation proposed by Kihm et al. (1985, 1987) and included a homogeneous space charge, as proposed by Riehle (1997).

The random walk of an electrostatic field using parallel infinite charged planes

Aldana,R.; Vidal Alcalá,J.; González,G.
Fonte: Sociedad Mexicana de Física Publicador: Sociedad Mexicana de Física
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
356.21348%
We show that it is possible to generate a random walk with an electrostatic field by means of several parallel infinite charged planes in which the surface charge distribution could be either ±ó. We formulate the problem of this stochastic process by using a rate equation for the most probable value for the electrostatic field subject to the appropriate transition probabilities according to the electrostatic boundary conditions. Our model gives rise to a stochastic law when the charge distribution is not deterministic. The probability distribution of the electrostatic field intensity, the mean value of the electrostatic force and the energy density are obtained.

Particle collision during the tribo-electrostatic beneficiation of fly ash based on infrared thermography

Li,H.S.; Chen,Y.H.; Wu,K.B.; Zhang,X.X.
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
353.1049%
Tribo-electrostatic beneficiation is effective for separating unburned carbon from fly ash. During the process, the fly ash particles become charged owing to friction and collision inside a tribo device. The intensity of friction and collision between particles can be deduced from the tribo device temperature field, obtained by infrared thermography. The purpose of this research was to establish whether an appropriate configuration of tribo device models can be obtained from particle collision experiments using infrared thermography. An experimental set-up was configured to study tribo devices with different arrangements and spacing of the friction rods, and the effect that this has on interparticle collision and the tribo-electrostatic beneficiation process. The experimental material was fly ash particles with a size range from 38 µm to 74 µm and loss on ignition (LOI) 12.65%. The operating conditions were electric field voltage 40 kV and the air flux ranged from 12 to 24 m³/h. The results show that the temperature inside the tribo devices is directly proportional to air flux and particle collision rate. The arrangement and spacing of the friction rods has an important effect on the temperature field distribution. An equilateral triangular arrangement with 20 mm spacing significantly increases the temperature value and collision probability. The optimum operating parameters were established through tribo-electrostatic beneficiation experiments on the fly ash...