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Performance study of an industrial RO plant for seawater desalination

Pais, João Abel G. C. R.; Ferreira, Licínio Manuel G. A.
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: aplication/PDF
ENG
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In this work, an approach to study the long-term performance of an industrial water desalination plant is described. Operational data corresponding to the time period of 454 days were analysed and from the results obtained it was found that the normalized water permeability coefficient declined by about 7%. Due mainly to the temperature effects, the salt permeability coefficient exhibit significant changes only during the summer period. The equations used allowed a good description of the performance of the plant.; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TFX-4NF2VNK-X/1/4cb299a29681a2b1bcbca4c5bfa3d4d1

Desalination of water by reverse osmosis using gravitational potential energy and wind energy

Fadigas, Eliane Aparecida Faria Amaral; DIAS, J. R.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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This paper proposes ail alternative configuration to conventional reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems by incorporating the use of gravitational potential energy. The proposal suggests a model that can be viewed as the energy station of a RO desalination plant. Conventionally, RO plants use a high-pressure pump, powered by electricity or fossil fuel. The function of the pump is to send a flux of saline water to a group of semi-permeable membrane modules, capable of ""filtering"" the dissolved salts. In this proposed model, we intend to achieve a flux at the inlet of the membrane modules with a pressure high enough for the desalination process, without using, either electricity or fossil fuels. To do this we divised a hybrid system that uses both gravitational potential energy and wind energy. The technical viability of the alternative was theoretically proven by deductions based on physics and mathematics.

Sistemas fotovoltaicos domiciliares de dessalinização de água para consumo humano: um estudo de sua viabilidade e configurações; Household photovoltaic desalination systems for drinking water production: a study of its viability and settings.

Rosa, Daniel Jordão de Magalhães
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/12/2013 PT
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Grande parte da população rural do Semiárido brasileiro sofre com problemas de acesso à água de qualidade. A exploração da água subterrânea representa uma das principais alternativas para o abastecimento dessa parcela da população, mas muitas vezes os poços perfurados encontram-se longe da rede elétrica. A região apresenta abundante recurso solar e, assim, essa dificuldade poderia ser contornada com a utilização de sistemas fotovoltaicos de bombeamento. Mas, além da questão da energia para o funcionamento dos sistemas de bombeamento, pelo fato da maior parte do Semiárido estar localizada sobre escudo cristalino, muitos poços apresentam água com altos níveis de salinidade, o que inviabiliza a utilização desses mananciais para o fornecimento de água potável ou faz com que a população rejeite seu consumo, por conta do gosto. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo verificar se a adaptação de sistemas de dessalinização de pequeno porte disponíveis comercialmente a sistemas fotovoltaicos domiciliares pode potencializar a difusão dos sistemas fotovoltaicos de bombeamento em poços de água com alto teor de sais dissolvidos e se essa opção pode representar uma alternativa de fornecimento de água para a população rural de áreas com problemas de salinização dos mananciais de abastecimento. A opção analisada consiste em um sistema duplo de fornecimento de água...

Renewable energy powered desalination systems: technologies and market analysis

Azevedo, Francisco Diogo Abreu Santos Moniz
Fonte: Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 ENG
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Tese de mestrado integrado em Engenharia da Energia e do Ambiente, apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2014; A dessalinização de água está a tornar-se uma solução economicamente viável para combater a escassez de água em várias regiões do planeta. No entanto, este processo consome bastante energia e a maioria das centrais mundiais são atualmente alimentadas por fontes de energia convencional. Com o custo dos combustíveis fósseis a aumentar, a sua operação torna-se cada vez mais onerosa e com as dificuldades adicionais da poluição e das emissões de gases de efeito estufa. Assim, a integração da produção de energias renováveis com a dessalinização é cada vez mais atraente. Este trabalho explora tecnologias de dessalinização alimentadas por energias renováveis e como estas podem representar uma solução sustentável para resolver a escassez de água em diversas regiões do planeta.; Water desalination is becoming a cost-effective solution to combat water scarcity in various areas of the planet. However, desalination is an energy-intensive process and most of the world’s plants are currently powered by conventional energy production. As the costs of fossil fuels increase...

O desafio de abastecimento descentralizado de água: avaliação do potencial de dessalinização por energia solar

Branco, Telma Filipa Aires
Fonte: ISA Publicador: ISA
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 POR
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Mestrado em Engenharia do Ambiente - Instituto Superior de Agronomia; Coping with water scarcity is one of the world biggest challenges, and in this sense, desalination has assumed an important role as an alternative solution for water supply. However the high energy consumption is a main drawback of this technology. The use of renewable energy as an alternative energy supply can contribute to a more environmentally sustainable desalination process. This work aims to illustrate the different available desalination technologies, and understand how these technologies can be combined with renewable energy sources, with more emphasis on humidification - dehumidification technology using solar energy. Since solar desalination is more applicable for decentralized production of water on a small scale, a case study was conducted on Culatra Island. This included geographical and climate characterization and, analysis of water needs. Based on this information a humidification-dehumidification desalination system was designed in order to supply part of the water needs of the community, including a solar thermal system dimensioned through the software SolTerm, in order to assess ih this system can be an alternative to the existing water supply.

Desalination of aqueous solutions by LTA and MFI zeolite membranes using pervaporation method

Malekpour,A.; Samadi-Maybodi,A.; Sadati,M. R.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2011 EN
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LTA and MFI zeolite membranes were hydrothermally grown on the surface of an α-alumina porous support. The synthesized membranes were used for removal of cationic and anionic species from aqueous solutions by the pervaporation method. The perfection of the membranes was improved by employing the multi-stage synthesis method. The membranes were characterized by XRD, SEM and IR methods. The membranes were initially evaluated by the pervaporation separation of water from aqueous 2-propanol mixtures. The separation factors obtained were 7081 and 105 for NaA and ZSM-5 membranes, respectively. The ability of membranes for desalination of some aqueous solutions containing I-, Cs+ and Sr2+ ions was examined in various conditions. These ionic species were chosen because of their importance in the nuclear sciences. Both membranes effectively removed (more than 99 wt%) I-, Cs+ and Sr2+ from their singlesalt solutions (0.001mol dm-3) over a temperature range of 298-338 K. The effects of parameters such as time and temperature on the separation factors and fluxes were investigated. This work shows that, due to their excellent chemical, thermal and mechanical stability, the zeolitic membranes are useful for desalination of aqueous solutions and treating saline wastewaters by pervaporation. Therefore...

Strategic Co-Location in a Hybrid Process Involving Desalination and Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO)

Sim, Victor S.T.; She, Qianhong; Chong, Tzyy Haur; Tang, Chuyang Y.; Fane, Anthony G.; Krantz, William B.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/07/2013 EN
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This paper focuses on a Hybrid Process that uses feed salinity dilution and osmotic power recovery from Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) to achieve higher overall water recovery. This reduces the energy consumption and capital costs of conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes. The Hybrid Process increases the amount of water recovered from the current 66.7% for conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes to a potential 80% through the use of reclaimed water brine as an impaired water source. A reduction of up to 23% in energy consumption is projected via the Hybrid Process. The attractiveness is amplified by potential capital cost savings ranging from 8.7%–20% compared to conventional designs of seawater desalination plants. A decision matrix in the form of a customizable scorecard is introduced for evaluating a Hybrid Process based on the importance of land space, capital costs, energy consumption and membrane fouling. This study provides a new perspective, looking at processes not as individual systems but as a whole utilizing strategic co-location to unlock the synergies available in the water-energy nexus for more sustainable desalination.

How Much Will the Desalination Plants Currently Being Operated in Australian Capital Cities Add to Water Bills?

Liu, Yang
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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Water utilities frequently use mandatory water restrictions to mitigate short-term shortages, and water scarcity pricing to address long-term imbalance between demand and supply due to weather variability induced by climate change. Meanwhile, many urban communities have constructed or are considering desalination plants to augment their water supply. These provide a climate-independent water source that will eliminate water restrictions, stabilize the scarcity price and sustain the urban water system. By using a multiple regression approach to predict water prices without desalination, we calculate the desalination cost by comparing the actual with predicted prices, and analyze investment strategies for such technology arguing that such infrastructure will only be beneficial when the existing water pricing mechanism is unable to sustainability control usage. Using actual data from Adelaide, model results show that in the period of construction, approximately 40 percent of the annual increase in water bills is due to the desalination plant. In the shortterm, the technology is only economical during droughts whilst in the long-term, the plant has the potential to sustainably reduce water prices. These conclusions are of political importance - the public is entitled to know how much the increase in prices will contribute to the development of appropriate infrastructure and if this will benefit the environment and economy. By constructing a cost-benefit analysis...

Impacts of seawater desalination on the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia

Dupavillon, J.; Gillanders, B.
Fonte: Elsevier Sci Ltd Publicador: Elsevier Sci Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
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With seawater desalination expanding rapidly, it is important that ecological studies are undertaken to determine the effects of brine discharge on the marine species in the area. The abundance of giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama, Gray 1849) eggs and environmental data were recorded at nine sites near Point Lowly, Spencer Gulf, South Australia, an area where the largest desalination plant in the Southern hemisphere is proposed. In addition, the effects of different concentrations of desalination brine on the growth, survival and condition of cuttlefish embryos were investigated. The primary egg-laying sites for the cuttlefish were in the vicinity of Stony Point (sites 4 and 3) and the area with the least egg abundance was on the eastern and western areas around Point Lowly (sites 9 and 7) where no eggs were found. The survival of embryos decreased with an increase in salinity, with no embryos surviving to full term in salinities greater than 50 per thousand. Mean weight and mantle length also decreased with increasing salinity. Besides elevated salinity, the brine also had increased concentrations of Ba, Ca, K, Sr and Mg relative to water near Point Lowly. Brine discharge from seawater desalination poses a potential threat to the unique spawning aggregation of the giant Australian cuttlefish...

Low energy adsorption desalination technology

Wu, J.; Hu, E.; Biggs, M.
Fonte: Trans Tech Publications Ltd. Publicador: Trans Tech Publications Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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Adsorption-based desalination (AD) is attracting increasing attention because of its ability to use low-grade thermal energy to co-generate fresh water and cooling. In this paper, the working principle of the AD technology and the possible operation cycles of AD system have been described. A thermodynamic model has been developed in order to study the operational parameters that influence the fresh water production rate (FWPR) and energy consumption of silica gel based AD system. Water adsorption on the silica gel is modelled using a Langmuir isotherm and the factors studied are the heating and cooling water temperatures, which supply and remove heat from the silica gel respectively, and the set temperature of the evaporator. The result shows that the cooling water temperature has far more significant impact on the both water productivity and energy consumption compared to the heating water temperature. The paper also discusses in detail the impact of evaporator temperature on the thermodynamic cycle when the system is operated in desalination mode only.; Jun W. Wu, Eric J. Hu and Mark J. Biggs

A study of silica gel adsorption desalination system.

Wu, Jun Wei
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013
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Rising water scarcity due to climate change and over-exploitation of traditional water resources is of increasing concern around the World, both because of its economic implications as well as the continued habitability of long-standing communities. One solution to this issue is desalination of saline or brackish water, which has long been used in regions that have traditionally faced water shortage such as the Middle East. There are several ways in which desalination is carried out, including multi-effect desalination, multi-stage flash desalination, and membrane-based reverse osmosis (RO), which are all widely exploited commercially. The high energy demands and large ‘carbon footprint’ of these various current commercial technologies have spurned interest in several potential alternative technologies. One of these alternatives is adsorption-based desalination (AD). This approach uses low-grade heat such as waste heat from a process or solar energy to generate potable water and, depending on the cycle details, cooling as well. The low-grade heat is used to form water vapour from the saline or brackish source. The vapour is then passed through a bed of silica into which it adsorbs until the silica is saturated. Once saturated, the bed of silica is heated using further low-grade heat to drive off the now desalinated water before being re-condensed in a receiving vessel. Adsorption-based desalination has a range of advantages...

Assessment of the use of solar thermal collectors for desalination

Horta, Pedro; Zaragoza, G.; Alarcon-Padilla, D.C.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The use of renewable energy in desalination is the only sustainable way to decrease the water deficit without aggravating the energy crisis. Solar desalination is usually presented as the most optimal solution for sustainable desalination since the water needs are usually larger in places with high solar radiation. Considering the potential use of desalination as means of producing water in small isolated communities, the focus of this study lies on the use of solar energy in thermal desalination systems of small–medium capacity and low maintenance requirements. Based on typical values for the thermal energy requirements of such systems and on characteristic performance parameters of commercially available low-temperature solar thermal technologies, different system layouts are assessed and optimal system dimensioning is studied, for different locations, in terms of estimated water production costs.

Estimating the cost of desalination plants using a cost database

Wittholz, M.; O'Neill, B.; Colby, C.; Lewis, D.
Fonte: Elsevier Science BV Publicador: Elsevier Science BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
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Adelaide is the capital city of South Australia, one of the driest states in the world. The city receives its potable water from a series of water catchments and the River Murray. Unfortunately, the current drought combined with other environmental factors is putting a strain on the River and its water quality is slowly degrading. A potential solution to Adelaide's reliance on the River is desalination of various alternate water sources. The initial step in selecting the appropriate desalination technology is to perform and order of magnitude cost study. A simple technique for generating order of magnitude cost estimates is the development of a series of cost correlations based on a cost database. A cost database of 300+ desalination plants was collated. The cost database demonstrated that current large-scale desalination plants are capable of producing water in the range of $0.50–$2.00/m3, depending on plant size. Capital cost correlations as a function of plant capacity have been developed for large scale MSF, MED, SWRO and BWRO plants. Unit product cost (UPC) breakdowns were also developed for these technologies. Using the cost correlations and UPC breakdowns order of magnitude estimates were performed. For the case-study of metropolitan Adelaide...

Dimensionamento e análise térmica de um dessalinizador solar tipo bacia com cobertura assimétrica; Thermal analysis and sizing of a solar desalination unit type bowl with asymmetric

Lopes, Joaquim Teixeira
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
POR
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Este trabalho tem como finalidade estudar a viabilidade do dessalinizador solar assimétrico com bacia parabólico composto, ou seja: analisar a eficiência na conversão da água salobra em água potável para consumo humano em regiões de difícil acesso, bem como estudar os fenômenos de transporte envolvidos. A metodologia utilizada para desenvolvimento do projeto constitui-se em caracterizar a geometria da cobertura e da bacia do sistema, além de realizar a análise físico - química da amostra e do destilado, dimensionar e construir os equipamentos de dessalinização, operando em mesma igualdade de condição dos quatro dessalinizadores, para tratamentos dos dados na avaliação ecológica e econômica. A alimentação dos dessalinizadores foi realizada com água salgada coletada na baia de São José de Ribamar para coordenadas 2°33'23,62"S 44°03'11, 48 O no período de 12 meses. Foram monitoradas as temperaturas da água e temperaturas dos vidros, assim como os dados de radiação solar, umidade do ar, temperatura ambiente, pressão atmosférica, nebulosidade e a vazão mássica do condensado. Após os tratamentos dos dados constatou-se que o dessalinizador assimétrico, com ângulos de inclinações 20° e 45°, operado entre 06 de janeiro de 2012 a 10 de abril de 2012...

Nonlinear Dynamics of Capacitive Charging and Desalination by Porous Electrodes

Biesheuvel, P. M.; Bazant, M. Z.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/11/2009
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The rapid and efficient exchange of ions between porous electrodes and aqueous solutions is important in many applications, such as electrical energy storage by super-capacitors, water desalination and purification by capacitive deionization (or desalination), and capacitive extraction of renewable energy from a salinity difference. Here, we present a unified mean-field theory for capacitive charging and desalination by ideally polarizable porous electrodes (without Faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions) in the limit of thin double layers (compared to typical pore dimensions). We illustrate the theory in the case of a dilute, symmetric, binary electrolyte using the Gouy-Chapman-Stern (GCS) model of the double layer, for which simple formulae are available for salt adsorption and capacitive charging of the diffuse part of the double layer. We solve the full GCS mean-field theory numerically for realistic parameters in capacitive deionization, and we derive reduced models for two limiting regimes with different time scales: (i) In the "super-capacitor regime" of small voltages and/or early times where the porous electrode acts like a transmission line, governed by a linear diffusion equation for the electrostatic potential...

Insights into the flux of water in a water desalination through nanopores process

de Vasconcelos, Cláudia K. B.; Batista, Ronaldo J. C.; Régis, McGlennon da Rocha; Manhabosco, Taíse M.; de Oliveira, Alan B.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/11/2015
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Water desalination through nanopores has been shown to be a promising alternative to the currently water purification processes. In spite the results in this direction obtained by means of computational simulations were animating there are still pending issues to be resolved. For example, water desalination involves macro numbers (in size and time) but in such a scale it is literally impossible to attack this problem using all-atoms simulations. It is common to extrapolate results from nano to macro sizes in order to estimate quantities of interest, which must be taken with care. Here we present a simple model which mimics the separation of salt from water, which may help to attack bigger problems on water desalination subjects. Besides, we show that the investigation of a restrict space of parameters imposed by expensive models may hidden interesting, important features involved in the water desalination problem. Finally, we present an analytical calculation which explains the rich behaviour of the water flux through nanopores in a water-salt separation scenario.

Desalination shocks in microstructures

Mani, Ali; Bazant, Martin Z.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/08/2011
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Salt transport in bulk electrolytes is limited by diffusion and convection, but in microstructures with charged surfaces (e.g. microfluidic devices, porous media, soils, or biological tissues) surface conduction and electro-osmotic flow also contribute to ionic fluxes. For small applied voltages, these effects lead to well known linear electrokinetic phenomena. In this paper, we predict some surprising nonlinear dynamics that can result from the competition between bulk and interfacial transport at higher voltages. When counter-ions are selectively removed by a membrane or electrode, a "desalination shock" can propagate through the microstructure, leaving in its wake an ultrapure solution, nearly devoid of co-ions and colloidal impurities. We elucidate the basic physics of desalination shocks and develop a mathematical theory of their existence, structure, and stability, allowing for slow variations in surface charge or channel geometry. Via asymptotic approximations and similarity solutions, we show that desalination shocks accelerate and sharpen in narrowing channels, while they decelerate and weaken, and sometimes disappear, in widening channels. These phenomena may find applications in separations (desalination, decontamination...

Evaluating salinity sources of groundwater and implications for sustainable reverse osmosis desalination in coastal North Carolina, USA

Vengosh, A; Vinson, DS; Schwartz, HG; Dwyer, GS
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 981 - 994
Publicado em 01/08/2011
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The natural and pumping-induced controls on groundwater salinization in the coastal aquifers of North Carolina, USA, and the implications for the performance of a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant have been investigated. Since installation of the well field in the Yorktown aquifer in Kill Devil Hills of Dare County during the late 1980s, the groundwater level has declined and salinity of groundwater has increased from ∼1,000 to ∼2,500 mg/L. Geochemical and boron isotope analyses suggest that the salinity increase is derived from an upflow of underlying saline groundwater and not from modern seawater intrusion. In the groundwater of four wells supplying the plant, elevated boron and arsenic concentrations were observed (1.3–1.4 mg/L and 8–53 μg/L, respectively). Major ions are effectively rejected by the RO membrane (96–99% removal), while boron and arsenic are not removed as effectively (16–42% and 54–75%, respectively). In coming decades, the expected rise of salinity will be associated with higher boron content in the groundwater and consequently also in the RO-produced water. In contrast, there is no expectation of an increase in the arsenic content of the salinized groundwater due to the lack of increase of arsenic with depth and salinity in Yorktown aquifer groundwater.

Designing carbon nanotube membranes for efficient water desalination

Corry, Ben
Fonte: American Chemical Society Publicador: American Chemical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The transport of water and ions through membranes formed from carbon nanotubes ranging in diameter from 6 to 11 A is studied using molecular dynamics simulations under hydrostatic pressure and equilibrium conditions. Membranes incorporating carbon nanotubes are found to be promising candidates for water desalination using reverse osmosis, and the size and uniformity of tubes that is required to achieve a desired salt rejection is determined. By calculating the potential of mean force for ion and water translocation, we show that ions face a large energy barrier and will not pass through the narrower tubes studied ((5,5) and (6,6) "armchair" type tubes) but can pass through the wider (7,7) and (8,8) nanotubes. Water, however, faces no such impediment due to the formation of stable hydrogen bonds and crosses all of the tubes studied at very large rates. By measuring this conduction rate under a hydrostatic pressure difference, we show that membranes incorporating carbon nanotubes can, in principle, achieve a high degree of desalination at flow rates far in excess of existing membranes.

Performance comparison of hydraulic and gravitation HybridICE filters in freeze desalination of mine waters

Adeniyi,A; Mbaya,RKK; Popoola,API; Maree,JP; Zvinowanda,CM
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
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HybridICE is an emerging freeze desalination technology for treating complex mine wastewaters. The technology works on the principle that growing ice crystals reject impurities during freezing. The bottleneck in the freeze desalination processes may be the separation of ice from the ice slurry generated in the freeze engine. Two types of HybridICE filter have been developed to effect ice separation from ice slurry. The two types differ in the design of the filter elements, mode of feeding the slurry into the filter, and the mechanism of separation of ice from the slurry. In both types of filter, an extruded continuous ice column is formed around the filtering element, which has some openings to allow excess concentrated process water to flow out of the filter. However, the driving force in the gravitation filter is buoyancy, while in the hydraulic filter the ice column is driven by the pressure generated from the flow of the slurry. Salt removal and ice yield from each of the filter types was evaluated when a solution of approximately 4% m/m NaCl solution, prepared by dissolving 25.1 kg of NaCl in 674 litres of water, was treated in a HybridICE freeze crystallisation pilot plant. The objective was to describe the operation of the two types of filter and compare their performance. Salt removal and ice yield were found to be higher with the gravitation filter than the hydraulic filter.