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Theory of Coherent Van der Waals Matter

Kulic, Igor M.; Kulic, Miodrag L.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We explain in depth the previously proposed theory of the coherent Van der Waals(cVdW) interaction - the counterpart of Van der Waals (VdW) force - emerging in spatially coherently fluctuating electromagnetic fields. We show that cVdW driven matter is dominated by many body interactions, which are significantly stronger than those found in standard Van der Waals (VdW) systems. Remarkably, the leading 2- and 3-body interactions are of the same order with respect to the distance $(\propto R^{-6})$, in contrast to the usually weak VdW 3-body effects ($\propto R^{-9}$). From a microscopic theory we show that the anisotropic cVdW many body interactions drive the formation of low-dimensional structures such as chains, membranes and vesicles with very unusual, non-local properties. In particular, cVdW chains display a logarithmically growing stiffness with the chain length, while cVdW membranes have a bending modulus growing linearly with their size. We argue that the cVdW anisotropic many body forces cause local cohesion but also a negative effective "surface tension". We conclude by deriving the equation of state for cVdW materials and propose new experiments to test the theory, in particular the unusual 3-body nature of cVdW.; Comment: 26 pages...

Self Assembly of Soft Matter Quasicrystals and Their Approximants

Iacovella, Christopher R.; Keys, Aaron S.; Glotzer, Sharon C.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The surprising recent discoveries of quasicrystals and their approximants in soft matter systems poses the intriguing possibility that these structures can be realized in a broad range of nano- and micro-scale assemblies. It has been theorized that soft matter quasicrystals and approximants are largely entropically stabilized, but the thermodynamic mechanism underlying their formation remains elusive. Here, we use computer simulation and free energy calculations to demonstrate a simple design heuristic for assembling quasicrystals and approximants in soft matter systems. Our study builds on previous simulation studies of the self-assembly of dodecagonal quasicrystals and approximants in minimal systems of spherical particles with complex, highly-specific interaction potentials. We demonstrate an alternative entropy-based approach for assembling dodecagonal quasicrystals and approximants based solely on particle functionalization and shape, thereby recasting the interaction-potential-based assembly strategy in terms of simpler-to-achieve bonded and excluded-volume interactions. Here, spherical building blocks are functionalized with mobile surface entities to encourage the formation of structures with low surface contact area, including non-close-packed and polytetrahedral structures. The building blocks also possess shape polydispersity...

Dynamics of Symmetry Breaking Out of Equilibrium: From Condensed Matter to QCD and the Early Universe

Boyanovsky, D.; de Vega, H. J.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/09/1999
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The dynamics of symmetry breaking during out of equilibrium phase transitions is a topic of great importance in many disciplines, from condensed matter to particle physics and early Universe cosmology with definite experimental impact. In these notes we provide a summary of the relevant aspects of the dynamics of symmetry breaking in many different fields with emphasis on the experimental realizations. In condensed matter we address the dynamics of phase ordering, the emergence of condensates, coarsening and dynamical scaling. In QCD the possibility of disoriented chiral condensates of pions emerging during a strongly out of equilibrium phase transition is discussed. We elaborate on the dynamics of phase ordering in phase transitions in the Early Universe, in particular the emergence of condensates and scaling in FRW cosmologies. We mention some experimental efforts in different fields that study this wide ranging phenomena and offer a quantitative theoretical description both at the phenomenological level in condensed matter, introducing the scaling hypothesis as well as at a microscopic level in quantum field theories. The emergence of semiclassical condensates and a dynamical length scale is shown in detail, in quantum field theory this length scale is constrained by causality. The large N limit provides a natural bridge to compare the solutions in different settings and to establish similarities and differences.; Comment: 35 pages...

Cold Rydberg atoms for quantum simulation of exotic condensed matter interactions

Hague, J. P.; Downes, S.; MacCormick, C.; Kornilovitch, P. E.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/10/2013
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Quantum simulators could provide an alternative to numerical simulations for understanding minimal models of condensed matter systems in a controlled way. Typically, cold atom systems are used to simulate e.g. Hubbard models. In this paper, we discuss a range of exotic interactions that can be formed when cold Rydberg atoms are loaded into optical lattices with unconventional geometries; such as long-range electron-phonon interactions and extended Coulomb like interactions. We show how these can lead to proposals for quantum simulators for complex condensed matter systems such as superconductors. Continuous time quantum Monte Carlo is used to compare the proposed schemes with the physics found in traditional condensed matter Hamiltonians for systems such as high temperature superconductors.

The Onset of Phase Transitions in Condensed Matter and Relativistic QFT

Rivers, R. J.; Kavoussanaki, E.; Karra, G.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/01/2000
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Kibble and Zurek have provided a unifying causal picture for the appearance of topological defects like cosmic strings or vortices at the onset of phase transitions in relativistic QFT and condensed matter systems respectively. There is no direct experimental evidence in QFT, but in condensed matter the predictions are largely, but not wholly, supported in superfluid experiments on liquid helium. We provide an alternative picture for the initial appearance of strings/vortices that is commensurate with all the experimental evidence from condensed matter and consider some of its implications for QFT.; Comment: 37 pages, to be published in Condensed Matter Physics, 2000

Local structure of supercritical matter

Bolmatov, Dima; Zav'yalov, D.; Zhernenkov, M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/05/2014
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457.9382%
The supercritical state is currently viewed as uniform on the pressure-temperature phase diagram. Supercritical fluids have the dynamic motions of a gas but are able to dissolve materials like a liquid. They have started to be deployed in many important industrial applications stimulating fundamental theoretical work and development of experimental techniques. Here, we have studied local structure of supercritical matter by calculating static structure factor, mean force potential, self-diffusion, first coordination shell number and pair distribution function within very wide temperature ranges. Our results show a monotonic disappearance of medium-range order correlations at elevated temperatures providing direct evidence for structural crossover in the reciprocal and real spaces. Importantly, the discovered structural crossover in the reciprocal space is fundamentally inter-related to structural crossover in the real space, granting new unexpected interlinks between operating system properties in the supercritical state. Finally, we discuss an evolution analysis of the local structure and important implications for an experimental detection of structural monotonic transitions in the supercritical matter.; Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures

Visibility of the Amplitude (Higgs) Mode in Condensed Matter

Podolsky, Daniel; Auerbach, Assa; Arovas, Daniel P.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The amplitude mode is a ubiquitous collective excitation in condensed matter systems with broken continuous symmetry. It is expected in antiferromagnets, short coherence length superconductors, charge density waves, and lattice Bose condensates. Its detection is a valuable test of the corresponding field theory, and its mass gap measures the proximity to a quantum critical point. However, since the amplitude mode can decay into low-energy Goldstone modes, its experimental visibility has been questioned. Here we show that the visibility depends on the symmetry of the measured susceptibility. The longitudinal susceptibility diverges at low frequency as \chi_{\sigma\sigma} ~ i/\omega (d=2) or log(1/|\omega|) (d=3), which can completely obscure the amplitude peak. In contrast, the scalar susceptibility is suppressed by four extra powers of frequency, exposing the amplitude peak throughout the ordered phase. We discuss experimental setups for measuring the scalar susceptibility. The conductivity of the O(2) theory (relativistic superfluid) is a scalar response and therefore exhibits suppressed absorption below the Higgs mass threshold, \sigma ~ \omega^{2d+1}. In layered, short coherence length superconductors, (relevant e.g. to cuprates) this threshold is raised by the interlayer plasma frequency.; Comment: 17 pages...

What can gauge-gravity duality teach us about condensed matter physics?

Sachdev, Subir
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
456.05973%
I discuss the impact of gauge-gravity duality on our understanding of two classes of systems: conformal quantum matter and compressible quantum matter. The first conformal class includes systems, such as the boson Hubbard model in two spatial dimensions, which display quantum critical points described by conformal field theories. Questions associated with non-zero temperature dynamics and transport are difficult to answer using conventional field theoretic methods. I argue that many of these can be addressed systematically using gauge-gravity duality, and discuss the prospects for reliable computation of low frequency correlations. Compressible quantum matter is characterized by the smooth dependence of the charge density, associated with a global U(1) symmetry, upon a chemical potential. Familiar examples are solids, superfluids, and Fermi liquids, but there are more exotic possibilities involving deconfined phases of gauge fields in the presence of Fermi surfaces. I survey the compressible systems studied using gauge-gravity duality, and discuss their relationship to the condensed matter classification of such states. The gravity methods offer hope of a deeper understanding of exotic and strongly-coupled compressible quantum states.; Comment: 34 pages...

Thermodynamic QED Coherence in Condensed Matter: Microscopic Basis of Thermal Superradiance

Sivasubramanian, S.; Widom, A.; Srivastava, Y. N.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/09/2002
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Electromagnetic superradiant field coherence exists in a condensed matter system if the electromagnetic field oscillators undergo a mean displacement. Transitions into thermal states with ordered superradiant phases have been shown to theoretically exist in Dicke-Preparata models. The theoretical validity of these models for condensed matter has been called into question due to non-relativistic diamagnetic terms in the electronic Hamiltonian. The microscopic bases of Dicke-Preparata thermal superradiance for realistic macroscopic systems are explored in this work. The impossibility of diaelectric correlations in condensed matter systems (via the Landau-Lifshitz theorem) provides a strong theoretical basis for understanding the physical reality of condensed matter thermodynamic superradiant phases.; Comment: 11 pages, no figures, LaTeX format

Finite temperature effects in Bose-Einstein Condensed dark matter halos

Harko, Tiberiu; Madarassy, Eniko J. M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
457.9382%
Once the critical temperature of a cosmological boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein Condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Zero temperature condensed dark matter can be described as a non-relativistic, Newtonian gravitational condensate, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state, with barotropic index equal to one. In the present paper we analyze the effects of the finite dark matter temperature on the properties of the Bose-Einstein Condensed dark matter halos. We formulate the basic equations describing the finite temperature condensate, representing a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation that takes into account the presence of the thermal cloud. The static condensate and thermal cloud in thermodynamic equilibrium is analyzed in detail, by using the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and Thomas-Fermi approximations. The condensed dark matter and thermal cloud density and mass profiles at finite temperatures are explicitly obtained. Our results show that when the temperature of the condensate and of the thermal cloud are much smaller than the critical Bose-Einstein transition temperature, the zero temperature density and mass profiles give an excellent description of the dark matter halos. However...

Spin-polarized muons in condensed matter physics

Blundell, S. J.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/07/2002
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A positive muon is a spin-1/2 particle. Beams of muons with all their spins polarized can be prepared and subsequently implanted in various types of condensed matter. The subsequent precession and relaxation of their spins can then be used to investigate a variety of static and dynamic effects in a sample and hence to deduce properties concerning magnetism, superconductivity and molecular dynamics. Though strictly a lepton, and behaving essentially like a heavy electron, it is convenient to think of a muon as a light proton, and it is often found with a captured electron in a hydrogen-like atom known as muonium. This article outlines the principles of various experimental techniques which involve implanted muons and describes some recent applications. The use of muons in condensed matter physics has shed new light on subjects as diverse as passivation in semiconductors, frustrated spin systems, vortex lattice melting, and quantum diffusion of light particles.; Comment: 17 pages, 21 figures, review article

The Fermi Gases and Superfluids: Short Review of Experiment and Theory for Condensed Matter Physicists

Levin, K.; Hulet, Randall G.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/02/2012
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456.84492%
The study of ultracold atomic Fermi gases is a rapidly exploding subject which is defining new directions in condensed matter and atomic physics. Quite generally what makes these gases so important is their remarkable tunability and controllability. Using a Feshbach resonance one can tune the attractive two-body interactions from weak to strong and thereby make a smooth crossover from a BCS superfluid of Cooper pairs to a Bose-Einstein condensed superfluid. Furthermore, one can tune the population of the two spin states, allowing observation of exotic spin-polarized superfluids, such as the Fulde Ferrell Larkin Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phase. A wide array of powerful characterization tools, which often have direct condensed matter analogues, are available to the experimenter. In this Chapter, we present a general review of the status of these Fermi gases with the aim of communicating the excitement and great potential of the field.; Comment: 34 pages, 15 figures. To appear as a chapter in "Contemporary Concepts of Condensed Matter Science", Elsevier

Shock (Blast) Mitigation by "Soft" Condensed Matter

Nesterenko, Vitali F.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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It is a common point that "soft" condensed matter (like granular materials or foams) can reduce damage caused by impact or explosion. It is attributed to their ability to absorb significant energy. This is certainly the case for a quasistatic type of deformation at low velocity of impact where such materials are widely used for packing of fragile devices. At the same time a mitigation of blast phenomena must take into account shock wave properties of "soft" matter which very often exhibit highly nonlinear, highly heterogeneous and dissipative behavior. This paper considers applications of "soft" condensed matter for blast mitigation using simplified approach, presents analysis of some anomalous effects and suggestions for future research in this exciting area.; Comment: 12 pages, 12 figures

Non-equilibrium phase transitions in condensed matter and cosmology: spinodal decomposition, condensates and defects

Boyanovsky, D.; de Vega, H. J.; Holman, R.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/03/1999
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These lectures address the dynamics of phase ordering out of equilibrium in condensed matter and in quantum field theory in cosmological settings, emphasizing their similarities and differences. In condensed matter we describe the phenomenological approach based on the Time Dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) description. After a general discussion of the main experimental and theoretical features of phase ordering kinetics and the description of linear (spinodal) instabilities we introduce the scaling hypothesis and show how a dynamical correlation length emerges in the large N limit in condensed matter systems. The large N approximation is a powerful tool in quantum field theory that allows the study of non-perturbative phenomena in a consistent manner. We study the exact solution to the dynamics after a quench in this limit in Minkowski space time and in radiation dominated Friedman-Robertson-Walker Cosmology. There are some remarkable similarities between these very different settings such as the emergence of a scaling regime and of a dynamical correlation length at late times that describe the formation and growth of ordered regions. In quantum field theory and cosmology this length scale is constrained by causality and its growth in time is also associated with coarsening and the onset of a condensate. We provide a density matrix interpretation of the formation of defects and the classicalization of quantum fluctuations.; Comment: 23 pages (revtex)...

Microscopic theory of non-adiabatic response in real and imaginary time

De Grandi, C.; Polkovnikov, A.; Sandvik, A. W.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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We present a general approach to describe slowly driven quantum systems both in real and imaginary time. We highlight many similarities, qualitative and quantitative, between real and imaginary time evolution. We discuss how the metric tensor and the Berry curvature can be extracted from both real and imaginary time simulations as a response of physical observables. For quenches ending at or near the quantum critical point, we show the utility of the scaling theory for detecting the location of the quantum critical point by comparing sweeps at different velocities. We briefly discuss the universal relaxation to equilibrium of systems after a quench. We finally review recent developments of quantum Monte Carlo methods for studying imaginary-time evolution. We illustrate our findings with explicit calculations using the transverse field Ising model in one dimension.; Comment: 22 pages, 10 figures, revised version, contribution to the special issue of J. Phys. Condensed Matter: "Condensed matter analogues of cosmology", edited by T. Kibble and Ajit Srivastava

The Mechanics and Statistics of Active Matter

Ramaswamy, Sriram
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/04/2010
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Active particles contain internal degrees of freedom with the ability to take in and dissipate energy and, in the process, execute systematic movement. Examples include all living organisms and their motile constituents such as molecular motors. This article reviews recent progress in applying the principles of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and hydrodynamics to form a systematic theory of the behaviour of collections of active particles -- active matter -- with only minimal regard to microscopic details. A unified view of the many kinds of active matter is presented, encompassing not only living systems but inanimate analogues. Theory and experiment are discussed side by side.; Comment: This review is to appear in volume 1 of the Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics in July 2010 and is posted here with permission from that journal

Soft matter in hard confinement: phase transition thermodynamics, structure, texture, diffusion and flow in nanoporous media - topical review

Huber, Patrick
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/02/2015
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Spatial confinement in nanoporous media affects the structure, thermodynamics and mobility of molecular soft matter often markedly. This article reviews thermodynamic equilibrium phenomena, such as physisorption, capillary condensation, crystallisation, self-diffusion, and structural phase transitions as well as selected aspects of the emerging field of spatially confined, non-equilibrium physics, i.e. the rheology of liquids, capillarity-driven flow phenomena, and imbibition front broadening in nanoporous materials. The observations in the nanoscale systems are related to the corresponding bulk phenomenologies. The complexity of the confined molecular species is varied from simple building blocks, like noble gas atoms, normal alkanes and alcohols to liquid crystals, polymers, ionic liquids, proteins and water. Mostly, experiments with mesoporous solids of alumina, carbon, gold, silica, and silicon having pore diameters ranging from a few up to 50 nanometers are presented. The observed peculiarities of nanopore-confined condensed matter are also discussed with regard to applications. A particular emphasis is put on texture formation upon crystallisation in nanoporous media, a topic both of high fundamental interest and of increasing nanotechnological importance...

Phase Separation in Soft Matter: Concept of Dynamic Asymmetry

Tanaka, Hajime
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/07/2013
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Phase separation is a fundamental phenomenon that produces spatially heterogeneous patterns in soft matter. In this Lecture Note we show that phase separation in these materials generally belongs to what we call "viscoelastic phase separation", where the morphology is determined by the mechanical balance of not only the thermodynamic force (interface tension) but also the viscoelastic force. The origin of the viscoelastic force is dynamic asymmetry between the components of a mixture, which can be caused by either a size disparity or a difference in the glass transition temperature between the components. We stress that such dynamic asymmetry generally exists in soft matter. The key is that dynamical asymmetry leads to a non-trivial coupling between the concentration, velocity, and stress fields. Viscoelastic phase separation can be explained by viscoelastic relaxation in pattern evolution and the resulting switching of the relevant order parameter, which are induced by the competition between the deformation rate of phase separation and the slowest mechanical relaxation rate of a system. We also discuss an intimate link of viscoelastic phase separation, where deformation fields are spontaneously generated by phase separation itself...

Shortcomings of the Bond Orientational Order Parameters for the Analysis of Disordered Particulate Matter

Mickel, Walter; Kapfer, Sebastian C.; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E.; Mecke, Klaus
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Local structure characterization with the bond-orientational order parameters q4, q6, ... introduced by Steinhardt et al. has become a standard tool in condensed matter physics, with applications including glass, jamming, melting or crystallization transitions and cluster formation. Here we discuss two fundamental flaws in the definition of these parameters that significantly affect their interpretation for studies of disordered systems, and offer a remedy. First, the definition of the bond-orientational order parameters considers the geometrical arrangement of a set of neighboring spheres NN(p) around a given central particle p; we show that procedure to select the spheres constituting the neighborhood NN(p) can have greater influence on both the numerical values and qualitative trend of ql than a change of the physical parameters, such as packing fraction. Second, the discrete nature of neighborhood implies that NN(p) is not a continuous function of the particle coordinates; this discontinuity, inherited by ql, leads to a lack of robustness of the ql as structure metrics. Both issues can be avoided by a morphometric approach leading to the robust Minkowski structure metrics ql'. These ql' are of a similar mathematical form as the conventional bond-orientational order parameters and are mathematically equivalent to the recently introduced Minkowski tensors [Europhys. Lett. 90...

Causality and non-equilibrium second-order phase transitions in inhomogeneous systems

del Campo, A.; Kibble, T. W. B.; Zurek, W. H.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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When a second-order phase transition is crossed at fine rate, the evolution of the system stops being adiabatic as a result of the critical slowing down in the neighborhood of the critical point. In systems with a topologically nontrivial vacuum manifold, disparate local choices of the ground state lead to the formation of topological defects. The universality class of the transition imprints a signature on the resulting density of topological defects: It obeys a power law in the quench rate, with an exponent dictated by a combination of the critical exponents of the transition. In inhomogeneous systems the situation is more complicated, as the spontaneous symmetry breaking competes with bias caused by the influence of the nearby regions that already chose the new vacuum. As a result, the choice of the broken symmetry vacuum may be inherited from the neighboring regions that have already entered the new phase. This competition between the inherited and spontaneous symmetry breaking enhances the role of causality, as the defect formation is restricted to a fraction of the system where the front velocity surpasses the relevant sound velocity and phase transition remains effectively homogeneous. As a consequence, the overall number of topological defects can be substantially suppressed. When the fraction of the system is small...